Stress Management

Personal Development Project

Stress management is a term that refers to various techniques and psychotherapies that aim at the possible ways to control an individual’s degree of stress, particularly chronic stress, often for the purposes of bringing improvement in that daily routines (Hardy, 1998). In this regard, the phrase ‘stress’ is used in reference to solely to the stress and substantial negative concerns, or grief in the lingo backed by psychologists instead of what some refer to as the eustress i.e. a form of stress which has repercussions that are of help in one’s life. Stress brings about many physical and psychological signs that differ depending on one’s situational aspects. These could comprise of the physical health deterioration and the depression. The processes of stress management are mentioned as some of the pillars for a pleasant and effective life in the current life. Though life brings about many difficulties that can be strenuous in handling, stress management issues various methods of managing the nervousness and maintains general health (Somaz & Tulgan, 2003).

Stress entails some feelings of straining and excessive pressure. Smaller quantities of stress might be desirable, helpful, and even fit. Positive stress can help in the improvement of athletic activities. It is also essential in motivating, adaptations, and reacting to the surroundings. But too much quantities of stress nevertheless, might result to numerous complications in one’s body that might be of very much harm. Stress might be external and connected to the surroundings, but then again might also be brought about by any internal perception that causes a person to be anxious or additional negative feelings that surround the condition, for example pressure, uneasiness, etc., that they at that time consider stressful. People undergo situations that are stressful, or have perception on things as being frightening, whenever they don’t consider that their abilities for managing problems (stimulus, individuals, circumstances, etc.) are sufficient to handle the challenges they are facing. Whenever one thinks that the demands which are usually about to be faced by us exceeds our abilities of coping with them, we eventually end up experiencing significant levels of stress (Ogden, 2007).

Evaluation of the efficiency of different stress management approaches might be problematic, since there isn’t sufficient researching that has been carried out up to date. Therefore, the aggregate and quality of substantiation for the different approaches differ significantly. Some are taken as efficient remedy in psychotherapy, while others have insignificant roof supporting them and thus perceived to be alternative therapies. Most of the specialized organizations happen to be promoting and providing trainings in conventional or alternative therapy. There are many methods used in stress management, all having unique explanations regarding the appliances for managing stress. More study is essential to give a better understanding on what mechanism actually operates and is more efficient in practice (Schultz, 2010).


Meditation triggers some biochemical and physical alterations in the human body jointly called the “relaxation responses”.Relaxation responses comprise of the alterations in digestion, heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure and mind chemistry. The mankind’s nervous system is made up of the parasympathetic structure, that is meant for the regulation of the heart beat rates, respiration and various reflex motor activities, and sympathetic systems that arouse the body, making it prepared it for dynamic activities (Schultz, 2010).

It is also perceived that particular examples of meditation could function by minimizing the activities in the sympathetic nervous systems as well as improving activity in the parasympathetic nervous systems or similarly, that meditation brings about a reduced stimulation and increased relaxations. Meditation enhances gray matter in particular parts of the brain and might end up slowing down the weakening of the brain as a way of the natural aging procedures. Studies have shown that those who were meditating have an improved thickness in their gray matter in their brains. The grey matter is accountable of devotion and procession of sensory input. It has been studied that the alterations in the thickness of brain is related on the quantity of time used while meditating. The growth in thickness can range from .004 to .008 inches (i.e. 0.1016mm – 0.2032mm) (Schultz, 2010).


In this method of stress management, people hold stretches as a method of low-effect physical application, and is usually applied in the therapeutic dedications. Yoga can be carried out inside classes and might entail meditations, imagery, breath works and melody.

Meditation and the exercising aspects of hatha yoga are been studied for the specific and non-specific medical welfares. Hatha yoga has been researched to be a remedy for various situations, such as the back pains, stresses, and depression. Generally, it is essential in improving the quality of one’s life, but doesn’t treatment for diseases. Hatha Yoga might be efficient for a patient who is managing depression. Exercises and the mindfulness meditations aspects might be of help. Hatha Yoga has been associated with a more considerable reduction in the nervousness and greater development in the patient’s moods as compared to those who just walked. Therefore, Hatha Yoga can be a probable therapeutic process for those who have particular disorders. Also, Hatha Yoga might be efficient as one manages the chronic, though not severe, low back pains. Hatha Yoga treatment is effective for the chronic low back pains (Hardy, 1998).

Spiritual insight

The mind might have effect on the body and one’s body might end up affecting one’s mind. Since it is a crucial growth in the medical sector structures to have an understanding in these relations, spirituality concept comes into consideration. Spiritual insight is similarly if not more vital in the healing, since an individual’s sense of self, beliefs in one’s life meaning or determination, and their relation to something better than their personal self might make them healed, have health, and be well. Most of the divine teachers direct believers to be at one with themselves, or their God or higher powers, and to have a small heaven on this earth. Practices including the prayers, meditations, and relaxation are also being used in the achievement of superior powers, peace, and internal wisdom (Schultz, 2010).

Prayers, meditations and relaxation might trigger the relaxation responses – they lower the heart rates and breathing rates and reduce the hormones that trigger stress. These routines have also being used in the lowering of nervousness, stress, sadness, physical and passionate pains. One’s relationship with the spirits, whatever one’s philosophies, might reinforce one’s vigor and vibrant living forces; this might facilitate one’s abilities of staying well and recovering from diseases. One’s beliefs are vital to the abilities of getting better, staying well, or making peace amid the challenges of the circumstances. The gesture effects are usually appreciated by the medical studies whenever an individual has developments that can’t be attributed to the ‘intervening’ aspects of spiritualism, but might come from the individual’s beliefs that could eventually be of assistance to the person (Schultz, 2010).

Relaxation techniques

Whether one’s stress is increasingly getting out of control or one has already gotten it in control, one might have some benefits understanding the relaxation practices. To learn fundamental relaxation practices is simple. Relaxation procedures also are usually free or of lower expenses, projects minimal risk, and could be carried out at any place (Hardy, 1998).

Whenever on is faced with many tasks and tasks or the difficulties of diseases, relaxation tactics might help reduce stress. The practice of relaxation could help in reducing stress since it slows one’s heart rate, lowers blood pressure, slows one’s breathing rate, reduces activities of stress hormones, increases blood circulation to main muscles, reduces muscular tensions and chronic pain, improves attentiveness and temperament, lowers fatigue, reduces fury and frustrations and boosts poise of handling problems. However, one is required to have an optimistic attitude in life whenever undergoing through these solutions. One should always be looking for fun, problem-solving, management of time, doing exercises, having sufficient sleep, and to reach out to their allies and family members who are supportive (Hardy, 1998).

In conclusion, stress can be treated by application of Yoga, spiritualism, relaxation techniques and meditation. However, everyone is advised to have a positive thinking regarding the current and future life. But, there isn’t clear proof on the correlation between having a reach to the friends who are supportive to the reduction of stress. Therefore, this call for a future research on this matter since it could be economical and essential to the health of the society.

Reference List

Hardy, S. (1998). Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. United

Kingdom: Stanley Thornes ltd. pp. 18–43.

Ogden, J. (2007). Health Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, pages 281-282

Schultz, D. (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall. p. 374.

Somaz, W., & Tulgan, B. (2003). Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in the

Workplace. Canada: HRD Press Inc.p 7-8


Click here to download the selected financial statements for Micro Chip Computer Corporation. Answer questions 1 and 2 below based on the financial data. Determine the year-to-year percentage annual growth in total net sales.

Click here to download the selected financial statements for Micro Chip Computer Corporation. Answer questions 1 and 2 below based on the financial data.

  1. Determine the year-to-year percentage annual growth in total net sales.
  2. Based only on your answers to question #1, do you think the company achieved its sales goal of +10% annual revenue growth in 2009? Determine the target revenue figure, and explain why you do or do not feel that the company hit its target.

Next, consider Micro Chip’s Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended September 25, 2008. Download the file here and answer questions 1 and 2.

  1. Use the Percentage Sales Method and a 25% increase in sales to forecast Micro Chip’s Consolidated Statement of Operations for the period of September 26, 2008 through September 25, 2009. Assume a 15% tax rate and restructuring costs of 5% of the new sales figure.
  2. Discuss your results from question number #1. What assumptions have you made? Do any of your assumptions seem unreasonable?

To receive full credit on this assignment, please show all work, including formulae and calculations used to arrive at the financial values. Students using Microsoft Excel must provide an adequate explanation of the methodology used to arrive at that answer.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Download the financial statements and consolidated statement of operations by clicking on the links above in the assignment description.
  • Analyze the statements and then answer the four questions listed in the assignment description.
  • Show all work including calculations and formulas. If applicable, provide a detailed explanation of how you used Microsoft Excel to arrive at your answers.
  • Organize your answers, mathematical calculations, and Microsoft Excel data into a Word document of 1–2 pages.

Your submitted assignment (120 points) must include the following:

  • A double-spaced Word document of 1–2 pages that contains your answers to the four questions listed in the assignment description, any calculations you performed, and all formulae that were used. Also, provide your Excel data table(s) along with an explanation of how you arrived at your answers if applicable.


You will be graded on the accuracy of your financial calculations as well as your demonstrated understanding of financial statement analysis.

Explain how domestic violence policies evolved in local police departments across the United States. What is the trend in policing today? Discuss the research findings on the impact of mandatory arrest for misdemeanor domestic violence.

There is no set word limit for the answers, it is required that the questions are fully explain

  1. Explain how domestic violence policies evolved in local police departments across the United States. What is the trend in policing today? Discuss the research findings on the impact of mandatory arrest for misdemeanor domestic violence.
  1. Discuss the recent trends in terrorism in the United States, and the impact they’ve had on American Police. Are American policing becoming so focused on terrorism that they’ve shifted their policing approach away from community policing?
  1. Identify the six different theories of police corruption. Explain which theory you believe best explains why police corruption occurs. Discuss steps that you as chief of police would take to reduce the potential for corruption in your agency.
  1. The Miami-Dade Employee Identification System represents its version of an early warning system. As the materials supplied indicate, officers are identified on the basis of citizen complaints, use of force incidents (using officer reports), commendations they have received, any correctional action already taken, and any change in promotional status. Discuss these criteria. Do you think they are likely to reduce misconduct and improve the quality of police performance? Or do you think they are likely to deter officers from doing important police work? Will police officers avoid taking action because they are afraid of getting a complaint or becoming involved in a use of force incident?
  1. Discuss the pros and cons of technology in policing today. Think about technology’s impact on police officers, police agencies, and citizens. Will federal funding reductions reduce the ability of local law enforcement to purchase technology in the future? If so, how will this be overcome? If not, what resources do you see as replacing the federal funds? Without federal funding, do you envision either a reduction in the growth of police departments, or reduced levels of new employees? If so, what changes do you think police would need to make with population growing in most cities throughout the country

My Personal Carbon Footprint

For three full days, record all your activities that use up fossil fuels, such as:

  • Driving your car ( 45 miles a day )
  • Heating your house ( 4 hours a day )
  • Doing laundry ( once in those 3 days for 2 hours )
  • Doing dishes ( does’s use the dish washer at all )
  • Taking a shower with hot water ( 20 minutes each day )
  • Etc, etc.Describe these activities in one paragraph for each day. Note: Your grade will NOT depend on how much or how little fossil fuels you consume, only on your honest and careful analysis!

    Use your monthly electricity bill, natural gas bill, and gasoline bill, to calculate your personal consumption of the different types of fossil fuels per month. Make a table with your monthly consumptions of the different fossil fuels. Then calculate the corresponding release of CO2, and put it into the same table.

    Describe how you determined the CO2 emissions. Show your calculations! Please use Microsoft equation editor (under “insert -> object”). Do NOT try to write equations with the regular text editor.

    In the conclusion, assess the amount of your CO2 emissions. Explain if and how you might be able to reduce your carbon footprint.

    The report should be about 2-5 pages long, double-sided.

Fossil Fuel

Monthly consumption

CO2 emission


Natural gas




Hints for your Carbon Footprint Report

Gasoline Consumption:

  • Determine how many miles you drive per day (distance D).
  • How much gasoline do you use for your daily drive?Calculate it by knowing how many miles per gallon (mpg) your car gets: gals of gasoline used = D


    If you don’t know the mpg for your car, start with a full tank, set you odometer to zero, and record the distance you drove, and the gallons of gasoline you need to refill, the next time you get gas.

  • To calculate the mass (in kg) of CO2 emitted by gasoline, convert the gallons of gasoline to kg (the density of gasoline is 0.7kg/l), and multiply by a factor of 3 (This factor comes from the chemical reaction equation for the burning of gasoline.):CO2 [kg] = x gals gasoline ⋅ 3.885l ⋅ 0.7kg ⋅3 1 gal l

    Electric Power Consumption:

  • Find your monthly electricity bill. You are billed for the kWhe (kilowatt-hourselectric) of electric energy you used during the month in question.
  • Figure out what the sources of your electricity are. (E.g., below is the “PowerContent Label” that SoCal Edison must provide to their customers by California Law. Or, you can use the information from the California Energy Commission provided in the slides from the lectures.)
  • For your carbon footprint, only the fraction of electricity generated by fossil fuels (natural gas, coal, or petroleum/oil) is relevant.
  • Use table 10.3 (page 343) of your textbook, to calculate the “grams of carbon equivalent per kWhe “ emitted by the power plant for your use of electricity. (This is the right hand column of the table.) You have to multiply this number by a factor of 44/12, to obtain the mass of CO2 emitted in grams. (See example problem in your textbook.) To convert the grams to kg, divide by 1,000.Natural Gas Consumption:
  • Find your monthly natural gas bill. You are billed for the “therms” of natural gasyou have used. 1 therm = 100,000 Btu. Using the table in the front of your textbook, you can find that 100,000 Btu corresponds approximately to 100 cf of natural gas.
  • In terms of CO2 emissions, 1,000 cf of natural gas produce 115 lbs of CO2. (For more information, see the website: ). To convert to kg, remember that 2.2 lbs correspond to 1 kg.