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Determination of the Total Hardness of Water by EDTA Titration and Flame Photometry and ICP-AES

1.0 Abstract of experiment

An experiment to determine the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in drinking water (determination of water hardness) is a common experiment carried out several times. In this experiment I used two different methods to determine the levels of concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in different samples of drinking water samples. One evident fact is that, the two methods (EDTA Titration and ICP-AES analysis) yielded the same conclusion after statistically analyzing the results.

                                                2.0 Introduction

Several running taps will always produce hard water. Water hardness implies that there is a presence of some concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the water. This can be evident by the formation of white-build up in several containers including tea kettles and white spots on dishware.





The outcomes from the examination seem to propose that the qualities controlled by both strategies are factually the same. The outcomes give off an impression of being inside the extents set by the standard deviations except for the magnesium fixation in the DXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



BELI, S.L & ZIRINO, A. Behavior and calibration of Cu (II) ion selective electrode in high chloride medium and marine waters. Anal. Chem., 65:2583-2589, 1993.


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