Critical Geopolitical Analysis of China and Geopolitical Risks


China, one of the nations that have strengthened its strategic partnership with other countries, especially in Africa has attracted the attention of other nations such as America and European Nations. China’s dynamic nature of its economic, diplomatic, and political environment contributes to its diverse activities across the continent. The country’s leadership strategies and historical economic experiences translate to its political linkages cooperation it receives from its business partners. Some of the China’s practices contributing to its stable and performing geopolitical environment include its ability to credit other nations, which threatens the international industries involved in the provision of aid to the African and other states in need of foreign aid. Therefore, it is because of the geopolitical stability of China that this essay analyzes the geopolitical nature and geopolitical risks facing China.

Geopolitical Analysis of China

Geopolitical analysis of China reveals china as an island bordered by terrain that cannot be traversed. Non-Chinese buffer and Chinese heartland form the two major internal divisions of China. Historically, China’s threat originated from Han China, one of the regions full of rain and rivers that attracted merchants and farmers. China’s increasing population as from the 15th century provided extreme vulnerability to military forces migrating across the country. The terrain provided it with defensible borders ensuring its stability and control against external aggression. Hkakabo Razi provides a border between the country and its neighbors, India and Myanmar. Other surrounding terrains such as the Himalayas and Pacific coasts provide defensive borders and business points hence, China’s stability. The country’s population and size make it harder for foreigners to invade and occupy. Similarly, it makes hard for the Chinese to invade others. Therefore, expanding its international business markets becomes China’s only option to adopt (Kynge, 2007).

China has three major dominant geopolitical related imperatives. This includes maintaining internal unity in its regions, maintaining control over its buffer regions, and preventing human encroachment of the coast. China’s maintains its internal unity with ease due to the abundant availability of resources and large size of the population. This enables it develop with little intercourse with other nations around the world. For instance, china was an insulator country during the Maoist period, which enabled it, to maintain stability of its internal security and improvement of its internal interests. China engages in exporting different products and services such as silk and industrial products to achieve its prosperity. The pacific coast provides china with edged industrialization secondary to the opening of the country to the outside world through the facilitation of business activities. This reflects the role played by the Pacific coast since time immemorial to the current time in facilitating china’s geopolitical stability (Agnew, 2010).

Buffer regions such as the Han China provide China with the desired defense from external invasion. Consolidation of the Chinese buffer regions enables it to achieve control over geopolitical issues arising from surrounding states such as Pakistan and Vietnam. Additionally, china has the imperative of protecting its coast from encroachment such as from the Japanese army disintegrating China’s economic stability. Achieving control over these regions translates to China’s success in achieving its military and political goals. The intact nature of the buffer regions implies safety of China from threats brought by the Eurasia nations. China achieves its modest expansion due to an abundant supply of energy for industrial purposes from Kazakhstan. The fact that China does not have military related geopolitical problems makes it have strong political, economic, and social environment. Consequently, this accounts for China’s political and political stability (Zhao, 2005).

Economically, China has an export-preoccupied economy. The country is dependent on other nations. Despite the size of its technology and cheap nature, China depends largely on the willingness and export of goods and services to other states. Disruption of these channels results in massive downfall of the Chinese economy. Higher purchasing power from other nations contributes to China’s steady economic growth. Factors such cheap prices of Chinese goods due to wage differentials contribute to the high purchasing of the Chinese products by the foreign states. Because of these, China achieves its desired internalization adaptive to the dynamic changes of the global policy disclosures hence, China’s multilateral and bi-national nature of economic development (Kynge, 2007).

Geopolitical Risks Facing China

Despite the China’s geopolitical achievements identified in the above analysis, it is evidently that, geopolitical risks are likely to affect its performance in the global market. For example, China faces the challenge of ensuring a state of equilibrium between its interior and the coast. The coastal regions enjoy benefits such as flourishing businesses with the outside world, leading to massive wealth in the region. China’s interior faces the challenge of decreased accessibility to the outside world. This leads to minimal business undertakings resulting in extraordinary poverty. This creates a tension to the Chinese government due to the need of ensuring equal economic growth between these regions hence, a serious geopolitical issue. China faces a risk of having a dysfunctional financial system. It struggles to maintain its customers by taking money from the American banks, which might render its global financial system dysfunctional. Factors such as conversion of the state’s farmland into factory farms place China at a risk of experiencing further dysfunctional financial systems. Consequently, these places China in a position of facing severe financial and economic challenges in the future (Agnew, 2010).

China depends largely on the other countries acceptability to its goods and services. This means that, slight changes in the competitiveness of China’s products and services results in a significant decline in its export performance. Consequently, this causes a shift in Chinese performance in the export market, hence the decline in economic performance. Historically, China has a sour relationship with its rival nation, Russia. China’s active influence of Kazakhstan, one of Russia’s dominant translates to hostile relationship between the two states, which might affect China’s economic performance. For example, Russia might decide to compete with China in providing benefits to Kazakhstan implying decreased energy supply to China hence, declined industrialization. Moreover, China faces geopolitical risk from the United States of America navy. The U.S navy might choose to blockade the Chinese coast since they have conducted seaborne trade with the Chinese making them have an advantage of taking over its coast. Other geopolitical risks facing China include the challenge posed by naval in Taiwan that can act as an isolating factor for maritime movement across the east and south Chinese seas (Zhao, 2005).


Military and politics form the key foundations of geopolitics. Achievement of stability between the two requires China to maintain security in its buffer regions and diversification of its business undertaking in foreign countries. Therefore, China should aim at ensuring equal economic development in its interior and coastal regions to ensure optimum economic growth and minimize economic conflicts. The success of this depends on the adoption of measures aiming at responding to the geopolitical risks facing the state.



Agnew, J. (2010). Emerging China and Critical Geopolitics: Between World Politics and Chinese Particularity.Eurasian Geography and Economics, 51(5), 569–582.

Kynge, J. (2007). China shakes the world: A titan’s rise and troubled future and the challenge for America. Boston: Mariner Books.

Zhao, S. (2005). China’s pragmatic nationalism: Is it manageable? The Washington Quarterly, 29(1), 131–144.

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