A Critical Examination of the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions by the Arab League: A Case Study of Economic Sanctions Against Syria
Chapter One: (20-25 pages)
(A) Introduction: The Arab League(AL) and Economic sanctions(ES).
Introduce the Arab League and Economic sanctions(ES) in general for Two pages or more. why AL used ES? When do they used ES? And then mention that the AL have used ES in different occasions. Write just a brief very short paragraph for each ES.
The first economic sanction imposed on1945 for Israel because of…., The second sanctions were made against the U.S and Netherland in 1973-74 because of… The third sanction was against Egypt in 1978-79 because of…., the fourth sanction was against Canada in 1979 because of …, the fifth sanction was against Iraq in 1990 because of…., the sixth sanction was against Libya 2011 because of…., the seventh sanction was against Syria in 2016 because of …., the eighth sanction was against Hezbollah in 2016 because of….
You should mention that, there are two type of imposing sanction (political issues and human rights issues.) The AL used both type of sanctions
This dissertation will focus in all economic sanctions made by AL with special focuse in Syria case.
(B). Statement of the Problem of the AL Charter. (Write two or Three Pages)
The AL has five problems for economic sanctions. The First one is imposing economic sanction, the charter doesn’t address it, article 5-7 is unclear. (Constitution problems)
Second problem, the enforcement is very week, the AL doesn’t have right to inforce economic sanction for local government (such as controlling the bank transaction to state has been sanctioned, control the border) there is no punishment for any country breaking the decision, it’s hard to make it successful.
Third problem compliance (in some countries such as Egypt the domestic parliament must vote and agree, so the government can enforce the decision, otherwise the country will not enforce the AL decision.
Fourth problem for imposing economic sanction there is double standard. Meaning that there some countries committed same crime and didn’t receive sanctions from the Arab League for example Nouri al Maliki president of Iraq and president of Sudan.
Fifth problem, The AL Aim and goal for imposed economic sanction against government of Syria to protect human rights, and to change the government behaver to the protest on the street. but in fact, the situation now is worse than before.
1. Problem with the Regime of Sanctions
1. The AL Charter provisions are silent about all types of sanctions.
2. The Council adopts sanctions at its discretion;
3. Meaning, there is no “real” legal basis for adoption of sanctions;
4. Articles 5-7 of AL Charter is ambiguous on regime of sanctions;
5. There is double standard in adopting sanctions (e.g: Syria) because some country committed same crime and did not receive sanction.
2. Enforcement Mechanisms of Sanctions (AL doesn’t have power to enforce economic sanctions) and there is no punishment for break embargo. Compare with EU charter there is punishment.
1. Lack of enforcement mechanisms of sanctions;
2. Each State member should enforce the Council’s sanctions based on its own domestic laws (Art. 7 of AL Charter):
1. State breaking embargo imposed on the Violating-State;
2. Private actor (bank) collaborating with the violating State.
what should AL do to inforce economic sanctions, is there any idea to inforce economic sanction? How the AL monitor the transaction for the states or groups have been sanctioned? Do the AL have legitimacy to inforce economic sanction?
• Does the Arab League (AL) have adequate legal authority to enforce the economic sanctions it imposes?
• Are the Arab League economic sanctions effective in accomplishing the purposes of the economic sanctions (i.e. is the purpose to change the target’s state behavior or to take a symbolic position against the target state)?
• Do the AL have legitimacy to enforce economic sanctions?
• What should Arab League members do about private actors (state” government” or non-state “bank OR company”) who violate AL economic sanctions? Is there any punishment?
• Is there any room from fine-tune and improve the AL economic sanction regime?
• Finally, how can AL economic sanction regime be improved by learning from the European Union’s economic sanctions experience?
(D). significant of Research: (write it in two or three paragraphs please)
• The Arab League has a charter that allows AL to impose economic sanctions; however, some members enforce the economic sanctions and others do not.
• Investigate the legal authority for (imposing and enforcing) economic sanctions – this is unclear?
• The Arab League’s Council is entitled to impose sanctions against State Members, but numerous AL Members fail to comply with the imposed sanctions. Therefore, it is important to assess the enforceability mechanisms under the Arab league.
• Are States’ noncompliance due to “illegitimacy” of sanction’s process or the bad faith of States?
• The liability of private actors (state and non-state) that violate the AL’s economic embargoes against targeted States is unclear.
(E)Purpose of the study.
(F) Gup should be fill (Interviews and questioner)
First gup. what should AL do to inforce ES? Is there any idea to inforce ES? How the AL monitor the transaction for the state has been sanctioned? Do the AL have legitimacy to inforce ES? Compare with EU
Second gup. For breaking embargo, the charter doesn’t address any punishment. Compare with EU
(G)Problems with the Regime of Sanctions by the Arab League Against Syria (two or three paragraph)
(I)Challenging (Because very few people have written in this area and lack of resources)
(J)Outline of Study Chapters. (each chapter 1 or 2 paragraphs)
Table of Contents
A Critical Examination of the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions by the Arab League: A Case Study of Economic Sanctions Against Syria. 1
1.0 Chapter 1 : Introduction (chapter one 20 ) 6
1.1 Chapter Introduction. 6
1.2 Background of the Study. 7
1.3 Statement of the Problem (each one should be written in a paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement) what is the problem?. 10
1.4 Objective of the study (each one should be written in paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement) 10
1.5 Research Questions (each one should be written in paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement) 11
1.6 Methodology (Just two or three pages) 12
1.6.2 Research Methods. 14
1.6.3 Data Type (Primary and Secondary Data) 14
1.6.4 Methodology Limitations. 15
1.6.5 Ethical Considerations. 16
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study. 16
1.8 Challenges of the Study. 16
1.9 Outline of Study Chapters: 17
Chapter Two: 17
In chapter two, brief background of the entire case has been built. A brief history regarding the Arab League, the purpose for which it was formed, the structure of the Arab League and the decision making Process of Arab League has been discussed. Part two of this chapter deals with the background framework for the situation existing at Syria. It covers a brief of the revolution, including the reasons and peace agreement that was made with Arab League. It evaluates the reasons for Arab League confirming its economic sanction against Syria. 17
Chapter Three: 17
Chapter Four: 17
Chapter Six: 18
In this concluding chapter the ambiguity and deficient enforcement mechanisms with the Arab League’s charter provisions are provided. 18
2.0 Chapter Two: Background. 18
2.1 Chapter Introduction. 18
2.2 Background of the Arab League. 19
2.2.1 History of the Arab League. 20
2.2.2 Purpose of the Arab League. 25
2.2.3 Structure of the Arab League. 29
2.2.4 Decision-Making Process of the Arab League. 31
2.3 Background of the Situation of Syria. 34
2.3.1 When did the revolution start? Why? 35
2.3.2 First revolution 1982. 37
2.3.3 Second revolution 2011. 40
2.4 Reason for the revolution. 45
2.5 Peace Agreement 51
2.5.1 Arab League peace plans for Syria. 55
2.6 Was it the failure of Syria to adhere to the peace plan rather than the human rights violations that led to sanctions. 58
3.0 Chapter Three: Concepts of Economic Sanctions under the Arab League. 65
3.1 Chapter Introduction. 65
3.2 Overview of the Sanctions Under the Arab League. 67
3.2.1 Conditions for Imposing Economic Sanctions. 67
220.127.116.11 History (write all the sanctions were imposed by the AL in general) this is Empirical study) 70
18.104.22.168 Political Issues (Mention all these sanctions in details because they are political Issues, Israel, Egypt, USA, Canada and Iraq) 71
22.214.171.124 Human Rights Issues (Mention all these sanctions in details because they are human right issues Libya and Syria) 76
3.3 Regime of Economic Sanctions under the Arab League. 83
3.3.1 Legality of sanction based on the Arab League Charter 83
3.4 Regime of Sanctions for Human Rights Violations. 85
3.4.1 Legality of Sanctions based on Human Rights Violations. 85
Figure 1: Flag and Emblem of Arab League. 4
Figure 2: Member States Government Types. 28
Figure 3: Structure of the Arab League. 38
1.0 Chapter 1: Introduction (between 20-25 pages)
The paper Must have footnotes, and prof reading.
1.1 Chapter Introduction
The Arab League also known formally as the League of Arab States that is a congregation of regional Arab countries from Arabia and North Africa the Arab League was formed on 22 March 1945 in Cairo, Egypt where its headquarters is currently based with six member states. The initial member countries included Kingdom of Iraq, Kingdom of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia.
Delate this picture please, Is not necessary
Figure 1: Flag and Emblem of Arab League
Source: (Maddy-Weitzman, The Arab league comes alive.)
The number of members in the league has increased ever since and now includes a membership of 22 countries. The current Secretariat of Arab League’s current secretariat is Ahmed Aboul Gheit and President of Arab Parliament Council is Dr Meshal Alsulami. The Arab League was established by adopting the Alexandria Protocol in 1944The main aim in establishing the league was organizing the Arab countries regionally with prime focus on development of their economies, coordination of political aims and in resolving disputes.
Arab league covers a total of almost 13,132,327 km2 with a population estimate as per 2015, being 423,000,000. GDP of the Arab League stands at USD$8,335 trillion and there are approximately 21 currencies in use within the league (Ottaway, 2010).
The current study pertains to the economic sanctions that Arab League has made against Syria. Though the primary objective of Arab League is to
“draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries”. Yet Syria’s participation has been suspended since 2011 due to government repression in the Syrian Civil War (Blattman, 2010).
This study aims to understand the basis of the economic sanctions as laid down in the official document referred to as the Charter of the Arab League and the processes it uses to apply such sanctions. The various purposes as well as decision making processes enhances an understanding of the procedure adopted by the League in order to isolate a particular country.
The case study of Syria is a recent example of the League making such a decision pertaining to a specific country not abiding its decision to maintain peace in its region. Though the League deploys economic sanctions as the most effective tool for applying a penance measure but it the study establishes the effectiveness to which such measures yield results. To maintain peace and well-conduct in the region is the primary aim of the Arab league and to avoid any military or armed conflict, but the steps taken is not adequate for member country for applying such a measure.
1.2 Background of the Study
Arab League was established to benefit member from various economic sanctions for various causes. It abides by the universal sanctioning regime approved by UNSC which is covered in Chapter Seven of UN Charter. The Arab League might multilaterally impose economic sanctions against any state from its own member’s states or a foreign member country. In case of any type of economic sanctions, prior approval of all member states is required, to ensure that all states are bound by the sanctioning regime (MacFarquhar, 2011). Though the league had been established in the year 1945 it has only effectively imposed eight economic sanctions.
You should introduce economic sanction in general in two or three paragraphs, why AL used ES? When do they used ES? And then mention that the AL have used ES in different occasions
The term economic sanction refers to a penalty on a country or countries for violating any norms, rules, regulations pertaining to civil, humanitarian or other consequences. Economic sanction is implied in several respect including trade barriers, restrictions on financial transactions, trade barriers and so on. The economic sanctions are imposed for political, social and military issues.
Write just a brief paragraph for each sanction, and sanctions was successful or not with footnotes ( in chapter three will write more in details)
The first economic sanction imposed was on 2 December 1945, post Israel’s invasion and occupying Palestine. The second sanctions were made against the U.S and Netherland in 1973-74 because of……. (Kamrava, 2012). The third sanction was against Egypt in 1978-79 because of………., the fourth sanction was against Canada in 1979 because of ………, the fifth sanction was against Iraq in 1990 because of………., the sixth sanction was against Libya 2011 because if……., the seventh sanction was against Syria in 2016 because of ………., the eighth sanction was against Hezbollah in 2016 because of……….
This dissertation focusing and examine the effectiveness of economic sanction made in 2011 against Syria. Syria had a long-lasting civil war which was unresolved and the government of the had been unsuccessful in resolving such conflict. The Arab League had time and again warned Syria to resolve their conflicts but the wide spread human right violation of the country, resulted in its losing out of economic sanctions. There were four major economic sanctions imposed against Syria, they are;
• Disconnecting banking transactions with the Syrian Central Bank
• Stoppage of funding for various projects in Syria by the Arab Government
• Syrian officials were banned to travel to different Arabian countries
• Freezing on assets of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s government(Ryan, 2012)
This study aims to develop a critical understanding of the economic sanctions made by the Arab League on Syria and its consecutive effects. Thereafter, this study aims to recognize the effectiveness of such a measure on member countries. The primary motive behind applying such a measure is to penalize member countries for not abiding by the requirements or purposes laid down in the League for its successful execution. Syria is an ideal case example that can effectively highlight, the various problems and issues it faced post the economic sanction was made against the country. However, it has been debated in the study that such a penalty imposes further stringent restrictions and penalizes humanitarian rather than the country as a whole such as the Iraq half million child died. In addition of that create black market, refugees, money laundry and other.
Such sanctions have been deeply criticized and their effectiveness to yield particular results.
1.3 Statement of the Problem (each one should be written in a paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement) what is the problem?
The various problems of the economic sanctions done by the Arab League are;
• Legal Authority
• Problem 1: Arab League’s Charter provisions to impose economic sanctions
• Problem 2: The Council adopts sanctions at its discretion, meaning, there is no “real” legal basis for adoption of sanctions
• Problem 3: Articles 5-7 of AL Charter is ambiguous on regime of sanctions
• Problem 4: There is double standard in adopting sanctions. For examples AL didn’t sanction president of Sudan Omer Al Bashir and president of Iraq Nouri Al Maliki, both are dictatorship.
• Problem 1: Enforceability mechanisms of the Arab league
• Problem 2: Each State member should enforce the Council’s sanctions based on its own domestic laws (Art. 7 of AL Charter)
• Problem 3: State breaking embargo imposed on the violating-state
• Problem 4: No legitimacy to inforce economic sanctions
1.4 Objective of the study (each one should be written in paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement)
The main objective of the study is to identifying the various effects of the Arab League imposing economic sanction on Syria and the various laws and rules regarding the same. Moreover, there is gap for enforcing economic sanction should be filled. I will fill this gup
• Legal Authority
• Research Objective 1: To study the various Arab League’s Charter provisions to impose economic sanctions
• Research Objective 2: To understand how the Council adopts various economic sanctions
• Research Objective 3: To analyze the meaning, there is no “real” legal basis for adoption of sanctions
• Research Objective 4: To study Articles 5-7 of AL Charter is ambiguous on regime of sanctions
• Research Objective 5: To understand that there is double standard in adopting sanctions
• Research Objective 1: To realize the enforceability mechanisms of the Arab league
• Research Objective 2: To analyze each State member enforcement of the Council’s sanctions based on its own domestic laws (Art. 7 of AL Charter)
• Research Objective 3: To analyze State breaking embargo imposed on the violating-state
1.5 Research Questions (each one should be written in paragraph, Legal Authority and Enforcement)
• Legal Authority
• Research Question 1: What are the Arab League’s Charter provisions to impose economic sanctions?
• Research Question 2: What process the Council adopts in order to sanction its discretion?
• Research Question 3: What are the “real” legal basis for adoption of sanctions?
• Research Question 4: What processes Articles 5-7 of AL Charter follows on regime of sanctions?
• Research Question 5: Evaluate if there is double standard in adopting sanctions?
• Research Question 1: What are the enforceability mechanisms of the Arab league?
• Research Question 2: What process each State member should enforce for the Council’s sanctions based on its own domestic laws (Art. 7 of AL Charter)?
• Research Question3: Do the AL has legitimacy to inforce economic sanctions?
• Research Question 4: What are the State breaking embargo imposed on the violating-state?
1.6 Methodology (NO MORE THAN 3 PAGES)
It’s going to be historical and comparative, questioners and interviews. this study is going to be qualitative
Every research follows a particular methodology in order to each the end result and goals of the study. In order to accomplish this study a particular research design and procedure for data collection has been adopted. The following is the step by step research methodology adopted and reaches the research goal.
1.6.1 Research Design Strategy
Research design is the process of drawing the rough sketch that leads to the progress of the entire study. The method for data collection and subsequent analysis of the same is laid by the research design for arriving at desired result (Brink, 2006). Research design also helps in formulating the approach for collecting system for data collecting and the arithmetic toll adopted for compiling of the same. Research design has been explained by many researchers but Beri in the year 2007 came up with a formal definition of the same, proposing that it is a plan or structure and strategy for investigating and for reaching answers to research questions within a controlled variance (Gomm). Research design also explains the various tools as well as methods used for understanding the rational for research data and thereupon compounding it. Research design provides a smooth flowing framework for connecting the various variables for the study that functions in synchronization with each other and aids project to be concluded in a suitable manner (Mackenzie, 2006).
Research design for this study explains the approach developed for conducting it, which is mixed methodology design and uses of various literature sources for collection of qualitative as well as quantitative data. Data collected for the purpose of this research is primary secondary in nature and the justification for the same is explained in research design.
1.6.2 Research Methods
Research design methods can be of three types, explorative, explanatory and descriptive research designs. A particular style of research designing is selected on the based on the problem of the study and design style to be adopted. Explorative research design stresses on disclosing of various philosophies as well as visions. The research design should be made in such a way that it combines the various characteristics and phenomenon of the research work (Peffers, 2007). A descriptive type of research design is attempted when researcher desires to set up apposite as well as specific means in order t calculating and arriving at the result. This research design is stringent in all manner and determines the method in which the study is structured. In exploratory research designs, a more casual approach is followed for the study and the scholar aims to establish a cause-effect relationship amongst the various variables in the study. The scholar aims to establish the reasons and objectives for the study and a relationship between variables (Christensen, 2008).
Research design adapted for this particular study is explorative in nature, as it suits the nature of the study. The aim of the research is to understand the economic sanctions against Syria, following its crisis situation and the various legalities affecting it. Hence the study aims to study and understand the deep impacts created by such a step and the provisions of the Charter of Arab League providing for such impacts.
1.6.3 Research Approach
Once the research design has been ascertained, it is imperative to provide a direction for the research, which is provided by research approach. A research approach can either be deductive or inductive in nature, and it depends upon the conduct of the research. A deductive research approach is one in which the scholar observes the hypothetical model. In this approach first an assumption is made and then through the conduct of the study it is substantiated. A scholar generally adopts this model when he wants to follow a testing procedure for conducting his research work (Mackenzie). The process focuses more on causality from inferential arguments of primary data collected.
Inductive approach on the other hand bases its assumptions with developing theories from sets of available data that can be easily found. Inductive approach is more looked upon as theory of founding methodology. If inductive approach is selected it examines various data collected and then examines them against ground breaking theory. This approach enables to contemplate various novel points from various viewpoints available (Dörnyei). In this study the scholar has resorted to deductive approach, as it is well suited to conduct the study and establish it.
1.6.4 Research Strategy
A research strategy adapted forms an integral part of the methodology as it helps resolutions of problems of the research. A well-formed research strategy helps analyzing the objectives of the study by use of various tools in gathering of data and thereupon investigating it. In research strategy the various suppositions for the study is tested and available data is searched thoroughly. For the purpose of collecting secondary data regarding the economic sanction in Syria, research strategy adopted was searching through various journals and websites (Mackey). The scholar had resorted to an extremely well-defined and clear-cut data assortment procedure for qualitative data collection. The research strategy has been intended for comprehending the various requirements according to the laid down objectives for the research.
1.6.5 Data collection procedures
In order to conduct any type of research it is imperative to collect and analyze necessary data for attaining the research objectives. Every scholar conducting a research needs to finalize the process of data collection for promoting his research work. Data collected has to be precise and supporting the significant cause for the project. Almost conducting every type of research involves sampling of data for its suitable collection and analysis (Sapsford). Sampling allows easy handling off data and its organization such that it is able to be gathered within a comprehendible costs and inexpensive method.
1.6.6 Data Type (Primary and Secondary Data)
Data collected for the purpose of conducting a research can either be primary or secondary in nature. Primary type of data collected is considered to be the most authentic type of data that is reliable and dependable.
Primary data is the first hand data collected for conducting the research and is gathered by means of questionnaires, interviews, surveys and so on and so forth. The researcher decides the basis of the interview and is collected by means of questionnaires, formatted interviews and so on (Silverman, 2016). The research questions need to be well-structured such that the collected data meets the norms and objectives of the research.
In secondary type of data collection method, data collected is not first hand in nature. Secondary sources is the data collected from journals, books, websites, company information and so on (Cova, 2008). For the purpose of this research secondary sources of data have been resorted to and the scholar has verified the authenticity of the content of such data to all possible extent.
1.6.7 Sampling Plan
In order to conduct a particular study, it is often impossible to study the entire population and arrive at the result. Sampling is a suitable technique adopted for the purpose of processing a wide range of complex data which otherwise is difficult to calculate and compute (Bradley). Scholars are faced with the challenges of time and resources, due to which the procedure of sampling is adopted. There are two most popular sampling technique for conducting research study. They are sampling based on probability and sampling based on non-probability. In a probability based sampling procedure, every data has an equal chance for occurrence, from a range of assorted data and it is generally assumed when population is not uniform in nature. In non-probability based sampling procedure components does not depend on chances for its occurrence (Dickson-Swift). In order to conduct this research, the data collected is primarily random and non-probability based sampling method.
1.6.8 Data Analysis procedures (analysis method, statistical tools and techniques, software used)
For conducting the following research main qualitative data has been resorted to. Hence the qualitative data has been analyzed on the basis of deductive approach, where various theories and acts are used to understand the complexity of data collected. The data collected and analyzed has been utilized for the computation of complex recommendations for Arab League for its application.
1.6.9 Verifying Data Accuracy
In every research it is important to determine the data accuracy in order to ascertain results. Data accuracy has an important role in data collection technique and procedure. Data validity extends to data verification that has to be conducted and applied on data collection procedure (Noor).
In every research it is extremely necessary to validate the collected data. For conducting the research if data collected is invalid then the results of the study is deemed to be invalid and unconstructive in nature. There are three main types of validity; they are internal validity, constructive validity and external validity (Koul). The data collected for the objective of this study was intended to be valid to all possible extent, and it was also reliable. The scholar has collected secondary sources of data for conducting the researcher and has cross-checked and verified the validity from another source, in order to ascertain its reliability.
Reliability of a study is the most important aspect, as it is influential in measuring the amount of error and consistency in a particular study (Neuman). Reliability is determined by the quality of research and the necessary input and data that guarantees portraying imperative influences from the various investigations.
1.6.12 Methodology Limitations
The study has to every extent conducted with the highest precision and diligence. Every aspect of the study has been compiled with thoroughness, yet there were some inescapable stipulations that have arisen in the conduct of the study. they are;
• The study has been developed taking into consideration the economic sanction of Arab League against Syria. The study has not been effective in covering the aspects and effects of other popular economic sanctions made in the world.
• The study does make any recommendation to the Arab League for adapting any suitable provision for its Charter, in the view of normalizing economic sanctions.
• The study has been conducted purely on theoretical grounds and no relevant quantitative data has been used for the purpose of this study. Hence, the study is able to reflect on a myopic consideration for the economic sanction.
1.6.13 Ethical Considerations
Every study has its own ethical issues, which is developed due to the collection of data and its analysis. This study has tried and complied with the major ethical issues and context to the extent that was possible. The study has not copied any part of the material from any other source. Neither the study has falsified any data, either primary or of secondary nature. Data collected were of ethical nature and there is no prejudice of any kind involved in the research. The various respondents of data to this research were not forced by any means for obtaining data and the respondents were made aware regarding the unpretentious objectives of research.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study
The study has been developed and conducted by use of various literature sources. Though diversified journals and academic literatures has been referred to highlight the purpose of conducting the research. The following research has mainly resorted to secondary type of data for concluding various facts and facets and data pertaining to economic sanction against Syria has been referred to. For understanding the position and effect of the economic sanction against Syria, though various other economic sanctions conducted by the Arab League, have been evaluated. Yet the scope of this study is very limited and can be applied to the case of Syria itself and cannot be expanded beyond its purview. The study is very limited in its applicability and may not be used or referred to for conducting other studies pertaining to similar nature.
1.8 Challenges of the Study
In order to conduct this study there were several challenges that were encountered. The primary of all challenges was the availability of material and journals for evaluating the exact situation faced in the Syria case. Very limited research has been done in the area of evaluation of economic sanctions against Syria. Due to lack of availability of ample sources, the scope of the study was also limited. There were no specific companies or other source that could be contacted in order to get valuable information regarding the economic sanctions. The study required a lot of time to be developed, for compiling and assimilating information pertaining to the case.
1.9 Outline of Study Chapters:
The report has been structured into six total chapters apart from the introduction chapter.
Chapter Two: (should be two or three paragraphs)
In chapter two, brief background of the entire case has been built. A brief history regarding the Arab League, the purpose for which it was formed, the structure of the Arab League and the decision making Process of Arab League has been discussed. Part two of this chapter deals with the background framework for the situation existing at Syria. It covers a brief of the revolution, including the reasons and peace agreement that was made with Arab League. It evaluates the reasons for Arab League confirming its economic sanction against Syria.
Chapter Three: (it should be two or three paragraphs)
This chapter deals with the various Concepts of Economic Sanctions under the Arab League. It explains the conditions for imposing such sanctions including history, political issues and human rights. The legality for the sanction is also explained in this chapter and the legality on the basis of human right violation is evaluated, moreover identify the gup in this dissertation
Chapter Four: (it should be two or three paragraphs)
This chapter deals with the critical analysis of enforceability of the Arab League’s Decisions. It explains the notion of compliance by defining it and explaining it with historical background. The enforceability of the decisions of the Arab League’s decisions and its impact is evaluated and in the later part of this chapter.
Chapter Five: (it should be two or three paragraphs)
This chapter deals with certain recommendations for reforming the Arab League Charter by analyzing provisions that need to be changed. The reforms for the National Laws of the Arab League’s state members are also discussed in this chapter.
In this concluding chapter the ambiguity and deficient enforcement mechanisms with the Arab League’s charter provisions are provided.
Chapter Two: History of the AL (30 pages)
Section One: Background of the Arab League
• History of the AL (explain why it formed) the AL established in opposition on to colonialism,
• Purpose of the AL (Article 2)
• Structure of the AL
• Decision-Making Process of the AL
• History of economic sanctions in the AL (all sanctions made by AL) In chapter 3 will focus if ES because of political or human right and the legality of ES.
Section Two: History of the Situation of Syria
• When did, the revolution start? Why?
o First revolution 1982
1. Reason for the revolution
2. What the government of Syria did for revolutions?
• what Arab league did for this revolution?
• Second revolution 2011
1. Reason for the revolution
2. What the government of Syria did for revolutions?
• what Arab league did for this revolution?
• Peace Agreement
• The Arab League peace plans for Syria
Section three: Was it the failure of Syria to adhere to the peace plan rather than the human rights violations that led to sanctions
Section Four: Conclusion