# Aircraft and automotive system| ME110 Aeronautical and Automotive Systems

Aeronautical and Automotive Systems

Semester One

## Assignment One Lab Sheet:How do Wings Work?

1. Explain how an aerofoil generates lift.
2. Describe three common misconceptions about lift.

(There are examples described within the website links provided in the Appendix)

1. Why is an aerofoil shaped as it is?
2. Why is it rounded and not pointed at the front
3. why is it thicker in the middle
4. Why is it tapered at the rear
5. Why is it flatter underneath, with a camber making it curve on top?
6. What other shapes will generate lift?
7. Could a house brick?
8. Could a football?
9. Define the main types of aerodynamic drag.
10. Define laminar and turbulent boundary layers.
11. What are wingtip vortices and what causes them?
12. Define the common formulas for Lift& Drag and give example use of the equations.
13. IMPORTANT: To do this part you need to use a computer with XFLR5software installed. If you want to install a copy of XFLR5 on your own computer, or on a USB memory stick, you can do so from here: http://www.xflr5.com/xflr5.htm

For guidance on how to use this software, see the XFLR5 user guide slides on student central, or, see Youtube tutorial videos –> click here

Using the XFLR5 software package generate plots of CL and CD versus angle for a commonly used NACA 4 series aerofoil of your choice. You need to plot two graphs;

1. CL versus Alpha
2. CD versus Alpha
3. From the plots in section question 9;
4. What angle gives zero lift?
5. What angle gives maximum lift?
6. If it flies upside down, what is the maximum lift, and at what angle?
7. Include a drawing of the aerofoil you have chosen in section nine.

### Appendix

Please visit the following websites to aid your learning of aerofoil aerodynamics:

http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/airfoils.html

NASA website

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift_(force)#Deflection

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli’s_principle

http://www.langleyflyingschool.com/Pages/CPGS%204%20Aerodynamics%20and%20Theory%20of%20Flight%20Part%201.html

http://amasci.com/wing/smring.html

http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jwelch/bernoulli/bernoulli-coanda.html

http://www.physics.umd.edu/lecdem/services/demos/demosf4/demosf4.htm

http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9120/38/6/001/pdf/pe3_6_001.pdf

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