Managing Under Uncertainty
Assignment Two:  Case Study Analysis (2000 words)
Decision making may be viewed from a number of different perspectives such as psychological, sociological or personality and values based perspectives. In this assessment item you are required to draw on any ONE of these three perspectives, analyse the critical decisions evident in the case study in terms of relevant theories, models and frameworks and critically discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the decisions. You are also required to propose recommendations for the case characters in terms of how they might improve their decision making in the future.
Assignment Task    You are required  to write about Sick Leave Case study (this case will be attach)
“Sick Leave”
Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., Minton, J. W. & Barry, B (2003), Negotiation: Reading, Exercises and Cases, McGraw Hill/Irwin: New York – pages 681 to 690
This assessment requires the student to engage in critical case study analysis and to engage in some research drawing on one of the following  disciplinary perspectives:
•    1-Personality/Values
•    2-Psychology
•    3-Sociology
From “Negotiation : readings, exercises and cases / [edited by] Roy J. Lewicki .. [et al.]”, 4th ed.,Case 7, c2003,
Sick Leave
Kelly tried to control her angel as she thou-eht about her supervisor. She couldn’t under-
stand why he rvas being so unreasonable. Maybe to him it lvas only a couple days of
paid leave and not worth tighting over. but to her it meant the difference between being
abie to go on vacation during Golden Weekr or having to stay horne. She looked at her
contract and the phone number of CLAIR on her desk. She u,asn’t the only person in the
ofTice aff’ected by this. She sat and thought about horv she should proceed.
Kelly was 22 years old and had been rvorking for the past six months at the Soto
Board of Education office in Japan. This was her first job after graduating from college
with a degree in rnanagement. and she was reall,v excited to irnally be in the real r.vorld.
Kelly rvas born in Calgary and had spent most of her life in Alberta, Canada.
Kelly’s father was a successful larvyer in Calgary, and her mother was a high school
English teacher. Kelly had an older sister, Laurel, 27 , who had just passed the bar exam
and was working fbr a corporate law firm in Edmonton.
Kelly had studied Japanese in high school and in university and spoke and wrote
the language quite well. When she was 15 years oid, Kelly spent tbur months in Japan
on a school exchange. She had enjoyed the time she spent there and ahvays planned to
return one day. Upon graduating tiom high school. Kelly lvent to the University of
Alberta, in Ednonton, to stucly nlarragement.
During her final year at the universitv, Kelly heard some of her friends talking about
the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) Program. She rvas told ihat it rvas quite easy to
get accepte(l-all an applicant needed was a university deglee and an interest in Japan-
and that it rvould be a great way to rnake rloney and see another part of the world. Kelly
would have her degree by the end of the year and thought that having lived in Japan and
knowing the language shorved enough interest to have her application considered. Kelly
thought that a year or lwo in Japan after her n.)anageilrent degree would improve her
This case u’as u’ritten bv Laura Turek. Coprnghr C1996 br Laura Turek. Used u’ith permission. This case
w’as prepared as a basis  lbr classroom discu:.ior. lrol to illostr&re either the etfective or ineffective nlanagement
of an administrative sitLration.
rGolden Week is the period lrorn Apr:i lr) :,r lr) 5. in rrhich there are four
-lapanese national holidays.
{an1’Japanese erlp}ot’ees and their lanri;ie. :-r,:: ;rrjran[lge ofthis period to go on t,acation.
Case 7
Japanese alld give her r.nore of a competitive advantage when she retllrned to Canada to
begin her career. She also thought that it u,ould be a great way to make money and have
some fun before she came home to staft a real job. She asked her fiiencl horv she could
apply to the program and returned home that ni_uht to u,clrk on her r6sum€.
Before the JET Program
The ori-sins ofthe JETprogram can be traced backto 1982. In that year. the Japanese
Ministry of Education (Monbusho) initiated a project known as the Monbusho English
Feilorvs (NIEF) Prograrn, rvhich hired Americans to rvork at the iocal boards of education
in order to assist Japanese English teaching consultants who acted as advisors to the
Japanese teachers of English in the public schools. The task of the MEFs was to oversee
the junior and senior high school English teiichers and to assist them rvith their training. In
1983. the British English Teachers Schenre (BETS) was inaugurated by the Ministry of
Education. However, from the outset the British teachers were statiolred at schools, and
the goals of the program did not only concern English instruction but also sought tcr
increase mutuai understanding and improve friendly relations between the peopies of
Japan and Britain. While there were solne dil}’erences betrveen the two programs, both
shared tr common goal: inviting native English speakers to Japan to assist in improving
lbreign-language instruct ion.
The Birth of the JET Program
The realization that Japan lnust open itself nrore fully to contact with international
society began to foster an awareness of the iniportance of promoting internationaliza-
tion and international exchange at the local level. This brought about not only
expanded Engiish instruction, but also a rapid increase in exchange programs. Taking
these new circumstances into account, the Japanese Ministry ol Horne Atlairs in 1985
reieased a paper entitled “Plans for International Exchange Projects” as part of its pli-
ority policy of local governments for the tbllowing year. In the paper, the Ministry of
Home Alfairs proposed a definite course for the internationalization of local govern-
ments, which ideally would lead to smoothly functioning cultLrral exchanges. All of
these ideas were linally implemented in a concrete project: the Japan Exchange and
Teaching (JET) Program.
The Ministry of Home Allairs abolished the two projects curently in effect (MEF and
BETS) and created a new one that was entrusted simultaneously to tluee niinislries: the
N{inistry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Education. and the Ministry of Home Affairs.
However, the concept of appointing local authorities to implement the prograrn and act as
host institutions was preserved. While discussions were held rvith each of the local author-
ities to rvork out the details and ensure the smooth inrp)ementation of such a massi.,,e pro-
gram, the formation of a cooperative organization for all local government was expedited.
The Creation of CLAIR
CLAIR, originally the Conierence of Local Authorities tbr Intemational Relatr,.:-
rvas established in October 1986 b1 r.heTodoJilketi (the 47 prel’ectures of Japanliinu     ii:
Sick Leave
Seircishiteitoslil (the lthenl l0 designated cities) as a cooperative organization respon-
sible for implementing the JET program in conjunction with the three Japanese rnin-
istries narned above.
CLAIR’s Role in the JET Program
To ensure smooth irnplementation of the JET program, the three ministries, the
local authorities. and CLAIR rvere all given speciiic functions. The functions that the
confelence atternpted to fuifill for implenenting the JET program wet’e as follorvs:
1. Advice and liaison during recruitment and selection.
2. Placement of participants.
3. Participant orientation, conf-erences.
4. Guidance for local authority host institutions.
-5. Participant weltare and counseling.
6.   Tlavel alrangements for participants coming to Japan.
7.   Liaison rvith related groups and institutions.
8.   Publications and reference materials.
9.   Publicity for the program.
The larger goal behind these functions of the conference was the promotion of
international exchange at the local level. Independent of this development, the Council
of Local Authorities for International Relations (a public endowed foundation) was
inaugurated in July 1987. The council’s main duty rvas to study and survey participat-
ing nations’ local authorities overseas r.vith the ultimate objective being to support local
government programs for the promotion of internationalization. By fostering interna-
tionai exchange at the regional level, the councii came to assume the same duties as the
Conf-erence of Local Authorities for International Relations. It was suggested that both
organizations merge since they held information relevant to each other’s work and
shared the goals of improving rvork efficiency and performing their tasks more effec-
tively. Moreover, the annual growth of the JET program led to an increased number of
interrelated duties and tasks. Thus, it was necessary to strengthen the structure of the
Conference of Local Authorities for International Relations.
It was decided that the operations and financiai assets of the conference would be
assumed by the council, and in August 1989 they were amalgamated, under the
acronym of CLAIR, to form a joint organization of local pubiic bodies in Japan to sup-
port and promote internationalization at the regional level.
Counseling System of JET (Figure 1)
l.   Role of the host instirution. Baiicalir problems which JET participants
faced dr-rring their stay in Japan * ere ad,j:e .:ed by’ the host institution. If a JET had
a complaint or a probleni at uork or in his or her private life, the JET could alert
his or her supervisor, who took up ihe nratter and attemptecl to solve it.
2. Role o.t CIAIR. Problerns or dittrculties rvhich JET progranr participants
facecl u’ere as a ntle dealt rritn ii ::,’.i ir.r.titutions. Horvever. if the issues rvere
684     Case 7
FIGURE     I     Counselins Svstem
Ministry of Foreign
Special Committee for
Affairs, Education and
Counseling and Training
Home Atfairs
Association for
the Japan
Exchange and
Teaching (AJEI)
diffrcult to solve at this level, or ifthey concerned grievances between the JET panic-
ipant and the host institution, CLAIR employed a number of non-Japanese program
coordinators who rvould intervene and respond directly to participants’ needs.
CLAIR rvould then step in on behalf of the JET parlicipant and work to solve the
problems with the host institution.
3.    The Speciol Comtnittee Jor Cowtseling   wd Truittittg. The Special Comnrittee
for Counseling and Training consisted of the staff members of the three ministries
(Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, and Education), embassies of the participating
countries, and host institutions. It took charge of orientation, cont’erences. public
welfare, and counseling. If necessary, it answered the questions and concerns of the
JET participants.
The Association tbr the Japan Exchange and Teaching (AJET) Program was an
independent, self-supporting organization created by JET program participants, whose
elected officers were all volunteers. Membership in AJET was also voiuntary. AJET
provided members with infonnation about rvorking and Iiving in Japan and provided a
support network for members at the local, regionai, and national levels. Many Japanese
and JETs considered AJET to be the union of the JET program participants.
Kelly looked over the information she received liom JET. There were two difTerent
positions avaiiable: ( 1 ) the coordinator for internationaj relations (CIR) and (2) the Assis-
tant Language Teacher (ALT). The first position sounded quite interesting to Keliy since
Sick Leave
applicants were required to ha,e a tunctional knowledge of Japanese. ALTs, on the other
hand. were not required to know an),Japanese belbre aniving in Japan. She realized that
her odds of getting accepted were greater if she applied to the second position since
almost 600 ALTs were selected across Canada, compared with only 25 CiRs. Kelly was
chosen for a CIR interview but in the end was offered a position as an ALT. At first she
u’as a little disappointed, but then she reminded herself that her original goal was to per-
fect her Japanese. and she started to look tbrward to her trip to Japan,
Kelly received a lot of information about rvorking and living in Japan fr”om
CLAIR. CLAIR also olTered several predeparture training sessions and orientations
about lif-e in Japan and its potentiai problems, but she decided not to attend. because
after lbur months in Japan she already knew what to expect.
Kelly r.vas sent to Soto, a medir.rrrr-sized city on the island of Shikoku. Kelly found
the area a far cry fror.n Osaka, where she had stayed the previous time she rvas in Japan.
Soto was, in Kelly’s opinion, “a srnall provincial town. stuck in the middle of nowhere.”
She had enjoyed the activity and night life of Osaka and, except for sports, her only enter-
tainment options in Soto were one movie theater’, several pachinko2parlors, and scores of
karaoke b’ars. Kelly very quickly developed the habit of going away on the weekends to
tour dift’erent parts ofthe rsland. She would also use her holidays to take advantage ofvis-
iting pats of Japan that she might never again get a chance to see. After a few rnonths,
Kelly decided that Soto was at least a good place to improve her Japanese since not many
people spoke Engiish very well, and only a few other foreigners lived there.
Kelly worked at the board of education office three days a week and visited
schools the other trvo days to help with their English programs. There were three other
JET participants u,ho worked in the same oftice: Mark. 27, another Canadian; Andrea.
26, an Americanl and Suzanne, 25, flom Britain. Like Kelly, Suzanne had been in Japan
for only the past six months, while Mark and Andrea had been working there tor a year
and a half. Kelly was on good terms rvith the other JETs in the oft-ice, aithough she rvas
closest with Suzanne sitrce they had both arrived in Japan at the same time and had met
at their orientation in Tokyo.
Atthough Kelly had lived in Japan befbre, this was the first time she had rvorked in
a Japanese ofhce, She had learned about Japanese work habits in a cross-cultural man-
agenrellt class at the university, yet she was stili surprised at how committed the Japa-
nese \’ere to their jobs. The workday began each morning at 8:30 with a staff meeting
and ofticially ended each night at 5:00 p.rt., yet no one left the office before 7:00 or 8:00
p.rt. The Japanese also came in on Saturdal,s, which Kelly thought was absurd since it
lett the erlployees with only one day a week to relax or spend time with their families.
Kelll’ and the other JETs in the ofllce had a standard North American contract
given to them by CLAIR rvhich stipulated hours. number of vacation days, amount of
lPichinko ir a Japanese-sryle game ol chance that resemble a cross betri,een pinball and a slot machine
It is it r el popular pastinre antong certain groups and. Iike anr forrn of gambling. can be quite lucrative.
686        Cast 7
sick leave. and so on (Figure 2). The co,ltract stated that the JET participants only
u,orked frorn lvlonday to Friday until 5:00 p.:ut. and did not mention working on Satur-
days. Neither Kelly nor the other tbreigners ever put in extra hours at the office, nor
were they eYer asked to do so.
FIGURE         2    Contract of English Teaching Engagement
Article 11: Paid Leave
Sectiotr   I
During the period of ernployment and rvith the approval ol his/her supervisor. the JET participant
may use 20 paid holida-vs individually or consecutively.
Set’tiort 2
When the JET participant wishes to niake use ol one ol the above-rnentioned paid holidays. heishe
shlll infi>rm his/her supervisor three days in advance. Should the JET participant rvish to use more
than three paid holidavs in succession. he/she is required to infbrm hislrer supervisor one nionth
in advance.
Article l2: Special Holidays
SeL’tion   l
The JET participant shall be entitled to special holidays under the follorving circurnstartces:
l. Sick leave-the period of serious illness or injury resulting in an acknorvledged inability to
2. Bereaventent-the         period of l4 consecutire days. including Sundays und natioual holidays,
inrnrecliately atier the loss of tather’. nlother. or spouse.
3.    Natural disaster-the period the boald oleducation deems necessary in the event ol’destruction
oi or selit>us danra-ue to the JET participant’s place of residence.
4.    Tlanspoltation systenr tailure-the period until the said problem has been resolved,
Set-tiur 2
Under the conditions ofArticle 12^ Section I (1). above, the JET participant uray take not nlore
than 20 days of consecutive sick leave. Moreover. ii tlie interval between two such periods of
sick leave is less than one rveek. those two periods shall be regarded as continuoLls.

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