Stress Management

Personal Development Project

Stress management is a term that refers to various techniques and psychotherapies that aim at the possible ways to control an individual’s degree of stress, particularly chronic stress, often for the purposes of bringing improvement in that daily routines (Hardy, 1998). In this regard, the phrase ‘stress’ is used in reference to solely to the stress and substantial negative concerns, or grief in the lingo backed by psychologists instead of what some refer to as the eustress i.e. a form of stress which has repercussions that are of help in one’s life. Stress brings about many physical and psychological signs that differ depending on one’s situational aspects. These could comprise of the physical health deterioration and the depression. The processes of stress management are mentioned as some of the pillars for a pleasant and effective life in the current life. Though life brings about many difficulties that can be strenuous in handling, stress management issues various methods of managing the nervousness and maintains general health (Somaz & Tulgan, 2003).

Stress entails some feelings of straining and excessive pressure. Smaller quantities of stress might be desirable, helpful, and even fit. Positive stress can help in the improvement of athletic activities. It is also essential in motivating, adaptations, and reacting to the surroundings. But too much quantities of stress nevertheless, might result to numerous complications in one’s body that might be of very much harm. Stress might be external and connected to the surroundings, but then again might also be brought about by any internal perception that causes a person to be anxious or additional negative feelings that surround the condition, for example pressure, uneasiness, etc., that they at that time consider stressful. People undergo situations that are stressful, or have perception on things as being frightening, whenever they don’t consider that their abilities for managing problems (stimulus, individuals, circumstances, etc.) are sufficient to handle the challenges they are facing. Whenever one thinks that the demands which are usually about to be faced by us exceeds our abilities of coping with them, we eventually end up experiencing significant levels of stress (Ogden, 2007).

Evaluation of the efficiency of different stress management approaches might be problematic, since there isn’t sufficient researching that has been carried out up to date. Therefore, the aggregate and quality of substantiation for the different approaches differ significantly. Some are taken as efficient remedy in psychotherapy, while others have insignificant roof supporting them and thus perceived to be alternative therapies. Most of the specialized organizations happen to be promoting and providing trainings in conventional or alternative therapy. There are many methods used in stress management, all having unique explanations regarding the appliances for managing stress. More study is essential to give a better understanding on what mechanism actually operates and is more efficient in practice (Schultz, 2010).


Meditation triggers some biochemical and physical alterations in the human body jointly called the “relaxation responses”.Relaxation responses comprise of the alterations in digestion, heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure and mind chemistry. The mankind’s nervous system is made up of the parasympathetic structure, that is meant for the regulation of the heart beat rates, respiration and various reflex motor activities, and sympathetic systems that arouse the body, making it prepared it for dynamic activities (Schultz, 2010).

It is also perceived that particular examples of meditation could function by minimizing the activities in the sympathetic nervous systems as well as improving activity in the parasympathetic nervous systems or similarly, that meditation brings about a reduced stimulation and increased relaxations. Meditation enhances gray matter in particular parts of the brain and might end up slowing down the weakening of the brain as a way of the natural aging procedures. Studies have shown that those who were meditating have an improved thickness in their gray matter in their brains. The grey matter is accountable of devotion and procession of sensory input. It has been studied that the alterations in the thickness of brain is related on the quantity of time used while meditating. The growth in thickness can range from .004 to .008 inches (i.e. 0.1016mm – 0.2032mm) (Schultz, 2010).


In this method of stress management, people hold stretches as a method of low-effect physical application, and is usually applied in the therapeutic dedications. Yoga can be carried out inside classes and might entail meditations, imagery, breath works and melody.

Meditation and the exercising aspects of hatha yoga are been studied for the specific and non-specific medical welfares. Hatha yoga has been researched to be a remedy for various situations, such as the back pains, stresses, and depression. Generally, it is essential in improving the quality of one’s life, but doesn’t treatment for diseases. Hatha Yoga might be efficient for a patient who is managing depression. Exercises and the mindfulness meditations aspects might be of help. Hatha Yoga has been associated with a more considerable reduction in the nervousness and greater development in the patient’s moods as compared to those who just walked. Therefore, Hatha Yoga can be a probable therapeutic process for those who have particular disorders. Also, Hatha Yoga might be efficient as one manages the chronic, though not severe, low back pains. Hatha Yoga treatment is effective for the chronic low back pains (Hardy, 1998).

Spiritual insight

The mind might have effect on the body and one’s body might end up affecting one’s mind. Since it is a crucial growth in the medical sector structures to have an understanding in these relations, spirituality concept comes into consideration. Spiritual insight is similarly if not more vital in the healing, since an individual’s sense of self, beliefs in one’s life meaning or determination, and their relation to something better than their personal self might make them healed, have health, and be well. Most of the divine teachers direct believers to be at one with themselves, or their God or higher powers, and to have a small heaven on this earth. Practices including the prayers, meditations, and relaxation are also being used in the achievement of superior powers, peace, and internal wisdom (Schultz, 2010).

Prayers, meditations and relaxation might trigger the relaxation responses – they lower the heart rates and breathing rates and reduce the hormones that trigger stress. These routines have also being used in the lowering of nervousness, stress, sadness, physical and passionate pains. One’s relationship with the spirits, whatever one’s philosophies, might reinforce one’s vigor and vibrant living forces; this might facilitate one’s abilities of staying well and recovering from diseases. One’s beliefs are vital to the abilities of getting better, staying well, or making peace amid the challenges of the circumstances. The gesture effects are usually appreciated by the medical studies whenever an individual has developments that can’t be attributed to the ‘intervening’ aspects of spiritualism, but might come from the individual’s beliefs that could eventually be of assistance to the person (Schultz, 2010).

Relaxation techniques

Whether one’s stress is increasingly getting out of control or one has already gotten it in control, one might have some benefits understanding the relaxation practices. To learn fundamental relaxation practices is simple. Relaxation procedures also are usually free or of lower expenses, projects minimal risk, and could be carried out at any place (Hardy, 1998).

Whenever on is faced with many tasks and tasks or the difficulties of diseases, relaxation tactics might help reduce stress. The practice of relaxation could help in reducing stress since it slows one’s heart rate, lowers blood pressure, slows one’s breathing rate, reduces activities of stress hormones, increases blood circulation to main muscles, reduces muscular tensions and chronic pain, improves attentiveness and temperament, lowers fatigue, reduces fury and frustrations and boosts poise of handling problems. However, one is required to have an optimistic attitude in life whenever undergoing through these solutions. One should always be looking for fun, problem-solving, management of time, doing exercises, having sufficient sleep, and to reach out to their allies and family members who are supportive (Hardy, 1998).

In conclusion, stress can be treated by application of Yoga, spiritualism, relaxation techniques and meditation. However, everyone is advised to have a positive thinking regarding the current and future life. But, there isn’t clear proof on the correlation between having a reach to the friends who are supportive to the reduction of stress. Therefore, this call for a future research on this matter since it could be economical and essential to the health of the society.

Reference List

Hardy, S. (1998). Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. United

Kingdom: Stanley Thornes ltd. pp. 18–43.

Ogden, J. (2007). Health Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, pages 281-282

Schultz, D. (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall. p. 374.

Somaz, W., & Tulgan, B. (2003). Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in the

Workplace. Canada: HRD Press Inc.p 7-8


Performance analysis of IPv4 and IPv6 protocol over the third generation mobile network


Presently, the IPv4 protocol is vigorously utilized by organizations, institutions and people; however consistently there are a higher number of gadgets associated with the network, for example, home apparatuses, cell phones or tablets. Each machine or gadget needs its own particular IP deliver to speak with different machines associated with Internet. This infers the requirement for multiple IP addresses for a solitary client and the present protocol starts to demonstrate a few inadequacies because of IPv4 address space depletion.

Consequently, for quite a while specialists have been chipping away at an IP protocol refresh: the IPv6 128-piece form can deliver up to around 340 quadrillion system gadgets simultaneously. With IPv6, today, every individual on the planet could have a huge number of gadgets at the same time associated with the Internet.

The decision of the IP protocol variant influences the execution of the UMTS versatile network since the specialists are as yet advancing the network design and the gadgets to help the IPv6 protocol.

The point of the venture is to quantify how the IPv6 protocol performs contrasted with the past IPv4 protocol. It is normal that the IPv6 protocol produces a littler measure of Signaling and less time is required to completely stack a web page. We have broke down some KPIs (IP information, Signaling, web stack time and battery) in lab condition utilizing cell phones, to watch the conduct of both, the network and the gadget (Y. Wang et al, 2005).

The primary finish of the theory is that IPv6 truly carries on not surprisingly and produces funds in Signaling, in spite of the fact that the IP information created is bigger because of the span of the headers.

In any case, there is still much work as just the most critical webpages and the applications with an abnormal state of market infiltration work well finished the IPv6 protocol. Because of the meeting of the portable networks, which implies the limit of giving voice benefits through the parcel exchanged area, the quantity of clients who request a quick and solid information association is quickly developing. It is very essential for telephone organizations to give appropriate network engineering equipped for convey the media data.

The versatile correspondence networks have been adjusted, from its origin to the present, steadily to coordinate every one of the necessities that have been brought. From the portable correspondence network of original to current networks which are made by a blend out of components of 2G, 3G and 4G advances.

Network protocols, for example, IP, TCP or HTTP have advanced in parallel to the development of the networks. As of late, the more typical is the IPv4 protocol. In any case, in the mid 1990s, with the expanding number of IP addresses being asked for, obviously they would in the long run out. Truth be told, amid 1993, specialists understood that the address space would not be sufficient as is portrayed in RFC1519: “Because of current circumstances of development, all class B’s will be depleted”. Starting at 31 January 2011, the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses formally ran out. (Y. Wang et al, 2005)

The 3G innovation rises to coordinate the requesting needs of the clients. Such innovation is indicated in the IMT-200 institutionalization characterized by the ITU and incorporates a lot of models. In Europe and Japan is institutionalized the UMTS system, which depends on the W-CDMA innovation oversaw by the 3GPP association. The other portable interchanges system which is controlled by the IMT-2000 particular is known with the name of CMDA2000. Nonetheless, this innovation won’t be shrouded in this report since the entire Europe utilizes the UMTS standard.

The fundamental oddity of this innovation, contrasted with prior versatile networks, is that network design is partitioned into two areas, the UTRAN get to part and the center network which is in charge of the interconnection to Internet or people in general exchanged telephone network (PSTN). (X. Zhou et al, 2008)

UMTS Architecture


The Mobile Station (Device)

The external piece of the network situated in favor of the client and called the device later on in this report. The device is partitioned into two sections, the mobile equipment (ME) which is the physical device (it can be a cell phone, a wireless or a tablet), and the USIM card. The USIM card is in charge of putting away data about the client ID and the condition of the network association, including confirmation calculations also.

The radio access network (RAN)

The UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) innovation is indicated in the 3GPP TS 25.- arrangement details and all the more particularly in the standard TS 25.401.  This part covers the structure between the device and the core network. The central mission of the RAN is to give the methods for transmission to the control plane (Signaling) and the client information. (X. Zhou et al, 2008)

The core network (CN)

The core network includes the exchanging and steering equipments responsible for sending the data to different networks (i.e. IP Internet). This piece of the network is isolated into two areas, the bundle (for information associations) and the circuit space (for voice associations and calls). Since all activities and tests required to coordinate the necessities of this undertaking are straightforwardly required with the information part, this report will concentrate just on the bundle space. For more data about circuit space, counsel the detail or the book.

The core network performs movement and Signaling transport and insight capacities. The directing is done through knowledge capacities which include rationale and control of specific administrations advertised. The core space is additionally responsible for the portability administration.

This piece of the network demonstrations likewise as portal and associates the design with other correspondence networks, so correspondence is conceivable between UMTS mobile clients, as well as with those which are associated with different networks (as the PSTN).

Signaling Protocols

The signaling protocols are utilized to check if the telephone is legitimately appended to the network or if there are a few issues. All protocols are indicated in the book.

The most critical are the RRC (Radio Resource Control), NBAP (Node B Application Part), RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part) and GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) and the essential description of everyone is as per the following:

RRC: It is the protocol that characterizes the control method of association of the device in the network; hence it deals with the stream of motioning between the client device and the Node B. There are four conceivable methods of association, for example, Cell_DCH, Cell_FACH, Cell_PCH and URA_PCH. These announcements speak to the level of association of the device to the network and rely upon the arrangement of the latency clock. On the off chance that the telephone is in a full association state (Cell_DCH), the network requires numerous a bigger number of assets than if the device is on Cell_FACH state (comparatively to sit out of gear mode and utilizing keep-alives with a specific end goal to keep the device associated with the network). Changing from the Cell_DCH state to Cell_FACH spares around 80% battery and power utilization frame the network side (X. Zhou et al, 2008)

NBAP: This protocol is additionally in charge of the control and Signaling part, dealing with the Node B by the RNC.

RANAP: As the past protocols, the RANAP is additionally in charge of the Signaling. For this situation it handles the control in the directing amongst radio and core part. For our specific network, it handles the control plane between the RNC and the SGSN, utilizing the RANAP protocol carried on SCTP.

GTP: The GTP protocol is a gathering of network based protocols that are utilized to convey the GPRS benefit in UMTS networks. This protocol gives affirmation that the PDP setting has been effectively made by the SGSN (figure 2-3). Accordingly the sender has been related to a one of a kind IP deliver keeping in mind the end goal to have the capacity to do the transmission of the coveted datagrams. The passage which is made amid the PDP setting stays open all through the association and is utilized to send data.

These protocols are expected to comprehend the topology of the lab design and to decipher how the network components are interconnected on the radio and core interfaces. The Signaling procedure on the UMTS network is depicted in detail on the coming protocol operation area.

The Signaling protocols are exceptionally valuable to check whether the device is appropriately connected to the network, yet don’t give excessively data as far as data traded with Internet cloud. The data coordinated to the web cloud ventures exemplified over the network layer protocols (i.e. IP, TCP, or HTTP).

The TCP/IP protocol stack

A network protocol is an arrangement of principles that indicate the data trade strategy and the requests for correspondence between network equipments. To order them there are two models, the OSI and the TCP/IP. The OSI model was proposed by the ISO in the 1980s including seven layers and every convention compares to one of them: physical layer, data interface layer, network level (IP, and so forth.), transport layer (TCP, UDP, STCP, and so forth.), session layer, introduction layer and application layer (DNS, HTTP, and so forth.). The development of the OSI model is the TCP/IP stack arrangement which split the conventions in four layers and is utilized presently for web associations (S.Kasera et al, 2003)

The vehicle layer protocols are in charge of choosing how the data must be typified and transmitted partitioning all data into parcels. These conventions are additionally accountable for the conclusion to end control of the transmission

Web optimization for IP protocol in UMTS

As discussed in the introduction, a couple of years back specialists were felt that the IP deliver space will end soon because of the dynamic increment of web devices. In this manner, the significant telecom administrators and controllers started to push makers and network suppliers to completely bolster the IPv6 protocol. (A.R. Mishra et al 2006)

Engineers and network’s makers needed to begin streamlining their administrations, for example, applications, websites and computerized administrations, and so forth., and to help the IPv6 protocol, as well as upgrading the quantity of bundles expected to guarantee the operation or administration, and also the quantity of Signaling messages through the network or the web stack time.

Google has built up a few enhancements in the execution of the IPv6 protocol, for example, upgrading of transport effectiveness between a mobile hub and a journalist hub in a mobile IP network or improving the verification empowering component, among numerous others.

Amid the latest years, specialists have understood that the issue with IPv4 is not all that genuine (right now the quantity of IPv4 addresses has not finished), and the improvement procedure is occurring more gradually than initially arranged. (A.R. Mishra et al 2006) This is the reason that today, there are a substantial number of pages that are not ready to stack when the demand ventures exemplified through TCP over IPv6 protocol, while others are quite recently ready to explore more gradually than when the demand and DNSs are utilized under IPv4 innovation premises. The designers of the most business webpages or administrations as Google or Facebook are the individuals who have attempted to upgrading, in this way the administration should work better that webpages or applications with less number of network assets (i.e. Protocols, IP Data, and so on.). (S.Kasera et al, 2003)



Testbed environment

Once an examination has been made about the fundamental hypothesis and cutting edge, the initial phase in the lab is to dissect the components of the testbed network and design every one of them legitimately. The research facility is modeling as the UMTS network, shaped as the RAN (Node B, RNC) and the Core (SGSN, GGSN). Also, the network has the HLR component which is in charge of overseeing client authorizations and verification thereof. The plan of the network design can be found in the following figure


Figure 1: Laboratory layout.

As portrayed in the presentation section, the point of the estimations made in the testbed is to know how the devices carry on in a network designed in an indistinguishable way from the genuine network. The objective is to quantify the effect produced by the collaborations made on the device, yet utilizing a particular network for this venture keeping in mind the end goal to evade conceivable impedance (which may show up on the genuine network because of the enormous number of clients who interface at the same time to the network). (S.Kasera et al, 2003)

As a matter of fact, the core some portion of the network has a place with the genuine network (since the tending to space is sufficient to cover genuine and testing devices), however the radio network (Node-B and RNC) just gives scope to our testbed, along these lines the testing is made over this particular network staying away from the impedance from different networks or different devices that may change the estimation of the outcomes.

We will test web browsing and application administrations to quantify delegate KPIs, for example, the IP data volume and the radio signaling. We will quantify web stack time (for browsing tests) and battery utilization (for applications tests) also; however the most fascinating KPIs with regards to the venture are identified with the utilization of network assets. These KPIs have picked in light of the fact that they give us data about the message Signaling burden through the network contingent upon the IP protocol utilized, and the measure of data traded accessing a similar administration.

To quantify and break down these two KPIs, we will utilize two PCs arranged with the important devices to gather the follow. The main equipment has an instrument called Securitywizardry introduced and is associated specifically between the GGSN and the Internet (see past picture) to gauge the IP data created by the website or application utilizing Securitywizardry. The second PC contains an utilization of remote innovation (restrictive from the network merchant) and is straightforwardly associated with the RNC for measuring all messages navigating the radio part.

The design utilized as a part of the research center relates to the UMTS network depicted in section two, and the yield towards web is performed utilizing either IPv4 or IPv6. The parameters of the testbed network and the radio clocks are set with an indistinguishable incentive from the genuine network. The HLR (containing all endorsers who can access the administration) and DNS servers have a place with the genuine network and give the web benefit similarly that the genuine network keeping in mind the end goal to get the most dependable outcomes. The IP arrangement likewise compares with the genuine network keeping in mind the end goal to check if the genuine network truly bolsters all administrations under IPv6 operation.

This setup is useful for accomplishing the goals of the venture since the UMTS network is abundantly streamlined to help the web administrations, and furthermore to give refreshed data since this innovation is the most utilized as of now (the LTE innovation is still under organization in Spain).


Testbed Deployment Procedure

To confirm that the network is performing legitimately, the testing stage has utilized devices that help the two adaptations of IP protocol. These devices are pre-introduced with various operating systems to find out the effect which is created by both, the network protocol and the operating system improvement on the network. Plus, all devices have likewise been designed with web programs and applications to address the issues of various situations. The arrangement of IPv4 and IPv6 situations has required extensive exertion as far as setting up the earth.

The initial step comprises of checking the availability between various components, particularly amongst radio and core parts. All equipments must have their own particular one of a kind address (both MAC and IP) to make the PDP setting and append telephones to the network effectively. Since the lab had been shut for a long time, it has been important to check the lapse of licenses and parameters design. Some availability issues have showed up which are predominantly caused by the termination of the operating permit of any equipment or by crashes identified with IP setup when new components are introduced and arranged on the network.

When availability is working appropriately, the telephone can append to the network and make the PDP setting; the GGSN relegates an IP deliver to the device which is required for accessing web administrations and route (see part two for more subtle elements). The following stage is to confirm that the network can give benefit also (since the way that a device has IP address doled out is insufficient), but rather the DNS should work and the transmission to and from web must be designed accurately. The IPv4 and IPv6 DNSs accessible have been explored and arranged for the testing, and the steering tables of the switches.

At the point when all arrangement steps have been influenced, the test to design already planned can be performed. The last stride is comprises of assessing the outcomes which will be measured investigating the hints of all tests utilizing Securitywizardry. This application permits checking every single one of the parcels crossing over the network. As portrayed over, the protocols which are utilized amid the research center work are part in parts as per: Signaling protocols (RRC, NBAP, RANAP) and network protocols (HTTP, DNS, TCP and IP) (S.Kasera et al, 2003)


Problems and solutions

Once displayed the network condition which we will use, in this piece of the report are depicted the most essential issues which have showed up amid the testbed setup. Regardless of a few misfortunes have showed up, the setup stage has been done effectively taking care of the considerable number of issues which have emerged.

The primary issue shows up when the radio carrier has been lifted (the device ought to make the PDP setting and explore), yet the device is not ready to open the unique situation and the network does not dole out IP address. The reason returned by the network is ‘Lacking assets’ because of an availability issue (since the core part does not reply to the setting opening solicitation).

The issue is on the grounds that the operation of the SGSN permit has lapsed, and consequently the RNC can’t convey the demand to the core network. The arrangement has been to look for restoration of the operating permit.

Once the availability issue is unraveled and the device can get IP address, in the figure 3 you can see that the device makes a few solicitations to DNS (attempting to stack the webpage) yet there is no reaction.

It would seem that an arrangement issue with the switch tables since the inquiry is legitimately gotten and handled by the DNS, however once the area name server has played out the interpretation of the address, it can’t send the reaction to the network on the grounds that the portal switch does not know the course back to the Node-B.

We needed to audit the back courses (utilizing the charge demonstrate ipv4/ipv6 course) to watch that everything is effectively arranged. To be sure, the switch has not set the way back to the testbed, it can course parcels to outside the network however not return (from outside to the radio part). Once settled the issue there is DNS reaction as can be found in the figure 3.4 (standard question reaction).

In the wake of tackling the issue of availability and DNS design, the telephone is joined to the network and with the DNS server legitimately arranged. Nonetheless, at times the network is not ready to give any administration. To take care of this issue, we have needed to contact the producer of the devices and the operating systems designers to update the cell phone to the most recent firmware rendition accessible.

A few devices have been arranged with past variants of the operating system that did not bolster IPv6 research facility situation. The maker has been the in charge of taking care of this issue.

To end this segment, we should specify another issue, the perception of strange and extraordinary circumstance. The typical method ought to be that the RNC approaches occasionally to the device for a bundle (called ‘cell refresh’) demonstrating whether the device is as yet associated and under what conditions when the device is out of gear mode. The RNC gets this bundle and keeps the association open, else it sends an IU-discharge datagram to discharge the radio assets and interfere with the correspondence.

In any case, it has been seen in a few tests that the device sends the cell refresh however it never comes to be gotten by the RNC, so this one sends the IU-discharge and the telephone is separated. This issue has asked for an examination inside and out, since each time the mobile is detached, it asks for another append and another making of the PDP setting, creating an expansion in both the radio Signaling and the quantity of IP bundles that are traded with Internet cloud.

As specified, this issue is intricate and it doesn’t have a unimportant arrangement in light of the fact that the device and the RNC work flawlessly (the device sends the message and the RNC and if the RNC does not get it, send the radio connection discharge). Following half a month taking follows on all interfaces, we have found the wellspring of the issue, detach are delivered by impedances originating from equipments put at different touching research center, specifically the reason is some little cells that were as of late introduced and working in a similar uplink band that the UMTS association.

Case 1: Web Browsing

The first of these situations comprises of investigating the conduct of devices and operating systems when distinctive adaptations of web pages are stacked. It is essential to quantify the execution of web pages which can be stacked on a telephone to check whether they are truly enhanced for the two protocols. For this reason, the arrangement is to open two unique websites and look at the IP data utilization; Signaling and web stack time amongst IPv4 and IPv6. The nitty gritty KPIs which are intriguing to quantify are depicted in the point 3.4 of this section.

To make the web browsing test we have picked two distinct web pages to analyze the estimations of the chose KPIs: and www.seo web

Google webpage has been picked on the grounds that it is the most utilized web index on the planet and the servers seeking after a lot of movement. Furthermore, it is likewise a page that most clients know and can utilize later. It is normal that the organization persistently streamlines and enhances security and functionalities bolstered. As indicated by Google’s website (, the webpage is set up to work with the IPv6 protocol.

The webpage of seo web searchs is worked by an undertaking upheld by six organizations in Japan to give a free pile of IPv6 and Mobile IPv6. This webpage has been picked since it demonstrates the moving seo web searchs when IPv6 HTTP is utilized. The client ought to have the capacity to see the turtle moving if the page stacks effectively finished IPv6 protocol.

The technique of this test comprises of choosing the web program which is pre-introduced as a matter of course in the operating system (just if there should be an occurrence of have more than one put away in the device) and expel treats, models and history of web program. Once the program is prepared, compose the page address in the URL bar and hold up until the point that the page is totally stacked to gauge the KPIs.

Case 2: Applications

The motivation behind this situation comprises of investigating the conduct of uses on the device when distinctive communications with the application are made. It is vital to quantify the execution and conduct of the applications which can be introduced on a telephone to check whether they are truly working through both rendition of the protocol. For this objective, the arrangement is test a few applications and to contrast some KPIs which are fascinating with measure. The applications which have been chosen are the most utilized by clients as indicated by a few examinations directed amid 2013: Facebook Messenger, Facebook, Google Maps and Youtube.

To set the situation the telephone is exchanged on and the IPv4/IPv6 APN (Access Point Network) is chosen. At that point, the coveted application to gauge is introduced and the telephone is killed. Once completed the set-up process, the test comprises of communicate with the application (sending streams, sound or video) concurring the table 1.

Applications Test Plan
FB Messenger –  Send string “hello”, wait 2 minutes

–  Receive string “hi, how are you?”, wait 2 minutes

–  Answer again “I am fine thanks”, wait 2 minutes

–  Repeat these steps 3 times.



–  Share the message “hello, we are testing this app”, wait 2 minutes.

–  Upload a picture, wait 2 minutes.

–  Upload a video, wait 2 minutes.

–  Repeat these steps 2 times.

Google Maps –  Update the current location

–  Look for Madrid (Spain) city in Maps.

–  Get indications to go to Stockholm (Sweden).

Youtube –  Look for ‘Movistar’ in the browser.

–  Load and watching the first video

(advertising on Movistar and Spanish team of football)


Table 2: Application testing

Case 3: KPIs

Now, the KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) measured are portrayed giving careful consideration on the way that why they are vital, what sort of associations or impacts of information parameters are normal and how they will be assessed.

We will gauge IP Data (Number of IP bundles and aggregate length) and RNC Signaling of every single one of the chose applications and web browsing tests, the heap time of web pages for browser tests and the battery utilization for applications. The most critical KPIs frame the network side, IP data and Signaling, have picked by the distinctive areas of the network. On the radio side, we will dissect the effect on the base station RNC regarding Signaling and the aggregate size of the data transmitted exemplified over the IP protocol in the core part.

The heap time does not bode well for applications, since the applications are pre-introduced in the telephone and the booting procedure takes a couple of moments. The battery has been just measured in tests identified with applications, since the browsing tests are substantially shorter (simply amid the time which the device takes to convey the heap of the web), and it is hard to acknowledge altogether the battery control expended.

This KPI tallies all bundles that are transmitted over IP protocol having as source an IP deliver doled out to the device and as goal an IP address of the Internet or the other way around.

Most likely, this KPI ought to fluctuate essentially as indicated by the rendition of the protocol utilized which is the motivation to think of it as likewise intriguing in the region of this ace theory as it gives an understanding into the effectiveness of both the device and the network.

RNC Signaling

It comprise of measuring the Signaling (data trade inside the control plane) required by the device to interface and to keep it dynamic (utilizing keep-alives messages). By measuring this field on the RNC, it guarantees that the aggregate number of Signaling messages is measured, since all the stream of correspondence between the device and the Internet fundamentally goes over the RNC.

The test estimation process will utilize a product associated with the RNC yield to gauge the quantity of Signaling messages, for example, RRC messages, NBAP messages, RLC messages, RANAP messages, Rab built up, rrc-state pointer cell_FACH, rrc-stateindicatorCELL_PCH, rrc-stateindicatorURA_PCH, Transition-to-cell_fach and Signaling association discharge.

Note that the quantity of Signaling messages may change essentially contingent upon the term of the test because of a higher number of messages are sent to keep the association open (keep-alives) if the test endures a more extended time.

Browser KPIs (Web Load time)

The time expected to stack totally the website is spoken to by this KPI. This estimation is conveyed in seconds and is gotten from the timekeeper.

This esteem contains the time since the device produces the webpage ask for until the point when the device stacks the entire webpage. Amid this interim the demand is sent to the DNS, which interprets the name of the webpage into the IP address, and reactions to the device with this asked for IP address. Once the name is known, the reaction is sent to the proper server which stacks the asked for webpage.

It regards know whether the IPv6 truly lessens the stacking time of a website or not (hypothetically there is not middle of the road fracture in IPv6 consequently there is not reassembly time).

Applications KPIs (Battery control)

Measuring the level of battery is essential for the client and the device. We need to know whether any application devours more battery as indicated by the IP form utilized, or if the IP protocol enhances the battery life.

To quantify the battery, it has been utilized an equipment called control administration comprising of positive and negative posts to associate with the device battery crevice (where the battery ought to be presented). This component is in charge of providing the essential power utilization and additionally to screen the level of required vitality. There are a few devices where the battery is completely coordinated with the telephone and it is not ready to utilize this machine; in these cases it has been utilized an application accessible available called Battery that gives a similar esteem.

This KPI appear if the protocol is engaged with the battery utilization or if the battery level expended is free of the IP protocol adaptation.

Expected Results

This area depicts quickly the normal conduct in each of the KPIs measured. The point is to know the normal conduct of the two renditions of the protocol and contrast them and test outcomes in spite of the fact that the outcomes might be diverse relying upon the webpage stacked, the applications or the operating system. Because of the span of IPv6 headers (as examined above is 20 bytes higher), it is normal that the data traded utilizing IPv6 is higher. Despite the fact that the utilization of IP data relies upon the improvement that has made by the maker on the device, make a demand to the DNS and load a similar website or interface with one application on IPv4 and IPv6 ought to create more activity when the IPv6 protocol is utilized (contingent upon the quantity of parcels since each piece conveys its own header).

On account of RNC Signaling, the normal outcome is that Signaling ought to be bring down on IPv6 tests, since the more up to date form of the protocol is more streamlined. This is caused since specialists have been working excessively numerous years in the protocol plan and execution, utilizing obtained involvement to dispose of superfluous Signaling messages (to devour less assets) in spite of the foundation messages are the same to open association at radio level.

Regarding web stack time (for browser tests), which implies the time required to completely stack a webpage, the time in seconds ought to be less in IPv6 since there is not discontinuity at transitional switches and accordingly no bundle reassembly time, diminishing the general load time of the page.

The battery control devoured amid applications testing ought to be comparative on the grounds that the device plays out a similar number of operations paying little mind to the network protocol utilized.

As indicated by the normal conduct, the motioning in IPv6 ought to be less (utilizing less battery), however more data are produced in IPv6 (expanding the battery control utilization) in this manner the power devoured ought to be the same.

In this way, in spite of the fact that the IP produced data are somewhat higher in IPv6 than in IPv4, the normal conduct of the IPv6 protocol is better since the motioning in the network is less and consequently the radio part is less over-burden. Likewise, the time required to play out a similar operation, (for example, stacking a web page) is bring down enhancing the client encounter.

Performance Evaluation

Results are introduced, both in organize table and in graphical one. A few tests were performed for every last one of the operating systems guaranteeing the practicality of the outcomes since the conduct of the system is stochastic; accordingly the tests with a similar design have been rehashed a few times.

In particular, we have rehashed 25 times each test with a similar design, that is, 25 indistinguishable tests for all devices in which ones the KPIs are measured as depicted in the past segment (IP data volume, RNC flagging, stack time for browsing and battery for applications). To have the capacity to set up a similar we have utilized a few devices with various operating system, for example, operating system 1, operating system 2 and operating system 3 (the name can’t be uncovered because of the privacy understanding).

In the wake of getting the outcomes, we have ascertained the normal to diagram it and reach legitimate inferences. That is, the outcomes given beneath speak to the normal of the qualities acquired amid the 25 tests performed.

To guarantee that the outcomes are dependable, we have figured the certainty interim for the normal as indicated by the Microsoft detail utilizing Microsoft Excel. The grammar of the capacity in Excel is CONFIDENCE (alpha, standard_dev, estimate) where the alpha esteem implies the certainty level which is equivalents to 100*(1 – alpha) %. We have checked the outcomes and they coordinate the interim of certainty utilizing an alpha of 0.05, which demonstrates a 95 percent of certainty level.

Browser Results (Data Volume)

This segment shows the consequences of data volume (both, number of IP parcels and aggregate length) measured through Securitywizardry. Two distinct designs are appeared, one for the webpage of Google and other one identified with the webpage of Seo web searchs. www.seo web
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 147 156 145 171
Operative System 2 89 96 161 266
Operative System 3 12 14 30 115


Table 4: IPs Packets- number of fragments www.seo web
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 40,62 60,44 23,55 41,74
Operative System 2 27,74 34,42 56,17 171,71
Operative System 3 6,56 7,38 8,77 76,28


Table 5: IP data for browsing (kilobytes)








Figure 6: IP Data Volume for Google.




                        Figure 7: IP Data Volume for Seo web searchs

          Of course, the IP data produced to access a similar website are more finished the IPv6 Protocol than IPv4 one (in the vicinity of 5% and 30%). This is primarily because of the span of the headers, which possesses a larger number of bits in IPv6 than in IPv4 header (20 bytes more for every parcel as depicted on page 29 of this report).

          In addition, from the comes about we can infer that the operating systems two and three produce less movement when stacking the webpage. In any case, when stacking the website www.seo web, IPv6 movement increments altogether, since it is a little website and the proprietors likely have less assets than Google venture. As we can seen, the operating system one produces pretty much a similar measure of IP data in the two web pages, and operating systems two and three work more terrible in seo web searchs webpage than google one.

RNC Signaling

          This segment introduces the results of Signaling measured on the base station (RNC). Two unique illustrations are appeared, one for the webpage of Google and other one identified with the webpage of seo web searchs
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 24 19 24 18
Operative System 2 22 19 25 18
Operative System 3 22 18 20 17

Table 7: RNC Signaling for browsing (number of messages)









Table 8: RNC signaling for google















Figure 9: RNC signaling for seo Web Searchs.

          As far as flagging the outcomes are very steady. Not surprisingly, the quantity of messages associated with the access radio part is comparable paying little respect to convention.

As can be seen, the motioning in IPv4 is marginally bigger than IPv6 in light of the fact that IPv6 convention configuration is later and requires less number of RNC messages to stack a webpage (consider that the browsing is done in a brief span, so that there are not keep-alive messages).

Web load time

          This area displays the aftereffects of browsing load time (the aggregate time required to completely stack webpage). As in the past areas, there are two unique illustrations: the webpage of Google and the webpage of seo web searchs.
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 5,58 3,85 24,56 21,92
Operative System 2 2,87 1,65 19,27 13,00
Operative System 3 1,52 1,14 13,98 9,50

Table 9: Load time (seconds)

Table 10: Load time (seconds)


Figure 10: Load time for Google.

















Figure 11: Load time for Seo Web Searchs

Not surprisingly, the time required to completely charge a webpage is higher in IPv4 than in IPv6. The heap time illustrations affirm that the seo web searchs website is less advanced that Google, as a similar demand page takes to stack in the vicinity of 10 and 15 seconds additionally relying upon the device and the operating system. Furthermore, it is affirmed that operating systems two and three are upgraded and set aside less opportunity to completely stack the page that operating system one (paying little heed to the convention utilized).

Applications Results

          In this area are definite the applications test comes about. We have additionally attempted other regular applications, for example, Whatsapp, Skype or Twitter yet none of them bolsters the IPv6 convention.

Data Volume

          This segment exhibits the aftereffects of IP data volume measured through Securitywizardry. Four distinct designs are appeared, one for each of the tried applications

Facebook Messenger Facebook Google Maps Youtube
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 393,41 485,47 5150,02 7817,03 4393,47 6343,72 7383,99 17458,28
Operative System 2 411,63 748,23 10384,97 18246,94 8306,35 25317,96
Operative System 3 876,69 9751,21 4087,72 15389,23

Table 12: IP Data for apps (Kilobytes).









Figure 13: IP data for Facebook Messenger.


Figure 14: IP data for Google Maps.

Figure 15: IP data for Youtube.

          The applications, similar to the browsing, likewise create a greater number of data on the grounds that IPv6 header is bigger than IPv4 one. There is a distinction relying upon the operating system being the OS two the most noticeably bad for this situation.

RNC Signaling

          This area exhibits the consequences of signaling measured on the base station (RNC). Four distinct designs are appeared, one for every single one of the tried applications.

Facebook Messenger Facebook Google Maps Youtube
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 802 550 1161 934 427 284 414 361
Operative System 2 799 550 1290 902 517 474
Operative System 3 1053 677 512 429

Table 16: RNC signaling for apps (number of messages)



                        Table 17: RNC Signaling for Facebook Messenger


                                    Table 17: RNC Signaling for Facebook


                                    Table 18: RNC Signaling for Youtube

          As clarified in the past part, this KPI measures all messages going through the RNC since the telephone is turned on until the point when it is killed in this way the esteem incorporates both, association foundation messages and keep-alives. In this manner, the varieties saw in the flagging when contrasting one application and another are not caused by the application itself, but rather it is a direct result of the span of the each test is extraordinary (Facebook test time is around twenty minutes and Google Maps or Youtube is around five minutes). The signaling additionally carries on steadily in applications and it is again marginally higher in IPv4 than in IPv6.

Battery consumption

This section presents the results of the battery consumption. Four different graphics are shown, one for each of the tested applications.

Facebook Messenger Facebook Google Maps Youtube
IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
Operative System 1 2% 2% 3% 3% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Operative System 2 2% 2% 3% 3% 1% 1%
Operative System 3 2% 3% 1% 1%

Table 19: Battery for apps (percentage consumption)


                                    Figure 20: Battery consumed by Facebook Messenger

                                    Figure 21: Battery consumed by Facebook

          All applications expend about a similar battery notwithstanding the convention form utilized, in this way we can reason that the operations performed by the device are the same (along these lines the battery utilization is comparative).

          Facebook has a higher utilization (around 3%) in light of the fact that the collaboration is made with pictures and recordings; while Google Maps and YouTube expend less battery (1%) on the grounds that the test has just been done once (activities with Facebook have been rehashed a few times).

Expected Results

          All outcomes which have been measured rely upon the enhancement of the IP protocol and the combination thereof with the programs and the outline of every last one of the applications. As portrayed toward the finish of the part two, designers of utilizations and websites, and also versatile operating system makers are as yet enhancing the execution of IPv6 protocol, along these lines certain administrations may work more regrettable than anticipated or even not work.

Applications Work over IPv4 Work over IPv6
(Disabled by default)


Table 4.8: Applications operation over IP

          Aside from a few applications which don’t work over the IPv6 protocol, for example, Whatsapp, Twitter, Skype or Yahoo mail, the outcomes for the most part concur with the normal ones. The extent of the produced IP information is constantly higher in IPv6 since the header of the IPv6 protocol is bigger than IPv4 and it might rely upon the application. Be that as it may, the Signaling is bringing down in IPv6 in light of the fact that some work has been done in the plan and improvement of the protocol.

Concerning stacking time of webpages, they got results can likewise be contrasted and the normal outcomes; the stacking time in seconds is bring down finished IPv6 essentially on the grounds that there is not bundle reassembly diminishing the aggregate time required to stack the page altogether. With respect to the battery, of course, the power utilization is practically a similar utilizing a similar administration, paying little mind to the protocol rendition utilized.

To end this area, the outcomes rely upon the streamlining endeavors that have made by makers and designers. The webpage of Google is more improved than Seo web searchs in light of the fact that the measure of IP information created are bring down when the demand is made to Google’s servers, and in addition the time required to stack the website.



This section incorporates discoveries and suggestions concerning the outcomes acquired in the lab, and furthermore about the IPv6 protocol and its usage in the gadgets and web administrations.

The conclusions are principally identified with the administrations which have been tried (webpages and applications) and the execution on the system assets utilization. Be that as it may, there are likewise critical conclusions related IP improvement and operating system operation. Playing out a similar activity in two unique gadgets does not convey similar outcomes over the system.

The most critical conclusion which can be drawn from this venture is that the Signaling created on the system has been decreased and in addition the opportunity to completely stack a webpage in Internet. This outcome is a decent new in light of the fact that we begin seeing advancement endeavors in the operation of the IPv6 rendition.

To condense the outcomes, Signaling and web stacking time is less in IPv6 than in IPv4, however the battery utilization does not present a huge variety. The reason for this decrease is that some Signaling messages have been expelled (diminishing the aggregate number of messages) and IPv6 does not bolster discontinuity middle of the road, hence there is not reassembly time. Despite what might be expected, the outcomes demonstrate that IPv6 web browsing  produces somewhat higher created activity than IPv4 web perusing, yet the distinction is clarified by the greater size of IPv6 headers.

We can demonstrated that the IPv6 protocol underpins web perusing on all gadgets; nonetheless, much work is to be done in application create as probably the most prevalent ones don’t work over IPv6.

We can see vast improvement endeavors by the enormous organizations, for example, Google (which have an expansive number of patents about IPv6) or operating systems with a high market entrance.

As indicated by gadget model and operating system, operating systems two and three have the best execution as far as information when the association is towards Google. Be that as it may, when moving to seo web searchs web, these two gadgets demonstrate the most exceedingly terrible execution consequently we can presume that the IP movement relies upon IPv4/IPv6 gadget usage, operating system utilized and webpage requested.







A.R.    Mishra,            Advanced       Cellular            Network          Planning          and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G…Evolution to 4G (Wiley), November 2006.

  1. Chemmagate, An Experimental Study of Web Transport Protocols in Cellular Networks, Master thesis presented in Aalto University, 2011.
  2. De Cicco and S. Mascolo, TCP Congestion Control over 3G Communication Systems: an Experimental Evaluation of New Reno, BIC and Westwood+. Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica, Politenico di Bari (Italy), 2007.
  3. Bokor, Z. Kanizsai and G. Jeney, IMS-centric Evaluation of IPv4/IPv6 Transition Methods in 3G UMTS Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
  4. Choon Chan and R. Ramjee, Improving TCP/IP Performance over Third Generation Wireless Networks. Bell Labs – Lucent Technologies, 2004.
  5. Narang and S. Kasera, 2G Mobile Networks: GSM and HSCSD (McGraw-Hill Professional), 2007.
  6. Chakravorty, J. Chesterfield, P. Rodriguez and Suman Banerjee, Measurement Approaches to Evaluate Performance Optimizations for Wide-Area Wireless Networks, University of Cambridge, Microsoft Research and University of Wisconsin.

S.Kasera and N. Narang, 3G Networks: Architecture, Protocols and Procedures (McGraw-Hill Professional), 2003.

  1. Zhou, M. Jacobsson, H. Uijterwaal and P. Van Mieghem, IPv6 delay and loss performance evolution. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science – Delft University of Technology, 2008.
  2. Wang, S. Ye and X. Li, Understanding Current IPv6 Performance: A Case Study from CERNET. Department of Electronic Engineering – Tsinghua University (Beijing), 2005.


Communication Analysis

Communication Analysis

Communication Analysis

Communication Analysis
Communication Analysis

Performance reviews can be a difficult experience for anyone to go through. In this assignment, you will recall a performance review or a performance-related discussion that you experienced at work. You will critically analyze that experience, focusing on the verbal communication, effective listening, and conflict resolution aspects of the experience.


For this assignment, you are to reflect on a time when you had a performance review or any sort of work-related performance discussion with your manager. Then, write a 5- to 6-page paper addressing the following items:

  1. Describe your experience regarding the performance discussion.
  2. Explain proven and effective ways to listen appropriately, resolve conflict, and negotiate. Support your response with sources from professional literature. Professional literature may include the Argosy University online library resources, relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions (.edu, .org, or .gov). You may find that the Lynda.Com “Having Difficult Conversations” course will be especially helpful as you prepare this assignment. The “Having Difficult Conversations” course is available in the AUO library holdings. The direct link was included earlier in this module on the Relationship Development lecture page.
  3. Assess yourself on your effectiveness.
  4. Assess yourself on your effectiveness in listening, conflict resolution, and negotiation.
  5. Identify two to three areas of improvement in any category.
  6. Create a plan for developing yourself in those areas. The plan may include:
  • Teaming with a classmate or mentor to help guide improvement
  • Creating a focus for improvement and an attainable goal
  • Identifying how the goal will be measured for success
  • Assessing success and reevaluating the goal

Communication Analysis

Submission Details:

  • By Week 3, Day 7, prepare a 5- to 6-page paper. Your response should rely upon at least two sources from professional literature. This may include the Argosy University online library resources, relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions (.edu, .org, or .gov). Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources (i.e., APA format); and use accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
What is informed consent?

What is informed consent?

What is informed consent?

What is informed consent?
What is informed consent?

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper that discusses the following:

  • What is informed consent?
  • What is confidentiality?
  • Compare the relationship of informed consent and confidentiality.
  • What are the implications if informed consent and confidentiality are not followed?
  • Discuss processes to ensure that clients understand these policies.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Include at least 3 peer-reviewed references.