Misdiagnosis of ADHD
the requirement are 6 pages of body using everything we worked on last week
Instructions for the Body/Discussion section of the Researched Argument
The Body/Discussion’s main purpose is to establish the academic conversation that already exists regarding your topic. The Body/Discussion presents the current state of the research and developments regarding your topic. The goal of this section is to establish your credibility as a researcher and to provide your reader with the context through which to understand your particular argument. The argument will be developed in the Body/Discussion section through research and your ability to tie it together, so you must:
1. Present an adequate overview of issues related to the credible claim (identified in the Introduction) and focus on at least three major issues found in the research.
a. If you do three issues, you are following the model of the five-paragraph essay, but on a larger scope. Three may be the number that you choose, but remember that you may choose four or five issues, depending on the complexity of your credible claim/argument.
2. Answer the question: “Which questions are scholars and professional asking? How are they going about their research?”
a. Remember to keep this focused on your topic, as specificity is strength.
i. In the section, if you are making general statements that are unsupported by evidence, you are not convincing the audience.
ii. Your evidence must be compelling.
3. Write seven-eight pages, correctly documented, and free of unsubstantiated personal opinion. (This task will be split over two weeks.)
a. Give the reader an objective account of the current state of research as it relates to the topic.
b. Show connections between researchers, scholars, and writers.
c. Explore and report on the similarities and differences in the current research.
d. Comment on any “gaps” or “holes” in the current research, but not to the extent where you render any of your future discussion on the topic worthless.
e. While there should be no “unsubstantiated” personal opinions, remember that you are using the evidence from academic and professional sources to argue your opinion.
i. Tie the objective information from the researchers back to your argument.
ii. You do not want to do this overtly, but keep reminding your audience of where your argument is headed.
iii. Do not present this as your opinion; present it as logic derived from the information in academic and professional resources.
4. Have clear and logical organization.
a. Do not write a grocery list of information; rather, present researched information in a carefully organized way.
i. Compare and contrast experts.
ii. Show how one expert has influenced another (i.e. offering a “pedigree” of the research).
b. When making connections between items discovered in the research, explain the significance of those connections. Avoid a mere presentation of information found during the research process.
c. In a sense, you are telling a story: the story of the problem you are addressing. Group like information together, but remember to tie everything together through transitions: make the information connect.
d. You may break this section into headings by themed evidence. While you still want to transition or connect the ideas/areas of research to show how they relate to teach other, you can also use headings to break between sections. If you do make this choice, use Heading Level 2 in APA 6th ed. (Level 1 is Body/Discussion, Conclusion, etc.)
5. Have paragraphs that begin with a topic sentence that supports the controlling idea of the section.
a. These sentences will also serve as transitions, so remember to link the information for your reader. Show the audience the logical connections you have made in the material and how all of the academic and professional resources (your research) build to support your argument.
6. Have paragraphs that provide plenty of supporting evidence to support the topic sentence.
a. Be sure to evidence specific scholarly arguments with correct source use.
b. Avoid making general references to “studies” or “research”: your reader must be able to look at your references or your evidence cannot be trusted.
c. All references to studies and research must be specific and be accompanied by a proper APA 6th ed. in-text citation as well as an entry on the references page.
7. Use research that has been published within the last seven years or provide rationale for the use of older research.
a. For example, if you are investigating a topic where you need to provide historical context or historical contrast to current methods, you may have to use older sources to make your point.
b. One possible rationale for an older text is if it is a seminal/foundational text, and it is still regarded as central in the field.
8. Contain properly integrated source information.
a. Paraphrased or summarized original thought must be documented with the author’s name and the year of publication.
i. This is the best way to incorporate information from academic and professional sources as the information (correctly cited) is in your voice, so it fits in with the rest of your writing.
b. Statistical information must be documented with the author’s name and the year of publication.
i. It is important to be able to understand information that is presented in tables and figures. Quantitative and visual reasoning are both very important life skills.
c. Quoted sources must be integrated into the text through both a set-up and an explanation.
d. Quotes must also be documented with the name of the author, the year, and the page or paragraph number.
9. Use less than 15% of direct quotations and should follow special formatting rules for quotations over 40 words.
10. Avoid using any form of “you” unless it’s a part of someone else’s quote.
a. Avoid using “I” and “we” excessively. To avoid passive voice, an author sometimes has to use first person. However, too much first person shows a lack of objectivity or the writer grounding herself in the research rather than her own self.
11. Write in a style appropriate for academic and professional contexts:
a. Proofread for MUGs errors (mechanics, usage, and grammar)
b. Conventions observed (absence of contractions, no vague/general references, no redundant remarks, and no slang, etc.)
c. APA, 6th ed.
12. Edited for conciseness, coherence and flow.
Helpful Tips as You Begin
Be sure to remember when it is best to use direct quotes versus paraphrases or summaries.
? Quote when you think the original language of a passage is more effective when left in its original state or when you need the original language to make your point because the wording of the passage impacts your argument.
? Do not quote selectively in order to change the meaning of a quote. Do not choose parts of the source that support your argument when the majority of the source argues the opposite.
? Paraphrase when the information in the passage is important but when the language may be difficult for your readers to understand. Paraphrasing will help remove unnecessary jargon.
? Summarize to present only key ideas expressed in a source. You summarize to present the overall idea of a particular source in a compact/distilled form.
? Summarizing is different from paraphrasing in that a summary is about half the length of the original while paraphrasing is about the same length of the original.
? Remember that the difference between paraphrase and summary mainly deals with the scope of what is being used. As a rule, you summarize whole texts, and you paraphrase parts of texts (paragraphs, sentences).
? Your role as the writer of the Researched Argument is to facilitate the presentation of the current state of the research about your topic. Therefore, be careful not to use so many sources that you are just writing a report: all of the academic and professional resources should be in service of your argument.
? They should not comprise your argument.
we will continue to work on the body of the paper using all peer reviewed sources only
we can use the sources we had from last week if they are peer reviewed
i have resubmitted the outline below
According to (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016), an estimated 11% of children between 4-17 years have been diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is a behavior-related problem (Nordqvist, 2015). ADHD is a disorder that begins during early age. ADHD is described by fidgety, restlessness, over activity, constant chattering, interruptive, poor concentration, and inattention. Today, the condition has become among the leading diagnosed disorders. This issue was first established in 2011 when UNCRC expressed deep concerns in misdiagnosis of children with ADHD (Citizens Commision on Human Rights UK, 2011).
In their book, Diane and Rebecca (Diane M. Kennedy, 2011), takes us through fascinating realizations about the interaction between special needs and abilities. They describe how gifted kids exhibit attention deficit hyperactive disorder, without teachers or their parents understanding their conditions. ADHD issue cannot be physically tested and thus no consistent means of examination. According to (Steer, 2014), such diagnostic approach means that different clinicians will approach the same problem differently. Another major problem is that ADHD can exist together with other problems such as autism spectrum, giftedness, dyspraxia, language difficulty, sleep disorders, and Asperger’s disorder. Thus, before any ADHD medication is given to children,psychological experts or pediatricians should be consulted, rather than basing medication on observations.
The world constitutes around 1% of the population with the autism spectrum disorder. In the US, 1 out of 68 births suffers from autism spectrum disorder. The prevalence of the situation has increased over the years to 119.4% since 2000(Autism Society, 2016).
According to recent findings in Canada, US, and some European countries (Hannes Schwandt, 2015), children who are enrolledin school at younger ages exhibit higher rates of autism spectrum compared to their older peers. Due to young children’s relative immaturity, autism spectrum just as ADHD goes misdiagnosed. Most of the diagnosis provided initially included giving children stimulants, and which could not address the problem effectively. In her work, (Porter, 2015) claims that the reason why the autismis misdiagnosed isthat it mirrors other medical conditions such as ADHD and body giftedness, which makes administration of correct diagnosis difficult.
According to the (Institute on Disability, 2014), 20% of adolescents in the US are diagnosed with emotional disturbance related issues. Out of ten youths in the US, one experiences emotional disturbance, which limits their daily activities, especially in school, homes, and even at community settings.
Emotional disorder presents itself with many issues, which are unique to each individual. Those people diagnosed with the condition often responds to situations with inappropriate emotions or behavior. Briefly, this kind of students often finds it difficult to maintain personal relationships with the other students. Precisely, this disorder leads to manifestations of physical symptoms such as difficulty in learning. The disorder is associated with schizophrenia. Often, the condition lasted for a long time before it is detected and ascertained to be an emotional disturbance. Emotional disturbance can be controlled by intruding in class assistive technologies differentiated instructions.
Approximately nine percent of the US’s citizens experience some form of depression (Iliades, 2016), or over excitable characteristics. The condition is most prevalent between age bracket (18-24), and adult students fall in this category.
The over-excitable disorder is associated with the restlessness in the students or young learners. In this case, children turn to be so active and noisy, presenting difficulties to their parents and other learners. Children suffering from over-excitable do not follow instructions and do not sit still. Sometimes this condition can yield to dangerous behavior such as scampering out in a busy road. Moreover, many other reasons that make a child overactive exists. It is thus the role of the parents to identify these reasons and consult a pediatrician.
An estimated 2% of children born every year in the US exhibit giftedness disorder (Fractus Learning, 2016). Some people believe that giftedness is attained through nurturing. However, an irresistible agreement rests on the fact that giftedness is associated with birth, and thus is an inherent trait.
Many of the gifted children do not excel in their studies well. The trend presents when the educational, cognitive, and behavioral needs of the child are not met. Most of the children with giftedness condition go on their condition unidentified. These children with the disorder often exhibit uneven skills, traits, and abilities. Gifted children end up failing to find emotionally identical friends and thus turn to be so reserved to themselves. They often have the feeling they don’t fit in a particular group. Many of the characteristics of giftedness are not identified on time and results to psychological disorientation.
(Paddock, 2010), in her findings argues that children could exhibit ADHD due to their immaturity, trauma, or emotional disturbance. Giftedness, autism spectrum, emotional disturbance, and over excitable can also be misjudged to ADHD. Their symptoms almost match those in ADHD such as frequent attention switches, trouble in sitting still, and dashing and jumping around the room. The conditions can result to children exhibiting signs of inattention. In this case, such children feel unchallenged by class work and thus develop boredom. Most of this condition is confused to ADHD and leads to misdiagnosis and wrong medication advised for ADHD while the child could not be suffering from the condition.
In a recent Forbs report (2016), Walton provides us with insight about ADHD. According to the research, 30% of children who have ADHD during childhood are at risk for mental issues during adulthood such as depression, anxiety, antisocial characteristics, drug abuse, and suicidal thoughts. This associationis, however, inadequate since previous findings have shown the difficulty that exists in determining risks and rates of comorbidities on a long-term basis. Consequently, other mental health issues such as autism spectrum, giftedness, violence at home, which leads to trauma, stress, and depression, can instigate main complications of ADHD during childhood.
ADHD problem has been in existent for many years. What we need to ask ourselves is how the situation can be intervened. We can begin by sorting out what is ADHD and what is not. In this case, we assume that hyperactive spontaneous is the highly malignant kind. These children have the most disruptive manners. Failure to address this on time accumulates to a disability. Other children may look inattentive, with the cause being something different such as emotional disturbance, autism spectrum, giftedness, and over-excitability. Anxiety imposes fear to children so that they are worried, restless and preoccupied. But in reality, they are not hyperactive. Separating causes of inattention in children should be the main issue requiring closer attention. Thus, the diagnosis of ADHD should be carried out following consultations from pediatric psychologists.
Autism Society. (2016, November 5). Facts and Statistics. AUTISM SOCIETY. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.autism-society.org/what-is/facts-and-statistics/
Behavioral Associates. (2016). 9 Reasons Why ADHD may be Misdiagnosed. Published Online. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.behavioralassociates.com/9-reasons-adhd-may-be-misdiagnosed/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, October 5). Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
Citizens Commision on Human Rights UK. (2011). Dangers and Consequences of the Misdiagnosis and Prescription of Addictive Drugs to Children for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Published Online. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjhtJuc5o7QAhVMOBQKHciCCUsQFghZMAk&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcchr.org.uk%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2FADHD-White-Paper-CCHRUK.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFBRpZbrU6b0EODPwo6HWWwOw8rUQ&sig2=aA1y
Diane M. Kennedy, R. S. (2011). Bright Not Broken: Gifted Kids, ADHD, and Autism. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Fractus Learning. (2016, November 06). 10 Facts You May Not Know About Gifted Children But Should. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.fractuslearning.com/2015/11/16/facts-about-gifted-children/
Hannes Schwandt, A. W. (2015). The Youngest Get the Pill: ADHD Misdiagnosis. Published Online. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwixrPWAzY7QAhUFuhoKHZh9Af0QFggyMAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Fftp.iza.org%2Fdp9368.pdf&usg=AFQjCNEV4BALqJFxWD4SO-PnVyNj_DJUuQ&sig2=0i-1YQJw-sQRYAEeU4u8JA&bvm=bv.137901846,d.d24
Iliades, C. (2016, November 5). Stats and Facts About Depression in America. Everyday Health. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.everydayhealth.com/hs/major-depression/depression-statistics/
Institute on Disability. (2014). MENTAL HEALTH STATISTICS. Statistics. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.whocaresaboutkelsey.com/the-issues/statistics
Nordqvist, C. (2015, December 30). ADD/ADHD: Causes, Symptoms and Research. MNT. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/adhd
Paddock, C. (2010, August 18). ADHD Could Be Misdiagnosed In Nearly 1 Million US Kids Say Researchers. MNT. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/198077.php
Porter, E. (2015, December 11). Misdiagnosis: Conditions That Mimic ADHD. Healthline. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/adhd-misdiagnosis
Steer, C. (2014, August 14). Why is ADHD controversial? netdoctor. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/adhd/a5223/why-is-adhd-controversial/
Walton, A. G. (2016). Research Is Telling Us. Published Online. Retrieved on November 3, 2016 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2013/03/05/time-to-pay-attention-what-the-newest-adhd-research-is-telling-us/#33fb2493659e
Misdiagnosis of ADHD