Global Online Entrepreneurship

Considering An International Venture of Your Choice and Building on Relevant Theory, Provide a Critical Analysis of Current Online Strategy and Recommendations for the Future

 

The Internet and social media has changed the way that international ventures conduct business. Hence, in order to properly explore and evaluate the opportunities and limitations that the global online environment provides to international firms, the aim of this paper will be to assess the current online strategy of an international firm and to provide recommendations for further action needed. The firm chosen for the purpose of analysis in this paper is Nirala Sweets and the marketing tools and framework used to assess Nirala’s online effectiveness were the Hubspot Marketing Grader along with the aid of academic references to support the argument.  For the sake of a more thorough analysis the Hubspot Marketing Grader has been used to compare Nirala Sweets’ online activity to that of its competitor, Ambala Sweets.

International Entrepreneurship is defined as the “combination of innovative, proactive, and risk-seeking behavior to cross national boundaries and create value in organizations.” (Oviatt & McDougall, 2000). Hence, for the purpose of this paper, international enterprises will be defined as “innovative, risk-seeking, and pro-active organizations which conduct operations in or coordinate activities across more than one country.” Accordingly, global online entrepreneurship is defined as “the combination of innovative, proactive, and risk-seeking behavior that involves using e-business technologies to cross national boundaries and create value in organizations.”(Morgan-Thomas et.al. 2009). For the purpose of this paper, e-marketing will be defined as “the extent to which social media, Web 2.0, and other internet technology is used to enhance exposure, for the purpose of advertising and communication with potential customers.” Therefore, based on these definitions, the key parameters of the paper will be to assess how Nirala Sweets has expanded its operations as an international enterprise and to what extent the company is engaging in global online entrepreneurship. The paper will aim to analyze how effectively Nirala Sweets is exploiting e-opportunities and whether it is creating value for the firm. In order to do this, the firm will be evaluated according to its use of social media, Web 2.0, and other parameters concerning its online activity.  The paper will also attempt to question whether online presence is essential for firms such as Nirala Sweets and to what extent it is needed. Moreover, based on the analysis, recommendations for strategies regarding improving the firm’s online presence will be provided.

Nirala Sweets was founded in 1948 by Taj Din who was a migrant from Amritsar, India to Lahore, Pakistan. The company began from a small breakfast shop located in the inner city of Lahore and expanded to a large chain of shops located throughout Pakistan giving their customers the delight of quality food products prepared in “desi ghee” and exquisite cuisines which were not provided elsewhere. The company has now grown to be an international enterprise and expanded its horizons to countries such as the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom. Nirala is a renowned name amongst its industry and has a strong reputation for providing quality and variety to its customers. Over the years, Nirala has gained brand recognition and holds a place of trust and prestige in the eyes of its consumers (Nirala, Irresistible Temptations, 2012).

There are two types of firms existent upon the Internet. The first type of firm are E-commerce firms which use the Internet as their main source of business and most of their transactions and customer contact is conducted online. These firms do not generally have physical locations and operate in a virtual environment including firms such as EBay, Amazon, and other internet based businesses. The second type of firm is the non-Internet related firm which uses the Internet as a marketing tool or a source of communication with its customers but is not dependent upon the Internet as a marketplace. Such firms have a physical location and rely on the Internet for supportive tasks (Morgan-Thomas et. al., 2009).  Nirala Sweets is categorized as the latter non-Internet- based firm which operates in a physical marketplace but utilizes the advantages that online entrepreneurship may provide to businesses. The company is a business-to-consumer organization that sells directly to its customers and uses the Internet as a space for marketing and interaction through the basic features of a website, Twitter profile, and a Facebook page (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).

Nirala Sweets’ online activity seeks to market its products and enhance its virtual presence, yet it also focuses upon expanding its horizons by selling its products online. Products are available for order on their official website and can be delivered anywhere within the UAE and Pakistan upon request (Nirala, Irresistible Temptations, 2012).  While the company seems to be utilizing the advantages that the Internet has offered to global business such as maximum reach, speed, ubiquity, and a location and time independent marketplace ( Porter, 2001) the Hubspot Marketing Grader has given it a 38 marketing grade out of a total possible score of 100 (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012). The Hubspot Marketing Grader has its limitations in the sense that it does not consider a company’s presence across all mediums on the Internet such as LinkedIn and other social media, does not account for the type of company being analyzed, and does not consider other factors relevant to the company’s activities online that may affect its internet marketing scope. However, the Hubspot Marketing Grader has made a few fair points regarding the company’s official website which may be worth noting when analyzing the company’s online effectiveness.

Upon observation, Nirala Sweets’ website may be giving its users the benefit of “experiencing functionality” which means that the website is relatively easy to navigate, downloads with speed, and contains authentic and reliable information.  However, when it comes to “experiencing exposure” the website may be lacking in a few fields.  While surfing the website, the content and design are simplified which enable a user to comprehend and perceive the data provided. The information may be authentic and acceptable and since there is very little content provided, the information may also have high levels of retention. However, the headings and content seem to be unable to grab the attention of the users as they may be too simplified and lack essential information. As outlined by the Hubspot Marketing Grader (2012) the internal pages and page descriptions of each page are not unique and seem to be bland and uninteresting for the user. Hence, the user who lands upon the site would be lacking the benefit of “experiencing intimacy” which is enhanced through customization, communication, and options for leisure activity on the site. Likewise, the user would also be lacking in “experiencing evangelism” which is enhanced by the customers feeling that their opinions are valued by the company. The Hubspot Marketing Grader also points out that visitors on the company’s website are not engaged in the website and stay or revisit seldom which may be highly consequential in the company gaining online sales (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).

However, the Nirala website does have some positive aspects as there is use of Google Analytics in order to gather information to make data-driven decisions. The website provides contact information and access to the company’s management and has links to the company’s social media pages on its official site. It also makes use of a landing page to retrieve a small amount of visitor data for purposes of future strategic planning (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).

Perhaps it is the nature of the business or its lack of online dependence that has led to its low performance in search engine optimization. While the company does generate an adequate number of results in search engines, perhaps more focus upon “search marketing”, which refers to ensuring one’s offering is prominently visible on the results page of search engines, may improve its prospects and increase the level of online sales ( Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).

Just as global online entrepreneurship has redefined international business and granted firms access to a large mass of foreign customers, (Morgan-Thomas et. al., 2009) the growing effect of social media upon international business cannot be ignored. “Social Media” refers to “a group of internet-based application that builds on ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content.”(Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010). The social media platform includes sites such as Facebook and Twitter which allow users to openly interact and share their opinions, videos, and other content. Twitter is said to trigger effectual cognition within entrepreneurs and enable the dissemination of information, (Fischer & Rueber, 2011) and Facebook is home to millions of consumers around the world. Hence, social media presence is essential for firms who want to be virtually present for their customers. Moreover, it is a perfect platform for receiving feedback and conveying information to millions of customers around the world. While Nirala Sweets has a highly popular Facebook presence with approximately 3,572 fans associated with their page, their Twitter presence is less than commendable (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2011). The company may be afraid of the stage of “effectual churn” in which a company loses credibility and the interest of its readers because of excessive irrelevant and uninteresting posts, (Fischer & Rueber, 2011) or may feel threatened with the concept of “open-source branding” which gives customers an equal or greater right than the marketers in determining the brand image and how the brand behaves (Fornier & Avery, 2011) However, their Twitter presence which shows a substantial difference in between their Tweets and the fact that none of their Tweets are in response to customers, shows that the company is not interacting with its customers enough ( Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).

The company lacks in the area of blogging as it does not have a blog (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).However, the question is whether a company such as Nirala Sweets requires the use of a blog? After all, the company is not technology-oriented and is not constantly innovating like Apple, Sony, and other big brands. Blogging would also mean that the company may lose control over the message that they are trying to convey and too much interaction may lead to exposing the public to the company weaknesses and shortcomings (Fornier & Avery, 2011). The fact that Nirala’s competitor Ambala Foods also lacks the use of a blog may also question the necessity of having one (Hubspot Marketing Grader). However, blogging does increase content, enhance search engine optimization, and increase user involvement. While it may have some detrimental effects, this does not necessarily suggest that it cannot be utilized in a beneficial manner (Jackson et. al., 2007).

After a thorough analysis of the firm’s level of online involvement and e-marketing strategies, the core question that needs to be addressed is whether intense Internet presence is essential for a firm which has established its brand name in the market a good 50 years ago when the Internet was not even prevalent?  Does the firm need to engross itself in enhancing its “search marketing” techniques and engage in “social media optimization”, which refers to efforts to increase visibility in the social media network? (Ledford, 2009).

While Nirala Sweets has a large customer base offline and has an established brand name, it has expanded its horizons internationally through the use of the Internet. While the Internet does pose the limitation of customers having a persistent attraction of physical markets, especially in the case of Nirala Sweets, in which customers may wish to taste the products before purchasing them; the Internet has allowed Nirala to expand its reach and target an audience across borders that was not accessible to it before. The Internet has given Nirala a new marketplace and an opportunity to interact with its customers on an enhanced level. Hence, there may be a few areas of deficiency when it comes to the area of online effectiveness that the company must focus upon.

The prime source of online presence for the company is the company’s website. Since the company has expanded to an international enterprise and is targeting several different segments of customers, it is important for the company to consider the impact of culture. The company’s sweet products are used for special occasions such as birthdays and weddings, and hence the products hold a special point of intimacy and personal belonging with the customer. This gives the company the opportunity to enhance the connection with their customers by enabling their customer to “experience intimacy” when using their website. Nirala may do this by the use of marketing automation software which can customize the webpage for each customer according to their previous selections and preferences (Hubspot Marketing Grader, 2012).The company may also use their website to interact with customers on a higher scale and increasing the customer’s sense of “experiencing evangelism” by encouraging them to provide opinions and feedback. Nirala can also use its website for inbound marketing strategies in which it collects information regarding customer’s birthdays, weddings or wedding anniversaries, and other special occasions and then sends them customized offers based on their needs. The company can also increase the customer’s sense of belongingness by adapting the website to different languages. The current website is featured in English and while the company’s customers may be familiar with the English language, they may feel a stronger connection with the company if the company featured the website in Arabic and Urdu as well. To enhance user engagement on the site, attention may be given to the graphics and more use of Web 2.0 software. The design of the site may need to be slightly altered as well to grasp the attention of visitors.

While the use of social media may be a hard decision to mediate upon in a company like Nirala Sweets, the company may use this unique platform to develop a strong sense of branding. Facebook has made it clear that Nirala is not an “uninvited brand” within its realms as perhaps Wal-Mart was when it initially created a page upon the social network (Fornier & Avery, 2011). Hence, enhancing interaction upon Twitter may prove to be beneficial for the firm. While I agree with the concept of “effectual churn” which is caused by excessive irrelevance in posts (Fischer & Rueber, 2011), Nirala does not seem to be interacting with customers at all. Perhaps the company can draw from the points suggested by Kaplen and Haenlein (2010) regarding the use of social media and enhance its Twitter presence by being interesting, active, and honest. While Kaplen and Haenlein (2010) also suggest” being unprofessional”, this point is debatable and may pose to be problematic for a firm with a strong image such as Nirala.

As mentioned before, the company may not need blogs presently but it can increase its online effectiveness by making use of one. Some ideas for blog topics that the company can articulate are health tips regarding the use of its products. Explanations of the ingredients used in new products, suggestions of ways to use Nirala products (such as cereals advertise themselves as breakfast foods and snacks), and providing a few healthy recipes. It is understandable that Nirala cannot reveal its real recipes online as it will harm business, but the company can incorporate many other topics into its blogs.

Lastly, once the company focuses upon these aspects of e-marketing it will also improve its search results on search engines which will mean it is engaging in search engine optimization.

While Nirala is doing relatively well according to its size and the type of industry it is operating in, there is massive room for improvement in order for the company to take advantage of the full opportunities that the Internet and social media are offering to businesses today.

Bibliography

Fischer, E. & Rueber, R. 2011. “Social Interaction Via New Social Media: Can Interactions on Twitter Affect Effectual Thinking and Behavior”. Journal of Business Venturing. Vol. 26. pp. 1-8

Fournier, S. & Avery, J. 2011. “The Uninvited Brand”. Business Horizons. Vol. 54. pp. 193-207

Hubspot Marketing Grader. 2012 [online]. [Accessed 27th February, 2012]. Available from: http://marketing.grader.com/site/www.nirala.com

Jackson, A. et. al. 2007. “Corporate Blogging: Building Community through Persistent Digital Talk”. System Sciences. pg. 80

Kaplan, A. & Haenlein, M. 2010. “Users of the World Unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media”. Business Horizons. Vol. 53 pp. 59-68

Ledford, J. 2009. SEO: Search Engine Optimization Bible. Wiley Publishing

Morgan-Thomas, A. et. al. 2009. “Global Online Entrepreneurship: A Review of Empirical Literature”. Progress in International Business Research. Vol. 4. pp. 69-88

Nirala, Irresistible Temptations. 2012 [online]. [Accessed 27th February, 2012]. Available from: http://www.nirala.com/index.php

Porter, M. 2001. “Strategy and the Internet”. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 79 pp. 62-79

 

Camel Products Business Proposal

Camel Products Business Proposal

Introduction

Camels are among the domestic animals that are kept mainly in the Middle East and the Northern region of Africa. Another region popular with camel keeping is Australia which has half of its land a desert which favors the rearing of camels. They are accustomed to the desert climate with several adaptations. The camels produce several products like milk, meat, skin and wool. These products are used for several uses but their potential is not yet fully exploited. The camel population of the world is about fourteen million as of 2010. There are two types of camels, dromedaries, which have one hump. Dromedaries make up 90% of the total camel population. The dromedaries are popular in Middle East, South Asia, Horn of Africa and Sahel region. Most of the camels are found in the Horn of Africa. The other type of camel is two-humped Bactrian, which has an estimated population of about 1.4 million camels (Fedewa, 2000). These camels are domesticated with exception of less than a thousand wild camels in Gobi desert found in both Mongolia and China. There are700,000 feral dromedary camels are in Australia, making it to have the largest population in the world. The camel population in Australia is growing at 8% annually. The camels have a life a life expectancy of 40 years to 50 years.

Opportunities

Camel products present many opportunities both domestic and commercial. The animals can be used for domestic or commercial transport as well as its products can be used for commercial purposes. Camels have been mostly been used for domestic purposes with little commercialization of its products. There lies a great potential in industrial and commercial use of its products. As a part of the proposal, the following are the opportunities that camel and camel products present for commercial purposes.

  1. Camel food products can serve as commercial foods

Camel produces milk, meat and blood. Camel’s milk has been staple food for the desert communities as sometimes it can be consumed in itself as a meal. Camel milk is rich in vitamins, proteins, immunoglobulins and minerals. Camel milk can be used to make commercial products like camel milk shakes, camel milk coffee, camel milk butter, yoghurt and cheese. Since most of the milk produced within the camel keeping communities is domestically used, the idea of commercializing it can be profitable, especially to the camel milk loving Asian market and the European market. No known popular manufacturer of camel milk products hence venturing into this specialization presents a unique and viable business idea. Bottled or canned camel milk can be processed and sold in European and Asian markets. As other parked foods on the supermarket shelves, camel milk can be stocked in the retail and wholesale chains stores. The milk can be used to produce cheese, which can be used as a substitute for other cheese products. It can be used to prepare yoghurt as other animal milks.  It is therefore recommendable that camel milk is used to produce these commercial brands of yoghurt, cheese, butter, coffee and camel milk shakes. A brand name selling by the camel’s milk can be a hit sale in the global market. Camel blood is common with the pastoralists who keep the animals. Its blood can be dried to make soft foods like sausages and smokies. The camel’s meat can be used in butcheries, parked and exported to be sold in abroad markets. Camel meat can be used to make meat burger (Sherwood,2012), which can sell fast in many restaurants and hotels in both Asian and European markets. Meat production in the camel areas increased with 90% of the meat production being in Mauritania, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Egypt and Somalia. The total meat produced in 2009 was about 360,622 tons. With the highest production being in Middle East and Northern Africa, production can be based in one of the Middle East countries to supply the Asian and European markets. Camel meat has an added advantage in that it is lean and high in fiber.

  1. Camel food products have high health and nutritional values

Camel food products are known to have some of the best health benefits over other foods. Camel meat has been shown to be raspberry red to dark brown. It is also much healthier than other meats in that it is high in proteins, low-fat content and low content of cholesterol. This quality can be used as a therapeutic diet for people with high cholesterol content and diabetes. Making meat products and advertising them based on their health value and their good taste can attract a high number of customers. The ancient and even present Chinese have been using it to strengthen bones, muscles and increase resistance to diseases. This means that taking camel meat reduces body fat and lowers intake saturated fats. It has also been used in relieving internal pain and moistening the skin. The camel meat has more proteins and minerals than mutton and beef. This is a strength for those people who want to have more protein from the same size of meat. Milk has more minerals, proteins and vitamins than cow’s milk. It has lower lactose and fat content with high potassium, iron and vitamin C contents (Shamsia, 2009. This gives camel milk an upper hand in terms of nutritional values.

  1. Camel non-food products can be commercialized

Apart from food products, camel produces wool and skin.Skin and wool can be used for manufacturing textiles. The wool, which is shaved from the camels to reduce the body temperatures during hot seasons, can be used to textile industries. The skin can be used for making leather products, which can be shipped to Asia and European markets.

Why is this projectbeing undertaken?

  1. Market analysis on camel products

The Asian market, especially the Muslims, has a strong customer base of around 1.619 billion (Knoll, 2012). The European market is an unexploited potential as most of the meat supplied and consumed there is beef. The restaurant and tourism business is booming with new recipes being presented in the hotels. The emergence of new recipes and tourists wanting to try new foods make the camel meat exploitation a nice strategy. In addition, the world is shifting its attention to animal products, this includes the camel foods products (Faye, 2005). With the emergency of therapeutic diets, camel meat is best suited to replace other types of meat, especially beef and mutton. The camel meat is set to complement the meat supply deficient in European market.

  1. Team capabilities

The team has qualified and experienced professionals who can start up the business and drive it to stability. The team has a food technologist who is qualified with master’s degree in food production and conservation. This team member will be in charge of production of parked products, overseeing that quality and international standards are met. Another professional is an international market analyst who will analyze the markets before the business ventures into the new markets. There is sales and marketing specialist with over ten years experience in sales who will maneuver new businesses and create new business opportunities. The sales expert will be expected to market the camel’s products in both Europe and Asian markets. Our Business Development Manager will create and establish new business channels in the two regions. He will be able to create partnerships with existing supply chains and stores. There is legal officer who will represent the company in legal procedures as well as advising the team on how to handle its business and legal matters. There is the project management specialist who will oversee the whole establishment of the project, from its conception, to establishing the production site and overseeing the whole project.

Approaches and Strategies

The team will choose a company name to trade within the two regions. The company name will bear the patent right of the products that will be produced under its umbrella. The company will first establish the high camel-products production zones, which include the Middle East and Northern Africa. Then two production units will be established in the two regions to collect the products from the regions. Due to wide regional coverage, sub-centers can be established in each major country of production. Northern Africa production unit will be established in Egypt, where the company products will be produced. Other sub centers and collection centers will be in Sudan (Khartoum), Somalia (Mogadishu), Mauritania and Algeria. The products camel products will be collected and processed before being exported to European markets. Middle East (Asian) main production will be based in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with minor processing centers in UAE, China and Pakistan. These centers will serve the Asian market, with the surplus production being exported to Europe. These two main production regions will be producing food products.

The main products will be processed and canned camel meat, pasteurized camel milk, camel milk shakes and camel milk shakes. Other non-food products in form of skins and wool will be exported to KSA where they will be processed to make textiles and leather products. These products will then be sold through major chain stores and distributers in the regions. All the products will be given brand names associated with camel; this will be used as a marketing strategy. The marketing of these products will be done through social media and e-commerce. Popular website like facebok, twitter and other online retailers like amazon.com and alibaba.com will be used to sell and deliver the products to the customers. Other media like televisions and radio will be used to introduce and market the products to the consumers, especially in the Europe where camels are not kept. The Asian market has the highest camel products market since the camels are common in their regions. In both markets, advertisements will focus on their competitive edges in nutritional values, health benefits and new tastes over the other known animal products. Tourism sector, including major hotels and restaurants will be supplied with the products for the visitors.

The qualified and experienced food technologists within our team will support the production. After production, partnerships will be created with distributors and major retailers who will be selling the company products. Distributers will be outsourced for major markets in Europe and Asia who will share the profits with in an agreed proportion. The non-food products will be distributed to the existing wholesalers and major supermarkets. Monitoring and evaluation of the whole production, distribution and marketing will be done regularly to ascertain the viability and reliability of the business

References

Faye, B., & Ėsenov, P. (2005). Desertification combat and food safety the added value of camel     producers. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Fedewa, Jennifer L. (2000). “Camelus bactrianus”. Animal Diversity Web. University of     Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 28 March 2014.

Knoll, E. (2012). Camels in Asia and North Africa: interdisciplinary perspectives on their past       and present significance. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der          Wissenschaften.

Shamsia, S. M. (July 2009). “Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks”.    International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology1 (2): 52–58.

Sherwood, Andy (17 September 2012). “Camel burgers in Abu Dhabi”. Time Out Abu Dhabi.       Retrieved 28 March 2014.

 

 

THE SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS SAFETY SURVEY-2014

My name is ____________, and I’m calling from Gallup International Research.  We’re conducting a short survey of   Syracuse university main campus on the safety of the students and other staff members.  The survey will take less than five minutes, and I would highly appreciate your help. The information that you are going to share with me will be kept confidential and there is nobody who will know it. Also at the end of this interview, I am going to tell you who is the sponsor of this research

May I please speak with someone who has a student at Syracuse University main campus or who has somebody he/she knows there?

{REPEAT INTRO IF ANOTHER PERSON COMES TO PHONE}

  1. First, I need to confirm that you are a student at Syracuse University, you have a student studying there, or you know somebody who works there.

\YES……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

NO………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 {POLITELY TERMINATE}

DON’T KNOW………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 {POLITELY TERMINATE}

 

 

  1. If you are a student for how long have you been studying in the Syracuse University main campus?

(0-6 months)………………………………………………………………………1

(6months-I year)………………………………………………………………….5

(1-2 years)…………………………………………………………………………7

(2-4 years)………………………………………………………………………..9

(Others)…………………………………………………………………………..2

  1. 3. What type of a student are you?

International………………………………………………………………………5

American………………………………………………………………………… 7

  1. How old are you?

(17-20)…………………………………………………………………………….5

(20-22)……………………………………………………………………………..7

(23-24)……………………………………………………………………………..9

925-27)…………………………………………………………………………….2

  1. What is your family’s economic status?

Less than 5000 dollars per annum………………………………………………….2

Between 5000-10000 dollars per annum…………………………………………….5

More than 10000 dollars per annum…………………………………………………7

  1. 6. Have you heard or experienced an incident where somebody was attacked or involved in a fire accident in the campus or around it?

YES………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

NO………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 {POLITELY TERMINATE}

DON’T KNOW………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 {POLITELY TERMINATE

  1. Do you think there is enough security in and outside the campus? YES………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

NO………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

DON’T KNOW………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

  1. Is an attack or an accident likely to occur in the next two weeks?

Very likely,………………………………………………………………… 4

Somewhat likely,………………………………………………………… 3

Somewhat unlikely or………………………………………………….. 2

Very unlikely?………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

UNCERTAIN……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9                                                                                                 9. Which other safety concerns concern you most in the main campus of the University of Syracuse?  Theft…………………………1

Assault…………………………………2

Rape……………………………………7

Fire outbreak…………………………..5

Shootings………………………………5

  1. Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree with the following statement.’ It is the prerogative of the campus administration to make sure that there is safety in the campus.’

Strongly agree…………………………..1(GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION)

Agree…………………………………….3(GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION)

Disagree…………………………………5(GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION)

Strongly disagree……………………….7(GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION)

I DON’T KNOW………………………….9(GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION)

  1. I am going to ask you about some of the people who are responsible for the general safety of every citizen. For each of the people, kindly tell me who bears the most responsibility when it comes to the safety of the students and the staff at the campus.

YES                               NO                 DON’T KNOW

  1. A. The president………………………. 1…………………………… 2…………………………… 9
  2. The vice chancellor………………. 1…………………………… 2…………………………… 9
  3. The secretary of state…………… 1…………………………… 2…………………………… 9
  4. The Dean of students…………… 1…………………………… 2…………………………… 9
  5. The security chief in the campus..1……………………….. 1…………………………… 2
  6. The county security chief …….. 1…………………………… 2…………………………… 9

 

  1. Which best steps, do you think need to be taken in order to improve the safety of the campus students and the staff members?

Everybody being vigilant………………………………………………………3

Everybody being cautious………………………………………………………5                            Deploying more security officers……………………………………………….7                                    Tightening the campus rules……………………………………………………9                                                 I DON’T KNOW ………………………………………………………………9

  1. Now, can you rate your feeling towards the people responsible for the safety of the campus as very favorable, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable, or very unfavorable? If you are not certain, just tell me that. {PROMPT AS NEEDED}

VERY               SOMEWHAT     SOMEWHAT            VERY

FAVORABLE  FAVORABLE    UNFAVORABLE  UNFAVORABLE

  1. The president…………………… 4……………. 3………………… 2………………… 1…………………….. 9
  2. The vice chancellor………….. 4……………. 3………………… 2………………… 1…………………….. 9
  3. The dean of students……….. 4……………. 3………………… 2………………… 1…………………….. 9
  4. The secretary of state………. .4……………. 3………………… 2………………… 1…………………….. 9
  5. The county police chief…….. 4 ..………3……………  2…,,…………1……………….9
  6. The campus security chief…. 4……………. 3………………… 2 ……………1…………………9

 

 

  1. Which of the following groups of people are most affected in terms of safety when they are in the campus?
  2. The female Students and other members of Staff…………3  B.The male students and other members of   Staff…………….3.

C.Everybody is affected equally……………………………………..7

D.I DON’T KNOW…………………………………………………………7

  1. At what time of the day if it is theft, assault and rape take place?
  2. During the day

B.At night

C.There is no specific time

D.I DON’T KNOW

  1. How is the response of the emergence services like the police and the fire brigade when they are required in the campus when there is an emergence?
  2. Very fast

B.Fast

C.Slow

D.Very slow

E.I DON’T KNOW

  1. What kind of changes would you propose in order to ensure that the safety of the campus is highly enhanced and the safety of all those in the campus is guaranteed?
  2. Sack all whose who are responsible for the security of the Campus
  3. Change the rules and the policies in the Campus
  4. Involve everybody in ensuring that the Campus is safe
  5. I DON’T KNOW
  6. In your own candid opinion, are you optimistic that the situation is likely to change soon so that when the students and other members of staff are in the campus will enjoy and not get scared of any imminent danger?   Very likely, …………………………………………………4

Somewhat likely,………………………………………………………… 3

Somewhat unlikely or………………………………………………….. 2

Very unlikely?…………………………………………………………….. 1

UNCERTAIN……………………………………………………………. 9

  1. What kind of people do you think are behind these attacks that happen in the main

Campus of the University of Syracuse?

  1. Fellow students

B.People from outside who want to make the Campus have a very bad

name.

C.The idlers who have nothing to do

D.I DON’T KNOW

 

 

Finally as we continue our research, we may need to contact you so that we can get more information through asking you a few more questions. Will that be ok with you?

YES                                                       1

NO                                                     2

{IF YES}  Could I please have your first name, so that in case we need you and want to call back, we will know who to ask for?  __________________________

         Gender Question

The interviewer will make a conclusion at the end of the interview whether the respondent was male or female. This is because it is impolite to ask somebody was is male or female.

GENDER:    MALE             1                                                                                                                                           FEMALE                2

Finally, as part of our continuing research in this field, we may want to call some people back and ask a few more questions.  Would that be o.k.?

YES                                        1

NO                                          2

{IF YES}  Could I please have your first name, so if we call back we will know who to ask for?  __________________________

NO                                                    2

YES                                           1

I wish to thank you so much for your participation in this research and your contribution has been of very great help to me and the whole research in general. Very soon, you are going to get the results of the findings of this research. Thank you once again and the research is sponsored by  the Amnesty international together with other consortia of  Non Governmental Organizations which are so much concerned with the safety of the all those in the university.

Disability Sport

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Disability Sports. 2

Sport 2

Disability Sport 2

Definition. 2

Characteristics. 2

Models of Disability. 3

Social Model 3

Bio-Medical Model 3

Body Identity of the Disabled Player. 4

Case Study: 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. 4

Media Opinion: 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. 6

Changing Attitudes of Society and Media. 6

Examples. 7

Conclusion. 10

Introduction

Sports have been playing a vital part in the progress and boost of nations as well as individuals. The present era has witnessed different types of sports not only for entertainment purposes but also as a way to maintain political relations, and maintain the economy of the country by earning foreign exchange. Besides different types of sports, there exist varying natures of sport and one of them is known as ‘disability sports’. The current paper discusses the concept of disability sport as an actual sport and illustrates it through 2008 Beijing Paralympics sport event. The models of disability will be discussed along with the opinions provided by media on the subject.

 

Disability Sports

 

Sport

The concept of sports comprises of various types of activities that are usually competitive physical activity, having an organized or casual participation, and is undertaken with a purpose to improve or sustain the physical skills ability along with facilitating the participants, and sometimes spectators, with entertainment. There exist different sports, that range from the ones requiring merely two participants, to those sports that need hundreds participants at the same time, either in competition as individuals or in the form of teams.

 

Disability Sport

            Definition

The concept of disabled sports exists widely in the domain of sport these days. They are also called parasports or adaptive sports, and the participants include people having disability of any sort, such as intellectual, physical or mental disabilities. These sports are usually referred to as adapted as most of these are based on the current sports that are altered and improved for the purpose of meeting the requirement of people with any certain disability.

            Characteristics

There are certain characteristics that govern the capacity of disability sports. Assistive technology is one such area that involves the utilization of technology and the new devices which are created for the purpose of enabling disable enthusiasts to play (Scherer, Marcia and Stefano, 2012). The assistive devices for the mobility impairments, for example, include the hand cycles, or recumbent bicycles, light-weight wheelchairs used in tennis, basketball, and racing, all-terrain wheelchairs that have rugged wheels and frames for the purpose of sloping over the surfaces that are unpaved, such as snow, hiking trails, or beach sand.

 

Models of Disability

The terms ‘disability’ refers to the effects of consequence of a cognitive, physical, sensory, mental, emotional and/or other one or a combination of many kinds of disabilities. The possibility of the presence of a certain disability within an individual may exist from the time of birth, or emerge in the later periods of life. Numerous ‘models’ of disability have been described during the period of last few decades, of which, two models are most commonly known. They are as follows:

 

Social Model

One of the primary and widely discussed models of disability includes the social model. According to this perspective, the major reason for the occurrence of disability is the manner in which a particular society is organized, and not the individual’s own impairment. This model depicts that disability is socially contracted; besides impairment, it may chiefly be the outcome of interaction among the people living in such an environment that is filled with communication, attitudinal, physical, and social obstructions (Department for Work and Pensions, 2014). Such barriers are usually categorized as follows:

  1. Environment — including inaccessible buildings and services;
  2. People’s attitudes — stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice; and
  3. Organisations — inflexible policies, practices and procedures.

 

Bio-Medical Model

The medical model is one of the many models of disability which refers to the disability or illness as the ultimate of the individual’s own physical condition that is inherent and intrinsic to the person. It does not involve any social factor and is the part of one’s own body which is likely to result in diminishing the quality of person’s living, and be the clear reason of disadvantages to the individual (Kaplan, Deborah, 2012). This model is perceived to have the belief that managing or curing the disability or illness completely or mostly relies upon the identification of the disability or illness from the deep understanding of clinical perspective and controlling or altering the course.

 

Body Identity of the Disabled Player

Normal and disabled sportsmen differ broadly in terms of their bodies and requirements in sports. Many of the equipment for sports are being designed today keeping the requirements of disabled athlete in view. The participants with disability such as the inability to use of complete loss of a limb, eyesight or hearing require different equipments for the purpose of competing in a sport. These people with challenges require different ways of communication, interaction and coaching in comparison to the normal players (Christopher, 2004).

 

Case Study: 2008 Summer Paralympics Games

The current paper uses the 2008 Summer Paralympics Games as a case study for the illustration of disability sports. It was held in Beijing, China as the thirteenth Paralympics. It continued from September 6 to 17, 2008; the sailing events were held in Qingdao and equestrian events in Hong Kong. There were a total of 3,951 athletes who participated from over 146 countries making this Paralympics invite the most ever nations for the games including the five countries that has participated for the first time. The 2008 Paralympics held the slogan, “One World, One Dream”. China won finishing with 211medals in total which included 89 gold medals, thus breaking 279 world records and 339 Paralympics records (Beijing 2008 Paralympics Games, 2008).

 

The 2008 Summer Paralympics was hosted by China in a very well-arranged manner in Beijing. The delegation from China included a total of 547 people, and out of those 332 were competitors. The champions included 135 women and 197 men, between the age ranges 15 and 51 that entered in a total of twenty sports.  However, there were approximately two-hundred and twenty-six competitors that had participated for the first time in the Paralympic Games. This is considered to be largest delegation in history of China and at the 2008 Games. The medal count was topped by China in Athens in 2004 Summer Paralympics, and people anticipated that achievement was surpassed or duplicated on the home ground (Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, 2008).

 

The Chinese society experienced a moral and professional boost in the disables population segment. With over 300 athletes participating in the competition between Sept. 6-17 in Paralympic Games, the enthusiasm among the people for training and learning resulted into high spirits in the entire society (Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, 2008). A great boost along with inspiration, enthusiasm and high moral spirits was visible in the Chinese society before and subsequent to the Paralympic Games. They benefitted the Chinese society tremendously, along with brining special inspiration for other people through the disabled community. The head of the US Paralympic delegation, James Peake maintained that the power of Games in making the sleety better will be observed by the people when they see the extent to which disable people can accomplish (Disabled World, 2008).

 

 

 

 

 

Figures: Disables enthusiasts of 2008 Summer Paralympics Games (Beijing 2008 Paralympics Games, 2008)

People were amazed by the great performances at Paralympic Games. They entire media, and people talked of and appreciated the overwhelming athletic performances, ethereal opening of the ceremony, excellent quality television coverage, and termed it the best ever Paralympic Villages (IPC News, 2008). Chinese society remembers it as an infinite amount of self generated supply of emotions and passion, with wonderful volunteers, terrific organization, and thousands of new enthusiasts of Paralympic sports. The high spirits were appreciated by the spectators as well as Philip Craven, President of International Paralympic Committee.

 

Media Opinion: 2008 Summer Paralympics Games

The 2008 Summer Paralympics Games held at Beijing, China marked the biggest of all Paralympics by inviting the largest number of nations and breaking the most number of world record. The media reports and news coverage appeared to have been praising the high spirits of the participants in 2008 Summer Paralympics games that received huge coverage from media (Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, 2008). It was evident from the attention received by the media that the disability sport has been able to reflect the disabled people’s invisibility in an inevitable manner.

 

Changing Attitudes of Society and Media

Despite of the changes in social attitude towards the subject, people physical or cognitive disabilities, are still viewed as marginalized and ill. In the media as well as by people, the disables players are considered as unsuitable and incapable to function and work in different other social activities. Yet, there was an evident shift in the social model of disability. Most of the media has highlighted the disabled people as being ‘superheroes’ and this stereotyping has been the part of the game since the beginning (Hui, 2008).

 

Most of the news and research reports composed by the media have depicted the disabled people to have strived harder due to the attitudinal shifts in the society. They are complemented, owned, and appreciated for their efforts. The Paralympics Games of 2008 did not give rise to any controversies or concerns with regards to players or cheating as the Summer Olympics did. Media assisted in creating a further positive image of the athletes, through their capabilities, performance and other features that were clearly witnessed in the 2008 Paralympics Games (Peers, 2009). The newspapers, such as Sunday Times, The Telegraph, and Guardian, had presented clearly the effort that athletes with disability has put in their career, along with the social boost that they had been receiving from the people they were surrounded by. They proved to be a clear inspiration from their fearless deeds, and by undertaking the most challenging tasks, such as archery, swimming and others, they made the competition breathtaking for the spectators.

 

Examples

For instance, the Sunday Telegraph has commented for a Chinese swimmer, Junquan He, having no arms, as a fearless represent or of the Games. The newspaper portrayed him as the brave player in the following words:

 

“Junquan He, a Chinese swimmer with no arms. As he reached the turn he had to

Touch with his head and he was quick, painfully quick it appeared, through the

water (…) Alas for the courageous Chinese competitor…..” (Hui, 2008)

 

 

 

Junquan He

 

The Sunday Telegraph also reported on the achievements of Natalia Partyka, a table tennis player, which exhibited the similar same attitude of bravery and courage towards the woman in fighting against disability. She was born with the right arms ending just below the elbow and still had the courage to participate in the Olympics (Will, 2008).

 

Natalia Partyka

 

The Chinese Newspapers also came up with the similar descriptions about the Paralympics athletes. Oscar Pistorius has been the famous athlete who competed in Paralympics as well as Olympic games. He was given the title of the “Blade Warrior” for the reason that, when 11 months old, his legs were amputated until the below the knee. He has still been showing courage to the world (Tan, 2008).

 

 

Figure: Oscar Pistorius

 

The Guardian mentioned the 2008 Paralympics Games of China as being impressive with 4000 athletes topping the table. The newspaper accredited this, and mentioned it to be the belief of many other people too, that there has been a significant attitudinal change towards the 83 million disabled citizens in China (Tania, Alison, 2008). This refers to the application of social model of disability which has resulted in the increasing enthusiasm and determination of the disabled athletes. The scholars and campaigners noticed the prominent shift in the effect of games, not merely due to good technology like wheelchair lift, but also due to the changing attitudes of people.

 

People remember the outstanding performances of the players in words that have never been heard before. Sam Sullivan, the mayor of Vancouver expressed that the no-holds-barred staging organized at the 2008 Paralympics in China, and the spirits of the audiences had soared up the event to such heights that were never witnessed before. John Ng., the Chef-de-Mission appreciated the disabled athletes that were not able to qualify in the Beijing Paralympics and encouraged them to enter into other competitions (Disabled World, 2008). People have termed the Paralympic Games as the ‘catalyst for change’ for the disabled people in Chinese society and attitude towards them (GB Times, 2012).

Conclusion

Disability Sport has become one of the most organized forms of athletic championships in the current era. The Paralympics Sports, as they are commonly known, were held in China in 2008 which reflected clearly the social acceptance of the disabled people. Media praised the high spirits of handicapped players and this has resulted in prolonged impacts of the current domain of sports. Athletes such as Oscar Pistorius, Natalia Partyka, and Junquan He have been used as great examples in the newspapers.

 

References

 

Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. (2008). Chinese president encourages country’s Paralympians. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. (2008). Photo Gallery. Official Website of Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. (2008). Summary of the Opening Ceremony. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. (2008). The Evolution of Paralympic Games. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Christopher J. Johnstone. (2004). Disability and Identity: Personal Constructions and Formalized Supports. Disability Studies Quarterly. Fall 2004, Volume 24, No. 4

 

Department for Work and Pensions. (2014). The social model of disability. DWP. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Disabled World. (2008). Paralympics Final Day 17 September 2008. Disabled World. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Disabled World. (2013). Disability Sports: Information Regarding Sport for the Disabled. Disable World. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Garden, R. (2010). Disability and narrative: new directions for medicine and the medical humanities. Med. Humanit. 36 (2): 70–4

 

GB Times. (2012). The Paralympic effect on China’s disabled. Gbtimes. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

Howe, P.D. and Parker, A. (2012). Celebrating Imperfection: sport, disability and celebrity culture. Celebrity Studies. Vol. 3 (3) 270-282

 

Hui Zhao. (2008). The Summer Olympics and Paralympics through the lens of social science. British Library. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

IPC News. (2008). National Games for Disabled boosts China’s hope at Beijing Paralympics. The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Kaplan, Deborah. (2012). Disability Model. World Institute on Disability. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Peers, D. (2009).  (Dis) empowering Paralympic histories: absent athletes and disabling discourses. Disability and Society, 24, 5.

 

Peopledaily. (2008). China opens Beijing Paralympic Games in celebration of life and humanity. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Scherer, Marcia and Stefano Federici (2012). Assistive Technology Assessment Handbook. CRC Press. p. 425

 

Scope. (2014). Disability sport. Scope. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Tan Yingzi. (2008). Natalia Partyka: Pole apart. Chinadaily. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Tania Branigan ,Alison Rourke (2008). Paralympic Games: London needs to learn from Beijing and Sydney. The Guardian. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014

 

Weed, M. And Dowse, S. (2009) A missed opportunity waiting to happen? The social legacy potential of the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1, 2

 

Will Swanton. (2008). Dwarfs rule the pool. The Sydney Morning Herald. Web. Accessed on April 29, 2014