cancer and depression on breast cancer
Include the following in your annotated bibliography:
APA citations and annotations for four (4) sources you deem relevant to your problem statement (thesis).
For each source:
Cite the source in proper APA format. The citations should be organized in alphabetical order by author as in an APA References page.
Follow with a brief annotation that summarizes the source (approximately 3 – 5 sentences). You may quote from the source, but do not copy and paste from the abstract.
In 1 or 2 sentences, explain and evaluate the source’s relevance and significance to your hypothesis. Does this support or discredit your hypothesis?
Use an academic tone and style.
(below is my topic proposal with hypothesis.)
Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in one or more parts of the body. The paper affirms that the incidence, prevalence and mortality of cancer have increased since in the 1990s of the American health history. Breast cancer refers to a cancer that affects the mammary glands (DeSantis, Ma, Bryan&Jemal, 2014). Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in America followed by prostrate and lung cancers respectively. DeSantis, Ma, Bryan &Jemal (2014) posit that women of the age above 40 years have the highest rates of breast cancer. African-American women register poorest in breast cancer survival. Research has also found that the above women age 40 and African American group have the highest rates of depression in America. The analysis of the two papers initiates a logic interest in examining the effects of depression on breast cancer. Consequently, depression increases the adverse effects and rates of breast cancer. This research aims at using extant statistics and primary research from therapists and oncologists to identify the extent at which depression affects the incidence of, treatment for, and recovery from breast cancer.
Researches from the realms of psychology and oncology have majorly focused on the effects of cancer on depression. However, the research narrowed on the mechanisms by which cancer causes depression by suggesting that the fatigue and pain associated with cancer treatment create, and the increased severity of the disease stress to the patient. The American Cancer Society (2016) also affirms that cancer affects the emotional health of patients because of instillation of fear, anxiety and depression.
Most literatures have focused on the effects of cancer on depression, and less on the effects of depression on cancer. There are a few comprehensive researches that have focus on providing the information on how depression affects breast cancer. For example, Sheard and Maguire (1999) research on the effects of psychological intervention in cancer patients. However, the gap of statistical evidence on the effects of depression on breast cancer still exists. Therefore, this research will provide such information by comparing the reports from therapists and clinicians cases. The research will be beneficial to both psychologist and oncologist because they will have a better strategy of using depression intervention methods in prevention, treatment and management of cancer patients and survivors.
The aim of the research is to examine the effects of depression on breast cancer patients. The following specific research questions have been formulated to provide foundational directions to assist in achieving the goals of the research. The questions will help aid the researcher to have a narrow focus on reviewing the literature and formulating the appropriate methodology for the mentioned research proposal.
a. Does depression increase the risk of getting breast cancer?
b. How does depression increase breast cancer pathogenesis?
c. What are the effects of depression in cancer treatment?
d. To what extent does therapy aid breast cancer recovery?
DeSantis, C., Ma, J., Bryan, L., &Jemal, A. (2014).Breast cancer statistics, 2013. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 64(1), 52-62.
Heim, S., &Mitelman, F. (2015). Cancer cytogenetics: chromosomal and molecular genetic aberrations of tumor cells. John Wiley & Sons.
Sheard, T. & Maguire, P. (1999). The Effect of Psychological Interventions on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: Result of Two Meta-Analyses, British Journal of Cancer, 80(11), 1770-1780
The American Cancer Society.(2016).Anxiety Fear, and Depression. Having Cancer Affects your Emotional Health. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/emotionalsideeffects/anxiety-fear-depression-and-cancer”http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/emotionalsideeffects/anxiety-fear-depression-and-cancer