Module 1 – Background/CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR
Introduction
•    The definition of health behavior was established by Gochman in 1981:
“Health Behavior defined as those personal attributes such as beliefs, expectations, motives, values, perceptions, and other cognitive elements; personality characteristics, including affective and emotional states and traits; and overt behavior patterns, actions and habits that relate to health maintenance, to health restoration and to health improvement”.
•    This definition, in turn, calls for a closer look at “what is health?”
The definition of health is influenced by our contemporary lifestyle. In the past, health was merely considered as the absence of disease. A person who was free from pain, disability and symptoms of disease was considered healthy. In view of the better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the most common disease processes, we now view health as the active pursuit of a lifestyle that avoids the etiologic conditions that lead to disease, and promote those conditions that lead to our well-being.
•    Finally, what is meant by “well-being”?
Some authors have suggested the concept of “wellness” as an expanded idea of health. Wellness is determined by the individual decisions of the guidelines in everyone’s lives. There are several parameters that determine wellness: physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social and environmental. These parameters stress the fact that the state of health not only relies on the proper functioning of our body organs and systems (The Biological aspects) but also in our mental health (Psychological aspects) and in the way that we relate with our environment (Social Aspects).
The Biological factors have been emphasized over the years by the traditional Medical Sciences. They refer to the normal interaction among all of our body systems from an Anatomical and a Physiological level. This model of emphasis called the Medical Model.
The Psychological factors have to do with the way our emotions influence our wellness; our intellectual and spiritual values, our self esteem.
Required Readings
With this brief overview in mind, read the executive summary and the introduction of Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences, available via ebrary or direct links appearing below:
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Executive Summary (15 pages). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Chapter 1: Introduction (12 pages). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Ecological Model of Health Behavior (1 page). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Module 1 – Ecological Models of Health Behavior & Promotion
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR
Brief Description
•    Ecological Models are comprehensive health promotion models that are multifaceted, concerned with environmental change, behavior, and policy that help individuals make healthy choices in their daily lives.
•    The defining feature of an ecological model is that it takes into account the physical environment and its relationship to people at individual, interpersonal, organizational and community levels.
•    The philosophical underpinning is the concept that behavior does not occur within a vacuum.
Characteristics/Key Terms
•    Multiple dimensions of influence on behaviors, Intrapersonal factors, social and cultural environments, and physical environments can influence health behaviors.
•    Interaction of influences across dimensions: To be useful in designing studies and interventions, the model should predict how the categories of behavior determinants interact.
•    Multiple levels of environmental influences.
o    Natural environments: weather, geography climate.
o    Constructed environments: homes worksites, local communities
•    Environments directly influence behaviors.
o    Environment: space outside the individual.
o    Ecology: interrelations between organisms and their environments
Working Definition of Ecological Models
•    Behaviors are influenced by interpersonal, social, cultural, and physical environment variables.
•    Variables are likely to interact.
•    Need to address variables at multiple levels to understand and change health behaviors.
•    Levels of Influence: Individual, Interpersonal, Organizational, Community, and Public Policy.
Ecological Programming for Communitywide Alcohol Use Prevention Program during Early Adolescence
LEVEL    STRATEGIES
Individual    School programming focusing on social influences, such as peer resistance training or attempts to chance perceived norms in the individual.
Interpersonal    Peer leadership programs in which adult volunteers facilitated T.E.E.N.S. groups, focusing on using group activities that plan alcohol free activities for seventh graders.
Organizational    Parental involvement obtained by mailing program booklets directly to the parents. Booklets included activities for parents to do with their 7th graders.
Community    Passage of five alcohol related ordinances and three resolutions.
Source: Perry, C. L. Williams, C.L., Mortenson, S. V., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K.A., Anstime, P.S., McGovern, P.G.,Finnegan, J.R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1996).Project Northland: Outcomes of a Community wide Alcohol Use Prevention Programduring Early Adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956-965.
Purpose
Ecological Models address multiple levelsof behavior influence, leading to a more comprehensive approach to healthpromotion. Many of the predominant theories or models of behavior focus on onedimension of health promotion, such as knowledge attitudes, or skills. These onedimensional approaches do not necessarily result in desired behavioral change.Ecological models provide a mechanism for linking health promotion and healthprotection emphasizing a shared framework for change targeted at individualbehaviors and the environment. This may lead to improved program effectiveness.
Development
Roots in Public Health and Psychology:
Public Health
As early as mid 1800s, ecological factors such as poverty and social class were studied in relation to health/disease, i.e., typhus epidemic.
Host-agent-environment model is basic for analysis of infectious disease.
Psychology
B. F. Skinner (1953): Considered an early and influential forerunner to ecological models. Antecedents and consequences in observable environment control behavior.
Ecological Psychology
Kurt Lewin (1936): The study of the influence of the outside environment on the person. Hypothesized that environments influenced behavior indirectly through effects on psychological variables. Perceptions of the external environment were deemed important.
Roger Barker (1968): Developed the concept of behavior settings: the social and physical situations in which behavior takes place. Believed environments directly affect behavior.
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979): Described 3 levels of environmental factors: microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem.
Health Promotion: Social Ecological Approach
Rudolph Moos (1970s): Specified 4 sets of environmental factors relevant to health studies: physical settings, organizational, human aggregate (sociodemographic or sociocultural characteristics), and social climate.
Stokols (1992): Health Promotive Environment: Interventions must address environmental resources that may facilitate or hinder targeted health behavior changes.
Ecological Models and Health Promotion
While the theory of ecological models has evolved over a long period of time, the application for health promotion programming has been a recent development.
*Health People 2000: US National Health Planincludes objectives consistent with the ecological model of health promotion.
Ecological Models in Action:
Worksite Health Promotion Smoking, drug, and alcohol restriction policies
Nutrition Programs
Food Labeling
Nutrient labels on processed food packages, baked goods, and some fresh items.
Roadway Improvements to Enhance Safety
Lighting, signs and signals
Adoption of Vehicle Safety Measures
Airbags, seatbelts, helmets, care seats.
References
Glanz,K., Lewis, M. L., &Rimer, B. K. (1997) Health Behavior and Health Education (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Simons-Morton, B. G., Greene, W. H. & Gottlieb, N. H. (1995). Introduction to Health Education and Health Promotion (2nd ed.) (pp. 403-422). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Winett,King& Altman. (1989). Health Psychology and Public Health. (pp.128-130.New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
Related References
Dave, J.M., Evans. A.E., Pfeiffer, K.A., et al. (2010). Correlates of availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in homes of low-income Hispanic families. Health Education Research, 25(1), 97-108,
Borland, R., Chapman, S., Owen, N., &Hill, D. (1990). Effects of Workplace Smoking Bans on Cigarette Consumption. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 178-180.
Brownson, R. C., Koffman, D. M., Novotny, T. E., Hughes, R. G., &Eriksen M.P. (1995). Environmental and policy Interventions to Control Tobacco Use andPrevent Cardiovascular Disease. Health Education Quarterly, 22 (4),478-498.
Stokols, D., Pelletier, K. R., & Fielding, J. E. (1996). The Ecology of Workand Health: Research and Policy Directions for the promotion for EmployeeHealth. Health Education Quarterly, 23 (2), 137-158.
Sorensen, G., Stoddard, A., Ockene, J. K., Hunt, M. K., &Youngstrom, R.(1996). Worker Participation in an Integrated Health Promotion/Health ProtectionProgram: Results from the WellWorks Project. Health Education Quarterly, 23(2), 191-203.
Perry,C. L., Williams, C. L., Mortenson, S. V., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstime,P. S., McGovern, P.G., Finnegan, J. R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A. C., &Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a Community wide Alcohol UsePrevention Program during Early Adolescence. American Journal of PublicHealth, 86, 956-965.
Zenk, S.N., Lachance, L.L., Schulz, A.J., et al. (2009). Neighborhood retail food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(4), 255-64.
Annotated Bibliography
Borland, R., Chapman, S., Owen, N., & Hill, D. (1990). Effects of workplacesmoking bans on cigarette consumption. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 178-180.
This article is a study of the effects of smokingbans in the workplace on cigarette consumption. The study is based on anecological model, in which individual behavior is changed by making changes inthe environment. The article focuses on the effects of a ban on 391 smokers.Results show a reduction of cigarette consumption by more than 25%.
Brownson, R. C., Koffman, D. M., Novotny, T. E., Hughes, R. G., &Eriksen M.P. (1995). Environmental and policy interventions to control tobacco use andprevent cardiovascular disease. Health Education Quarterly, 22 (4),478-498.
This article discusses the value of environmentaland policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovasculardisease. Interventions include clean air acts, tobacco taxes to fund publichealth programs directed at smoking, and urging state and local healthdepartments to collaborate with other entities. Interventions such as the cleanair acts encourage change in individual behavior based on changes in theenvironment.
Stokols, D., Pelletier, K. R., & Fielding, J. E. (1996). The ecology of workand health: Research and policy directions for the promotion for employeehealth. Health Education Quarterly, 23 (2), 137-158.
This article, co-written by Dr. Stokols, one ofthe founders of the ecological model address new research and policy in thefield of worksite health promotion. Three major themes in this article are: theinfluence of social and physical environments on occupational health, theeffects of nonoccupational settings on employee well being, and issues in designand evaluation of worksite health. This research indicates that a change fromindividually oriented wellness programs toward more comprehensive programming.
Sorensen, G., Stoddard, A., Ockene, J. K., Hunt, M. K., &Youngstrom, R.(1996). Worker participation in an integrated health promotion/health protectionprogram: Results from the WellWorks Project. Health Education Quarterly, 23(2), 191-203.
The WellWorks intervention was a worksite healthpromotion intervention based on the ecological model. The intervention targetedworksite change at individual and environmental levels. Worker participation andworker perception of managerial change were measured in the study. Resultsshowed that blue-collar workers were less likely than white-collar workers toreport participating in the program. Results also indicated that blue-collarparticipation in exposure-related activities versus nutrition activities mayincrease worker participation in worksite health promotion programming. Finally,when workers were aware of managerial intervention, they were more likely toparticipate in smoking and nutrition programs.
Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Mortenson, S. V., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A.,Anstime, P. S., McGovern, P.G., Finnegan, J. R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A.C., & Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community widealcohol Use prevention program during aarly adolescence. American Journal ofPublic Health, 86, 956-965.
Project Northland was a community based alcoholuse prevention program directed at reducing adolescent alcohol use. The programused social-behavioral programming in the schools, peer education, parental andcommunity involvement and community task forces to reduce adolescent alcoholconsumption. The project aimed at changing individual behavior and theenvironment (or accessibility) in regards to alcohol use. After three years,results indicated that prevalence and onset of alcohol use in targetedcommunities had decreased. These results indicate that multi-level alcoholinterventions are effective in decreasing adolescent alcohol use.
Betancur, J. J. (1996). The settlement experience of Latinos in Chicago:segregation, speculation, and the ecology model. Social Forces, 74(4),1299-1325.
This article utilizes the Ecological model toexplain the process and characteristics of Latinos in Chicago. The analysisviews different aspects of the Latin community in Chicago and the process ofsettlement. In addition, the study observes the status and exclusion Latinoshave face in the United States and how this has affected them. The article alsooffers a description of the Ecological model. Segregation of Latinos bydiscrimination and housing conditions is also included in the analysis. Finally,the article aims at offering a description of the impact that surroundings mighthave on a particular population.
Coulton, C. J. (1996). Measuring neighborhood context for young children in anurban area. (Special Issue: Ecological Assessment). American Journal ofCommunity Psychology, 24(1), 5-33.
The article describes the effects that an urbanenvironment might have on young children. The urban environment often presents acertain degree of neighborhood decline. Children in this type of surroundingstypically develop certain patterns of risk behavior. The Ecological Model isapplied to analyze the effects that the urban environment has had in thesechildren. Furthermore, this article also presents a description of racialsegregation and the consequences of it. Finally, the study describes therelationship among neighborhood characteristics and individual behavior.
Lesar, S. (1995). HIV infection in children: family stress, social support, andadaptation. (Families of Children and Adolescents with Special Needs). ExceptionalChildren, 62(3), 224-237.
This article presents the effects that caring forchildren with HIV has on family members. The results examined include familyfunctioning, parenting stress, and social support of caregivers. The Ecologicalmodel is applied to analyze how the HIV infected children affect familyfunctioning. Family stress and support are examined as well. Thus, the studypresents how caring and relating to children with HIV affects behavior andcoping of individuals.
Perkins, D. D. (1996). The ecology of empowerment: Predicting participation incommunity organizations. The Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 85-111.
This article has a strong application of theEcological Model and Public Health. The subject studied in this case is theempowerment of communities and grassroots organizations. The behavior observedon individual members of empowered communities is assessed carefully. Certainindividuals and communities participate more that others. This last issue isexamined in the study by applying the Ecological Model.
Szymanski, E. M. (1996). Career development of people with developmentaldisabilities: an ecological model. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(1),48-56.
As the title of the article implies the studyanalyzes the career development and opportunities of individualswithdevelopmental disabilities. The Ecological Model is applied to assess thisphenomenon. For example, the fact that people with disabilities tend to have ahigher rate of unemployment. The interesting aspect of this article is that itprovides the reader with recommendations for interventions. This study could beused as source information for Health Education specialists working withdisabled persons.
Module 1 – Case
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR
Assignment Overview
You have just returned from attending a series of public meetings in which the Health and Behavior: Research, Practice, and Policy committee examined and shared their findings concerning what works and what doesn’t work regarding health and behavior. It is now time for you to prepare for your seminar in which you will share your insights with your colleagues.
Case Assignment
1.    To ensure that your colleagues clearly understand the nature of the meetings that you attended, you decide to begin your first seminar with a presentation on the following background information:
•    A working definition of the following components/aspects of “health behavior”
1.    Health
2.    Behavior
3.    Risk Factors
A description of the “ecological” perspective from which the committee approached their examination of health behavior.
To establish the credibility of this background information, corroborate the committee’s approach of the above facets of health behavior with 3 additional articles/studies that share similar insights.
Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper.
LENGTH: 3 pages typed and double-spaced.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1.    Your ability to convey a clear understanding of health, behavior, risk factors, and the ecological perspective;
2.    In-text references to modular background readings that EXACTLY match your reference list (APA formatting preferred)
Module 1 – SLP
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR
Session Long Project
For this component of the course to be most meaningful, you will begin your SLP by developing an introduction to your annotated bibliography in which you reflect on what is meant by “health behavior” in relation to your professional and/or personal goals that you hope to achieve through your studies in health education.
Guidelines
This introductory essay is to address — but may extend beyond — the following questions:
1.    Paragraph 1: What aspect of health education are you particularly interested in? What are your professional and/or personal goals that you hope to achieve through your studies in health education?
2.    Paragraphs 2-4: How do the sub-competencies listed below relate to your interests/goals in health education?
See http://www.nchec.org/assets/2251/areas_of_responsibilities_and_competencies.pdf  and below for a list of relevant National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) Competencies.
Area I: Assess Needs, Resources, and Capacity for Health Education
Competency 1.4 Examine Relationships among Behavioral, Environmental and Genetic Factors That Enhance or Compromise Health
1.4.1-Identify factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.2-Analyze factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.3-Identify factors that enhance or compromise health
1.4.3-Analyze factors that enhance or compromise health
SLP Assignment Expectations
•    You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.
•    Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.
•    Proofread your paper to ensure that grammar and punctuation are correct, that reference citations conform to APA guidelines, and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.
•    Length: 3-4 peer-reviewed sources, cited and annotated; 3-4 double-spaced pages.
Module 2 – Background
BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS
Required Reading
Available via ebrary or direct link appearing below:
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Chapter 3: Behavioral Risk Factors. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Module 2 – Case
BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS
Assignment Overview
At the end of your first briefing, a colleague of yours expressed an interest in current epidemiological data concerning prevalent risk behaviors. As you pointed out to this colleague, this was an area addressed by the committee as it related to 1 of the 6 responsibilities for which they were charged:http://www.nap.edu/read/9838/chapter/1
Update scientific findings about the links between biological, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and health.
Thus, you assure your colleague that you will share the insights that were presented by the committee at your next seminar.
Case Assignment
1.    Prepare a PowerPoint presentation that highlights the epidemiological data regarding prevalent health-related risk behaviors.
2.    Supplement the insights presented by the Health and Behavior committee with 3 additional empirical studies that examine 3 prevalent health-related risk behaviors. This supplement can either be
o    Incorporated into your presentation, or
o    Addressed separately – in a written summary format.
Format
Just come up with a 6 page paper that I can use to make a power point addressing all the issues please try have different paragraphs so I have an idea of when to make each power point page
•    PowerPoint Presentation Only:
o    Length: 15-20 slides (including an introduction and summary/conclusion).
o    Include “Supplemental Notes” for each slide, indicating what would be said by the presenter in explaining and elaborating on the content of the slide.
o    Appropriately cite & reference empirical studies.
•    PowerPoint Presentation PLUS Summary
o    Length: 10-15 slide presentation & 4-6 paragraph summary
o    Appropriately reference & cite empirical studies.
Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper or presentation.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1.    Your ability to demonstrate an understanding of epidemiological data regarding prevalent health-related risk behaviors;
2.    In-text references to modular background readings that EXACTLY match a reference list presented at the end of the paper or presentation (APA formatting preferred).
Module 2 – SLP
BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS
Session Long Project
In accordance with your professional area of interest in the field of health education, you are to search the health education literature for 2-3 journal articles that address one or more behavioral risk factors from an epidemiological perspective, AND within a context that is of particular relevance to your professional goals/interests as stated in Module 1.
Provide a summary of the 2-3 articles that you selected.
See http://www.nchec.org/assets/2251/areas_of_responsibilities_and_competencies.pdf  and below for a list of relevant National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) Competencies.
Area I: Assess Needs, Resources, and Capacity for Health Education
Competency 1.4 Examine Relationships among Behavioral, Environmental and Genetic Factors That Enhance or Compromise Health
1.4.1-Identify factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.2-Analyze factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.3-Identify factors that enhance or compromise health
1.4.3-Analyze factors that enhance or compromise health
SLP Assignment Expectations
•    You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.
•    Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.
•    Proofread your paper to ensure that grammar and punctuation are correct, that reference citations conform to APA guidelines, and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.
•    Length: 3–4 peer-reviewed sources, cited and annotated; 3–4 double-spaced pages.
Module 3 – Background
MODELS & INTERVENTIONS: INDIVIDUAL & FAMILY HEALTH BEHAVIORS
Required Reading
Available via ebrary or direct link appearing below:
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Chapter 5: Individuals and Families: Models of Interventions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.    http://www.nap.edu/read/9838/chapter/1
Module 3 – Case
MODELS & INTERVENTIONS: INDIVIDUAL & FAMILY HEALTH BEHAVIORS
Assignment Overview
As you anticipated, your discussion of current epidemiological data of health-related risk behaviors lead to an interest in understanding the factors that prompt such behaviors. You assured your colleagues that this central aspect of health behavior will be thoroughly addressed at next week’s seminar as you present theoretical concepts and models relevant to individual and family perspectives of risk behavior.
Case Assignment
1.    Prepare a handout that clearly outlines the distinguishing facets of four different models of behavior change.
o    This handout is NOT to be prepared as a written essay/report -but rather as an organizational framework that presents this information in a clear, coherent manner (e.g., a chart)
o    Distinguishing facets include -but are not limited to the following:
?    General description
?    Strengths/Weaknesses
?    Theoretical Underpinnings
Your handout may be developed as you wish; you may use a table, a graph, an outline of the material. This is a time for you to use your creativity. You can do a web search to find examples. Do not forget you will still need citations and references.
Examples:
Diabetes Care and Education
http://www.dce.org/publications/education-handouts/
These are not very creative but good examples
Indian Health Services
http://www.ihs.gov/healthcommunications/pe/index.cfm?module=alphaResults&option=User&suboption=byCode&char=A&sortChoice=docName&newquery=1
Google Docs Templates has many examples
https://drive.google.com/templates?category=7&type=docs&sort=user&view=public&urp=https://www.google.com/&pli=1&ddrp=1#
2.    Accompany this handout with a 1-2 page executive summary of your prepared handout.
o    Include in this summary 2 additional studies/professional discussions (i.e., from a refereed journal) that explicitly address any aspect of 2 particular models presented in your handout.
o    Appropriately reference your additional resources.
Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1.    Your ability to present a clear comparison of four models of behavior change from an individual and family perspective that indicates your understanding of differences and similarities in their strengths and weaknesses and theoretical assumptions;
2.    In-text references to modular background readings that EXACTLY match a reference list presented at the end of the paper (APA formatting preferred).
Module 3 – SLP
MODELS & INTERVENTIONS: INDIVIDUAL & FAMILY HEALTH BEHAVIORS
Session Long Project
In accordance with your professional area of interest, search the health educaiton literature for 2-3 journal articles that address behavioral risk factors within the following contexts:
1.    A particular theory/model pertaining to individual or family-related determinants of risk behaviors.
2.    An aspect of health behavior that is of particular relevance to your goals/interests in health education.
Provide summaries of the 2-3 articles that you selected.
See http://www.nchec.org/assets/2251/areas_of_responsibilities_and_competencies.pdf  and below for a list of relevant National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) Competencies.
Area I: Assess Needs, Resources, and Capacity for Health Education
Competency 1.4 Examine Relationships among Behavioral, Environmental and Genetic Factors That Enhance or Compromise Health
1.4.1-Identify factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.2-Analyze factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.3-Identify factors that enhance or compromise health
1.4.3-Analyze factors that enhance or compromise health
SLP Assignment Expectations
•    You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.
•    Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.
•    Proofread your paper to ensure that grammar and punctuation are correct, that reference citations conform to APA guidelines, and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.
•    Length: 4–5 peer-reviewed sources, cited and annotated; 3–4 double-spaced pages.
Module 4 – Background
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATION, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETAL DETERMINANTS
Required Reading
Available via ebrary or direct link appearing below:
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Chapter 6: Organizations, Communities, & Societies: Models & Interventions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
http://www.nap.edu/read/9838/chapter/1
Module 4 – Case
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATION, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETAL DETERMINANTS
Assignment Overview
Drawing from the committee’s report on models and interventions of health behavior pertaining to organizations, communities, and society, you conclude your last briefing with the following quote:
“Individuals and families are embedded within social, economic, and political systems that shape behaviors…” (p.241):
To be addressed next time…
Case Assignment
With the above quote in mind, your task is to develop Part II of your handout from your previous briefing (i.e., module 3).
•    Similar to your previous handout in which you addressed models and interventions of risk behaviors from an individual and family perspective, this handout is to clearly outline the distinguishing facets of 3 different models & interventions involving determinants at the organizational, community, and society levels.
This handout is be prepared as a Part II of your handout from module 3 – thus, following the same format:
•    This handout is NOT to be prepared as a written essay/report -but rather as an organizational framework that presents this information in a clear, coherent manner (e.g., a chart).
•    Distinguishing facets include -but are not limited to the following:
o    General description
o    Strengths/Weaknesses
o    Theoretical Underpinnings
Accompany this handout with a 1-2 page executive summary of your prepared handout.
•    Include in this summary 2 additional studies/professional discussions (i.e., from a refereed journal) that explicitly address any aspect of 2 particular models presented in your handout.
•    Appropriately cite & reference your additional resources.
Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1.    Your ability to present a clear comparison of three models of behavior change from an organizational, community, and societal perspective that indicates your understanding of differences and similarities in their strengths and weaknesses and theoretical assumptions;
2.    In-text references to modular background readings that EXACTLY match a reference list presented at the end of the paper (APA formatting preferred).
Module 4 – SLP
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATION, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETAL DETERMINANTS
Session Long Project
In accordance with your professional area of interest, search the health education literature for 2-3 journal articles that address behavioral risk factors within the following contexts:
1.    A particular theory/model of health behavior pertaining to organizational, community, and societal determinants.
2.    An aspect of health behavior that is of particular relevance to your goals/interests in health education.
Provide summaries of the 2-3 articles that you selected.
See http://www.nchec.org/assets/2251/areas_of_responsibilities_and_competencies.pdf and below for a list of relevant National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) Competencies.
Area I: Assess Needs, Resources, and Capacity for Health Education
Competency 1.4 Examine Relationships among Behavioral, Environmental and Genetic Factors That Enhance or Compromise Health
1.4.1-Identify factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.2-Analyze factors that influence health behaviors
1.4.3-Identify factors that enhance or compromise health
1.4.3-Analyze factors that enhance or compromise health
Your paper should be 2-3 pages in length. Appropriately cite sources of information in the text and list them at the end.
SLP Assignment Expectations
•    You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.
•    Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.
•    Proofread your paper to ensure that grammar and punctuation are correct, that reference citations conform to APA guidelines, and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.
•    Length: 4 peer-reviewed sources, cited and annotated; 3–4 double-spaced pages.
Module 5 – Background
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: BRIDGING RESEARCH TO PRACTICE
Required Reading
Available via ebrary or direct link appearing below:
Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health (2001). Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences: Chapter 8: Findings and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
http://www.nap.edu/read/9838/chapter/1
Module 5 – Case
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: BRIDGING RESEARCH TO PRACTICE
Assignment Overview
An underlying theme of your biweekly seminar briefings that has become increasingly apparent to your audience at this point is the following:
Continued multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary efforts are needed to effectively address current and future health behavior needs.
You would like to conclude your series of briefings by making this “take-home message” explicit. Toward this end, you decide to “frame” your last briefing around an example of a multi-level approach in addressing a particular health risk behavior – much like the committee’s tobacco case discussion in the last chapter of Health and Behavior.
Case Assignment
Develop a PowerPoint presentation that highlights various interventions within the different levels delineated in the ecological model of health behavior -that have been applied to address a particular health-related risk behavior.
Your presentation is to address -but may extend beyond- the following:
1.    The impact that various intervention strategies have had on the behavior.
2.    Anticipated side effects/consequences of the intervention strategy (if any).
Guidelines
Just come up with a 6 page paper that I can use to make a power point addressing all the issues please try have different paragraphs so I have an idea of when to make each power point page
1.    Length: 15-20 slides (including an introduction and summary/conclusion).
2.    Include “Supplemental Notes” for each slide, indicating what would be said by the presenter in explaining and elaborating on the content of the slide.
3.    Appropriately cite & reference your additional resources.
Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1.    Your ability to demonstrate a clear understanding of interventions associated with the levels delineated in the ecological model of health behavior;
2.    In-text references to modular background readings that EXACTLY match a reference list presented at the end of the paper (APA formatting preferred).
Module 5 – SLP
HEALTH BEHAVIOR: BRIDGING RESEARCH TO PRACTICE
Session Long Project
A key facet to be considered with regard to the topic of this module — Bridging Research to Practice — is the evaluation and assessment of health behavior intervention strategies.
In accordance with this key facet of this module, search the health sciences literature for 2-3 journal articles that address a particular health behavior intervention from:
1.    An assessment/evaluation perspective.
2.    An aspect of health behavior that is of particular relevance to your goals/interests in the health sciences.
3.    Provide a summary of the 2-3 articles that you selected.
Your paper should be 2-3 pages in length. Appropriately cite sources of information in the text and list them at the end.
SLP Assignment Expectations
•    You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.
•    Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.
•    Proofread your paper to ensure that grammar and punctuation are correct, that reference citations conform to APA guidelines, and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.
•    Length: 14–17 peer-reviewed sources, cited and annotated; approximately 12–16 double-spaced pages.
Answer questions separately in a paragraph each
1.    As stated in the opening paragraph of the Executive Summary of “Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological and Societal Influences”:
“Health and behavior are related in myriad ways, yet those interactions are neither simple nor straightforward. Given the wide acknowledgment that cigarette smoking is linked to a variety of deadly diseases, for example, why do people start smoking? And given equally convincing evidence connecting excess weight with cardiovascular disease and other health problems, why are so many people far above their optimal weight? Does such unhealthy behavior indicate a simple lack of willpower? How does the social environment influence these behaviors? Does stress make people sick, or does illness produce stress?”
Drawing from your personal, professional, and/or educational background and experience, as well as any insights gleaned from the background material for this first module, share your thoughts on any aspect of the questions raised in this opening paragraph.
REMEMBER, there are no “right” or “wrong” answers to our Discussion topics. You are simply expected to develop a response that demonstrates careful and deliberate thought processing toward the topic at hand.
2.    When a person dies, the “cause of death” is most often identified in terms of a particular organ system that failed (e.g., heart failure), a type of cancer (e.g., lung cancer), or perhaps a detrimental “accident” (e.g., automobile accident).
Guided by this module’s background reading (Chapter 3 of “Health and Behavior: The Interplay between the Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences” and “Behavioral Health Factors”), discuss why reporting the “cause of death” in this manner is rather misleading. (Hint: what are the actual CAUSES of death?)
3.    This module begins to focus on different models/theories that address health-risk behaviors. Drawing from this module’s reading assignment, together with your own personal and/or professional health-related experiences, discuss the extent and manner in which you can relate/identify either professionally or personally (i.e., via the experience of your patients, clients, etc. OR your friends, family, or yourself) with any particular facet (e.g., strength, limitations, etc.) of any particular model/theory.
4.    Consider the following statement:
“Individuals and families are embedded within social, political, and economic systems that shape behaviors and constrain access to resources necessary to maintain health.”
Drawing from personal AND professional experience, TOGETHER with insights gleaned from this module’s reading assignment, respond to the following:
Using examples, how do/might social, political, and/or economic systems shape behaviors and/or constrain access to resources necessary to maintain health?
REMEMBER, there is not necessarily ONE RIGHT WAY to respond to our Discussion topics. The only expectation is that you put careful and deliberate consideration into your response, contributing toward an intellectually stimulating discussion among your peers.
5.    The reading assignment for this module discusses the interrelationship between social, psychological, behavioral, and biological factors in determining health and disease.
Drawing from personal AND professional experience, TOGETHER with insights gleaned from this module’s reading assignment, discuss the extent and manner in which these factors interact in determining health and disease.
REMEMBER, there is not necessarily a RIGHT OR WRONG answer to this Discussion topic. The only expectation is that you put careful and deliberate consideration into your response, contributing toward an intellectually stimulating discussion among your peers.

"Are you looking for this answer? We can Help click Order Now"

UK BEST WRITING