If the World Had No Alphabet


People have probably lived on the earth about 2 million years. But the story of world history began only about 5,500 years ago with the invention of alphabet. Since then, human’s history’s book turn to a new page.

The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt about 3,500 B.C. Most alphabet letters began as a simplified version of ancient drawings of animals, objects, or signs. But sign and picture writing was too slow for the business world so people developed an alphabet in which only symbols were used. Each symbol represented one sound, and several were combined to make the sounds of one word. The alphabet was perfected by the Romans in about 114 A.D with 26 letters which now are called the Roman alphabet or the Latin alphabet.

Nowadays, alphabet is used all over the world. There are more than ¾ of the world’s languages use alphabet, and about 60% of the world’s population speaks languages that have a written alphabet. It’s important to write and read in order for the human society to communicate and learn about history. Until the invention of writing, the only way humans had to communicate was face to face. This prevented information from being able to be shared with any sort of wide spread. Based on alphabet, people developed the writing system which could help to preserve human knowledge in a thing called “book”. Thanks to book, people could read and know more about the world and shape up the education system like today. Therefore, book is one of the greatest worth treasure in the world. Alphabet also plays an important part to traders and merchants in keeping records of their business.

Have you ever imagined what the world today would be if ancient people hadn’t invented the alphabet? I don’t dare to think about it but it must be such the worst of the worst. Without the alphabet, mankind would never have advanced to the levels we have today. If alphabet hadn’t been invented, book would never have appeared and consequently people would be uneducated and life would be boring. You wouldn’t know anything about history, the human knowledge wouldn’t have been preserved and you also wouldn’t be able to read my essay. We would be narrow minded and shallow. Our imagination would be limited. There would be no paper, no printing press, no television, no Galileo Galilei, no William Shakespeare, no Charles Darwin, no Albert Einstein,… Instead of that, tolerance would be low and the world would have been destroyed by war and cruel. In my opinion, it would be quite a miserable world where no one can read, write, or think freely. To be honest, if alphabet hadn’t existed, there would be a new way of communicating ideas.

We now are using alphabet in everyday reading and writing. I can’t imagine if the alphabet began to disappear one day. It would be an awful mess and everything would dissolve to nothingness. So do not let anything happen to the alphabet!


With Cheap Car Insurance Quotes It’s Easier To Choose A Policy


When getting the car insured is compulsory for everyone, it is better that it should be done with proper thought and research so that more can be availed by paying less. While getting insurance for your car, it is suggested that you get cheap car insurance quotes and only then decide which insurance policy is the best for you.

Through these quotes that are obtained for getting car insurance, the owner can get policies in which he has to pay a lower premium but gets a good cover in case of damage to the vehicle in question. It depends upon many factors as to how the car has been covered that the claims are reimbursed.

Through these quotes, the owner can decide which policy he wants to choose and take up from the options available of collision cover, third party or comprehensive cover. The collision cover policy protects the car against any accidental collision with another vehicle, tree, and lamp post regardless of the defaulter. Through third party cover, the owner can get the claims of the third party damaged in the accident reimbursed by the insurer. Comprehensive cover provides insurance against fire, theft, engine damage, technical slag etc.

Premiums that are charged for insurance depend upon the cost of the car, the driving record of the owner etc. a high cost car is more prone to getting stolen so it is charged with a higher premium. Similarly a clean driving record attracts lower premiums for the policy.

With a comparison that can be made through the quotes, the owner can then get low premium deals easily and the best way to do this is through the online mode. This can help a great deal and get the desirable policy for the car owner.


Wireless Broadband – Experience the Difference


Wireless Broadband is an advance technology that establishes high speed data networks and delivers fast internet access. Major broadband service providers have expanded their infrastructure to provide wireless broadband connections. Important wireless broadband providers in UK are 3 broadband, TalkTalk, Vodafone, BT, O2, Plusnet and BE. Increasing number of people are finding this new and convenient service beneficial and befitting. As the name suggests, no wires are involved during its installation providing user friendly browsing experience. Slow speeds and sluggish networks are also avoided in the absence of traditional lengthy wires. Other advantages of wireless connections include great mobility and multiple access. Internet is accessible from any convenient location within the network of the connection. Wireless broadband services are provided either through Wi-Fi networks or using a more advanced technology called Wimax. In Wi-Fi, multiple towers are erected to create hotspots for the internet accessibility. Each hotspot delivers connections within the local area and many towers are required to cover the entire city. While wimax is capable of capturing the whole city using a single network. It is comparatively expensive than the wi-fi connection but provides greater speeds and hassle free browsing experience. Many elements play key role is defining the quality of any wireless broadband service. Understanding and analysing them is the prerequisite for finding the suitable wireless broadband providers.

Availability of service providers differs in distinct locations. Remote areas often witness the dominance of selected players that provide decent coverage. Other providers are unable to deliver quality services in such locations. Good network coverage is essential to realise the maximum potential of any broadband connection. Greater coverage ensures better speeds, smooth connections and uninterrupted services. Speed of wireless connections ranges from 1 Mbps to incredible 20 Mbps or even more. Speed provided by the package is proportionate to the cost of the same. Speed mentioned with the package is always the maximum speed and actual speed is only a fraction of that. Actual speed tends to reach the theoretical maximum with greater availability, uninterrupted connections and excellent infrastructure of the service provider. Download limits imposed on the connections generates misleading perceptions. Advertisements promoting unlimited broadband packages create false impression on the freedom to download unlimited content. The unlimited packages are subjected to fair usage policy which restricts downloading beyond a certain limit. The excessive downloads are entitled to get charged by the provider without prior warning. Understanding fair usage policy of service providers generates accurate and precise comparison between packages offered by them. Comparison sites provide complete analysis of deals offered by every major provider. They guide users to formulate an appropriate decision regarding broadband services. The wireless broadband deals are coupled with freebies to attract people towards them. These include LCD TVs, laptops, iPods and gaming consoles etc. Obligations of utilising the same service for at least a specific period are often attached with such lucrative packages. Free minutes, extra downloads and free connections for a specific period also makes them attractive.

Wireless broadband is the latest innovation that provides hassle free and pleasing environment for browsing. The advantages associated with wireless technology are truly attarctive. It carries the potential of becoming the future of broadband.


Case Hardening of Steel and Its Applications


Case hardening is also known as surface hardening, which is a method that produces a tough layer on the surface of the metal by some other metal alloy which is mainly more durable. Often low carbon steel is being covered with a tough and a more durable metal alloy. This process of hardening the surface is normally done once a part is formed into its final shape. The hardening element content of bars can also be done which are further used in pattern welding or other similar processes. Generally the procedure is followed for parts which generally require a more wear resistant surface and which is internally tough to endure heavy loading.

In the case of high carbon steels when these are case-hardened, the hardness pierces into the core and cause fragility. This is the procedure in which the surface of the metal is chemically changed by commencing a high carbide or nitride content. The core of the material remains unaffected chemically. As and when its heat treated, the high carbon surface reacts to the hardening and the core becomes tough. Components which undergo this process of case hardening include: cardan joints, camshafts, link components, driving pinions, arbors and axles. In many of these cases, the surface which requires hardening is hardened selectively, while leaving the bulk of the part to its original state.

Applications of Case Hardened Components:

1. Energy Generation: The case hardened components are generally used for gear wheels and other components in large dimensions that have to bear both wear and stress such as in hydroelectric power stations, steam turbine gears in power stations or propeller drives of drilling rigs and wind turbine generators.

2. Transportation: Generally in all engine driven vehicles, these case hardened components are used including racing cars, trucks or even ocean vessels.

3. General Mechanical Engineering: Steel rolling equipments, heavy duty transmissions, forging presses, earth moving equipments and heavy construction cranes require case hardened materials. For these applications, the case hardened materials that are used features a combination of fatigue strength and resistance.

4. Another common application on which the process is done are screws, particularly the self-drilling ones. For drilling, the forming threads and the drill points must be harder than the material which is to be drilled, thus the process is done on screws. Cutting and tapping of the other materials like steel is also done.

Steel Case Hardening

Into the metal skin, carbon is penetrated in order to create mild steel which has an external covering with carbon than the nucleus. The mild steel is then heated to a particular temperature till the time its bright red. For the formation of the outer surface the mild steel is immersed into a carbon compound, however, it requires several dipping and re-heating. This procedure will produce on skin above the metal which is rich in carbon.

The principal forms of this process are:

1 Cyaniding

2 Nitriding

3 Carburizing