Essay Sample on Tort Law
Tort Law – Duty of Care and Negligence
At the surface of the facts surrounding tort law, the disagreement evolving around it, rear up with respect
to the specific labels which are utilized in defining the basic aspects. It is a second nature of lawyers
and specifically law scholars to examine the doctrines of liability on a spectrum which ranges from intentional
acts of tort though the foggy boundary jurisdiction of recklessness or carelessness, continues with acts of
negligence and comes to a halt with absolute liability and strict liability. In negligence tort, the doctrinal
content and definitions are extremely controversial. According to its formal definition, negligence may be
applied on conduct and risk as illustrated by the case, Heaven v. Pender, which rests on thecharter of duty
as derived from the relations between the parties. Nonetheless there are other definitions, as given by the
culpability spectrum, where the judgment that an individual was found guilty of an extremely slight act of
negligence is indicated in the doctrine borrowed from the ancient Roman law. Acts of negligence often result
in damages, which range depending on its impact. The most challenging damage is the psychiatric damage, which
the injury to an individual’s state of mind, scientifically, a nervous shock. Psychiatric damage emerging out
of a physical injury to an individual is unproblematic and easily recoverable. However, psychiatric damages
inconsequential to physical injury can also be a subject of negligent action including the duty of care between
the Def; the victim and the PI; the causer. In this case, the damage may be purely psychological such as
depression, or post-traumatic stress, or may be physical such as heart attack.
With the case involving the fire which raged down Dwain’s knitting needle factory, there is a great challenge of
determining whether thereliability to pay damages resulting from the negligently inflicted psychological injuries.
With the claim made by Annabel, Bilal, Colin, and Eric’s estate in suing Dwain, it is clear that there is no
liability to pay the damages. As indicated in the case ofMcLoughlin v. O’Brien, a cause of action cannot be
established in the side of Dwain. The ingenuity of the argumentthat Dwain negligently caused the fire should
be admired. The statement of claim fails to establish a cause of action. There have been significant developments
in the cases involving liability for psychological injury which to a greater extent may form the damage’s head.
For instance, Lord Wilberforce in deciding the case, McLoughlin v. O’Brien, recognizes that a claim may be made
for psychiatric shock even though there is no immediate aspect of causation or if there exists a fear of direct
personal injury to the Def, who in the case are Annabel, Bilal, Colin, and Eric’s estate. However, Lord Wilberforce
accepts that there are various limitations on the class of persons who are not injured but may claim damages.
For example, when individuals are not in a position to hear or see the consequences of the event resulting in
injury to some other person (Horsey&Rackley 2013).
These restrictions were clearly spelled out in the case, Alcock&ors v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire
(Bar, Blackie, Clive, Swann & Study Group on a European Civil Code 2009). It was accepted that an individual
who is claiming damages though not directly involved in the disastrous event should have heard or seen the vent
or come across it in the immediate consequences as per Lord Oliver and Lord Ackner. In the claims made by the
Defs, all claims reasonably have an immediate involvement with the consequences of the fire berth. However, in
the case, Frost  2 AC 455, the reasons behind distinction of psychological and physical harm were analyzed
by Lord Steynillustrating why the law has ensued cautiously in recognizing the genuine claims for psychological
harm. For example, it is difficult to differentiate between psychiatric injury and severe grief to broaden the
range of recognized claims. This might not only aggravateadditional claims but also levy a uneven liability on
the defendants in a case where personal injury to the Defs could not be rationally have been foreseen.
Nonetheless, there is no liability to pay damage as claimed by Annabel, Bilal, Colin, and Eric’s estate, majorly
because a cause of action could not be established with the defendant. It cannot be established that Dwain acted
negligently. There is substantial or circumstantial evidence which can be relied on in determining negligent act
with Dwain. Although Dwain owns the form, he is not directly involved in the installation or the repair of the
electric wiring system. Therefore, he did not owe any duty to the plaintiff. Although, he owes his employees the
duty of care, this duty is limited only to them alone. Lastly in the case of Eric’s estate no liability could
exist in common law for the psychological injury to individual who were informed of incident, and did not
essentiallyrecognize the event or its consequence, thus the damages claims could be inconsistent and could not
stand in determining the damages. The need for anabrupt shock or undeviating perception of an event or its
consequence indicates that the presence of an owed duty requires excessively reasonable foreseeability of
On the other hand the claims made by Dwain seeking damages for the negligent inflicted psychological injury
against the contractor can be justified. As seen in the case, Attia v British Gas Corporation, where the Attiahired
the defendant to set upa central heating system in her home. Upon her returning from work she found her house in
fire and by the time the fire brigade arrived, the fire could not be put out (Abbott, Pendlebury&Wardman 2007).
Although the defendant admitted the act of negligence and went on to pay the damages, British Gas Corporation
declined to pay the damages to the psychological injury suffered by Attia. It disputed the claims, arguing that
it was rationally unforeseeable, thus damages could not be recovered. However, it was ruled that the incident was
reasonably foreseeable. Similarly with the claims made by Dwain, the incident of fire was foreseeable as the
contractor had poorly installed the electric wiring system. The psychological injury to Dwain was a result of
negligent actions of the contractor which, when judged by the principle of reason ought to have been foreseen.
Additionally, it should be considered that in determining the scope of liability in negligence, it is essential
to recognize the concerns which was satisfactory to appealto any legal protection.
Abbott, K., Pendlebury, N., &Wardman, K. 2007,Business law, Thomson, London.
Bar, C. ., Blackie, J., Clive, E. M., Swann, S., & Study Group on a European Civil Code 2009,Non-contractual
liability arising out of damage caused to another: (PEL Liab. Dam.), Sellier, Munich
Horsey, K., &Rackley, E. 2013,Tort law, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.