Ethics behind Cheap Wages in Underdeveloped Nations

Introduction

A bird in hand is worth the two in the bush. United States companies are continuing to relocate factories to undeveloped countries and barely pay employees enough to live on. This is purely ethical; in fact, it is a favor that these companies are doing to these workers. Human right watch might have different views and criticize this act as unethical and inhuman. I beg to disagree with them because, apart from looking at it in the narrow perspective of salary molestation, there are other mutual benefits that accrue. Abraham Maslow in his theory, the hierarchy of needs clearly states that human beings strive to achieve the apex of the hierarchy and becomeself-actualizedonly if physiological needs are satisfied(Baja&Relents, 2010). These physiological needs include food, shelter, clothing, education, parenting just to mention but few. Same case applies to this scenario.

The idea of setting up US factories in underdeveloped countries, positively results into creation of job opportunities to the jobless local people. Although the initial objectives of setting up these companies could be an effort to significantly reduce production costs, benefits that accrue are directly consumed by the same jobless local people. This changes lots of things. Local people will be employed in those factories. This makes the start of eradicating poverty cause by joblessness (Hillier & Chasseur, 2012).

For any government to run its affairs well, it must have funds to control the state. The set up factories creates new big source of revenue to the government of the day. The money collected through tax will enable the government provide services to its people, for example, provision of medical services, education and security. Therefore, these companies’ profit margins may come at an expense to others despite paying little wages to its workers (Hillier & Chasseur, 2012).

Apart from little wages for its workers, these factories create market opportunities for local goods and resources. Forexample, if tea factory is set up in an underdeveloped country that grows tea, farmers will have market where they can sell their products. Factory workers too will have a place to sell their products. This creates mutual benefits between the two parties apart from just basing emphasis on small wages that barely support their lives.

I believe that education is the strongest tool that one can use to change the whole world. Paying workers low salaries seems unethical but, the children of those workers will benefit from scholarships and other sponsors offered by the companies. Schools and developments in the village will uproot like mushrooms. Electrification will soon follow suit. When all this developments start happening, the whole issue about low wages that barely support their living will not be the issue to complain about. Many will learn how to make their own money and invest in businesses. Loans will be other beneficial factors that will see workers invest and star business.

Innovators will come up with their own business ideas around the factory. Setting up new factories in place will definitely prompt innovators to come up with subsequent business to earn a living. This creates self-employment to the unemployed due to created opportunities (Maunders, Plasma & Ricks, 2011). For example, energetic innovators will open shops,restaurants, recycling firms among other activities. This is very beneficial to the whole society rather than few individuals.

Conclusion

Better half a loaf than none, although the relocated US factories to underdeveloped countries pay little wages to it workers that barely can support them, it is good to view the benefits that accrue from the set up rather than only focusing on the few seasonal problems. From source of employment, source of revenue,sponsorship,developments to innovations, it is clear that these factories are doing great favors to both the workers and the entire nation.

Reference

Baja&Relents, 2010, p.47-53, Capital and the Dept Trap: Learning from Cooperatives in the

Global Crisis, (3rd Ed.), Boston, Jute & Sons Inc

Hillier & Chasseur, 2012, p.30, Growing Income Inequalities: Economic Analysis,

(2nd Ed.), New York, John Wiley & Company Ltd.

Maunders, Plasma &Ricks, 2011, p.73-75, The Minimum Wages, Low Pay and Unemployment:

Applied Econometric Series, (4th Ed.), Chicago, McGrew Hill

Course Reflection on Social Influences

This course has remained one of the most informative, with fascinating ideas on human social influences, as well as how such influences determine human interactions. Some of the most compelling topics were in chapters 6 and 12. While Chapter 6 outlines the nature and impact of social influences in human interactions, chapter 12 focused on the characteristics of various groups that people often find themselves.

According to the information learned from chapter 6 of the course on Social Influences, there are three vital aspects, including conformity, compliance, as well as obedience. To a larger extent, social influences involve the gradual or instant change in the behavior of members of a social group, often due to pressure from peers. Moreover, conformity attracts peers to match with the behavior of other peers, while compliance and obedience require one to align them with a line of behavior. Also, Chapter 12 outlines the nature of these groups, asserting that they are autonomous, and share similar identities (Kenrick & Neuberg & Cialdini, 2010).

The group discussions organized during this course have provided an opportunity for members to share and debate on various concepts, which helped in providing a deeper comprehension of the main topics. The topics included Self-concept, Attribution Theory, Social Cognition and Social influence, Group Processes, Prejudice and Discrimination, Interpersonal Processes, Aggression, Attitude as well as Stereotype. This course has therefore provided us with a firm foundation upon which to understand human behavior in different social constructions, including individual and group levels. For instance, the concepts of obedience, conformity and compliance are tools that can help in the understanding of human behavior and relationships, as well as how various relationships impact on human behavior.

 

 

Reference

Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R. B. (2010). Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Annotated bibliography

Carillo, Maria, and Concetto Vinci. “Social Increasing Returns and the Effects of Immigration on the Host Country Economy.” Labour 13.3 (1999): 623-645. Web.

This source states that the undocumented immigrants in the United States expand the country’s economic productivity. According to this source, this is evident through a promotion of specialization and stimulation of investments. This source was written by two authors; Carrillo and Concetto in their article “Labour.” A reader would find this source reliable following the number of sources used by the authors.   The source also claims that the presence of undocumented immigrants has led efficiency gains and increase income per worker in the country. This source supports my argument that stated that the undocumented immigrants have resulted in a positive impact on the country’s economy through specialization in terms work or jobs.

Rivera-Batiz, Fransisco L. “The effects of immigration on a distorted two-sector economy”.          Economic Inquiry 19.4 (1981): 626-639. Web.

According to this source, undocumented immigrants make the country’s economy larger, but the only beneficiaries are the immigrants themselves and not the native born Americans. The source also states that the lower income immigrants are a net fiscal drain while the higher income immigrants are a benefit to the net fiscal. This source was written by two authors in their article in their journal “Economic Inquiry.” A reader would find this source reliable since it is very analytical regarding sources and figure quotation This source contradicts my argument which stated that the both the native born Americans and the undocumented immigrants would benefit from the economic expansion.

Par, Sylvie, and Kelogue Thera some. “Entrepreneurs in the New Economy: Immigration and        Sex Effects in the Montreal Metropolitan Area.” Journal of International          Entrepreneurship 8.2 (2010): 218-232. Web.

This source claims that the presence of undocumented immigrants has led to fewer employment opportunities for the native-born Americans. It also states that the less educated native-born Americans losses much from the immigrants as they are more likely to be a competition with them. This source was written by two authors, Sylvie, and Kelogue. An individual would find this source reliable following the adequate number of sources used by the authors. Their argument contradicts with mine which stated that the presence of undocumented immigrants has not affected the employment opportunities negatively due to specialization.

Animal Zoo

Animal welfare concerns constitute to a wider part of theglobal debate on the best practices used to accommodate animals in the society. Currently, several animal movements have been initiated globally to address issues about animal habitat and safety. However, these actions tend to be contradictory to the current situations in animal zoos and farms. The deplorable state of the animal zoos and farms go against the acceptable ethical practices in safeguarding animal heritage and culture. Abuse and cruelty remain to be rampant in the animal zoos despite detailed rules and guidelines for handling animals while in the zoos and farms. To this extent, the animal zoos and farms are an embodiment of prison cages where animals are subjected to cruel, illegal, and unethical practices.

The training of personnel especially in farming and conservation remains a rare field in the modern education curriculum. The current staffs who run the zoos and animal farms have no sufficient training in handling animals under their care. The insufficiency of academic knowledge and experience is a major factor that contributes to the unethical conditions in animal zoos and farms. Most of the staff major in management of animal zoos but have little knowledge of understanding the basic animalneeds. In ensuring efficiency in addressing animal concerns, the staff should be trained in understanding the personal environment of individual animals.

Revenue generated from the zoos play a significant role on highlighting the unethical practices in theanimal zoo and animal farms. The zoos are operated as business entities with less focus on addressing issues that affect the animal environment. The managers of the zoos maximize available resources in the zoos to attain more profit. These practices go against the basic requirements of animal husbandry and management(Garrett, 2015). In most cases, more animals are brought into zoos without adequate consideration of available resources in the zoos. These business-oriented practices should not hinder proper service delivery in the zoos.

Animals belong to forests and parks; humans should seize encroaching animal habitat. Hence, animals would not be forced into zoos. It is unethical to keep animals closed a particular place by regulating their activities and types of food they feed on. The original homes of animals are the parks and forests, continued human encroachment of such areas have brought a human-animal conflict forcing humans to keep animals in zoos. Irrespective of the initiatives were taken to make zoos better and hospitable to animals, zoos and animal farms would forever remain unethical for their survival unless they are taken back to parks(York & Hobgood-Oster, 2015). The best campaign that can be launched by these movements that focus on animal heritage and husbandry should concentrate on taking back animals to their natural habitat from the unethical animal farms and zoos.

Unethical practices in the zoos summarize the urgency by which the government should act to protect animal heritage and conservation. It is unacceptablefor human beings to use animals to get profit at the expense of the animals’ health. Zoos act as prisons designed to keep animals to generate income, it one of the most contradictory topics. It is the role of animal conservationist and animal heritage institutions to ensure that every animal in the zoo has a unique feature that may make it unfit for animal parks. Otherwise, all animals should be taken back to the animal parks to restore ethical practices in dealing with animals.

References

Garrett, E. A. (2015). Why do we go to the zoo? Communication, animals, and the cultural-historical experience of zoos. Place of publication not identified: Fairleigh Dickinson Up.

York, T., & Hobgood-Oster, L. (2015). The end of captivity? A primate’s reflections on zoos, conservation, and Christian ethics.