You are a member of a research team that has conducted an experiment during which 30 participants (two groups of 15) were asked to watch a short video of a fake bank robbery being committed. After watching the video, participants were individually interviewed by professional interviewers and asked 20 questions to establish how much detail of the robbery they could recall (e.g. ‘what was robber 1 holding?’; ‘what colour of jacket was robber 2 wearing?’). Participants in Group 1 (control group) were interviewed using a typical ‘question and answer’ technique, whilst participants in Group 2 were interviewed using Cognitive Interview techniques. The results of the experiment were as follows:
Number of Details Recalled
Experimental Hypothesis: Participants in Group 2 (cognitive interview) will recall more details of the robbery than participants in Group 1 (control group).
An independent groups t-test was performed on the data to see if any difference in scores for the two groups was statistically significant.
2a. Now input the data from the table of scores above into an SPSS spreadsheet (see SPSS guide 1). HINT: You should end up with a column/variable entitled ‘Type of Interview’ where 1 could depict a Control Interview and 2 could indicate a Cognitive Interview (this is the independent variable) and a second column/variable entitled ‘Number of details recalled’ where you put the scores for each participant (this is the dependent variable). It does not matter in which order you include the participants but make sure the code for their condition (1 or 2) matches up with their scores!
2b. Run an independent-groups t-test (see SPSS guide 3, pages 11 -13) on your data. Finally write up your results below. You should include the mean values for each group and the result of the t-test (see the note at the bottom of page 13 showing how to write up a t-test in the text of a report). You should also state whether or not the result is statistically significant and therefore whether or not the experimental hypothesis was supported (see SPSS guide 3, page 13, parag. 4.2) (up to 300 words)
Please describe the most important differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods and indicate the specific advantages of using the latter(up to 400 words)
Scenario 1a. (for CFS students)
You want to run a qualitative study to investigate the precursors of offending behaviour in young offenders. You decide on a focus group study to hear from the offenders themselves what they think the steps have been that have led them to commit crimes.
Please describe how you would set up the study, giving details about the number and composition of focus groups and the prompts (questions, tasks, etc.) that you would use to elicit information (up to 400 words).
Scenario 2b for CFS students)
You have been given funds to run a three month ethnographic research in a residential care home for children, many of whom are victims of abuse. You wish to understand the day-to-day functioning of the home, the internal and external communication, and whether there are difficulties experienced by either employees or users. Ultimately you will have to write a report listing both the good practices and the problems identified in the home, and suggesting ways to address the letter.
Please describe what your steps for data collection would be, thinking carefully about all the possible sources of information that might be available in a work setting as complex as this one. Indicate in which way each different source or set of data set may be used to pursue the objectives of the research (up to 400 words)