History on Revolution
Comparison of French and American Revolutionaries as a Result of the Influence of Enlightenment Philosophy
Both French and American revolution was highly influenced by enlightenment philosophy. Revolution in both France and the United States took dissimilar courses that led to different outcomes (Countryman, 1989). The enlightenment age is a Western Philosophy era that encompasses scientific, intellectual and cultural aspects in their lives around the 18Th Century. This was considered the principal source of authority and legitimacy. Still the two revolutions took strikingly different courses and had different outcomes. Write an essay comparing and contrasting these two revolutions.
There were various acts of aggression that substituted reason revolution in power and the decline in the economy during the French, Russian Chinese and American Revolutions. When reason replaced these extended acts of hostility, American and French Revolutions were marred by a significant abuse of power by their authorities that led to unfavorable conditions and hurt to their citizens. In America, violence was seen to replace reason around the commencement of the revolution (Jensen, 1968).
Americans conducted a boycott on English commodities that failed. This boycott was put to place in order to prompt parliament to retract the intolerable acts of violence. As a result, the 13 protectorates form a common army. The army in Britain found out and consecutively marched to capture the leader of the colonies. Consecutively, they retrieved the colonists’ weapons (Jensen, 1968). The differences came in between the two revolutions is that the French experienced a great height of war (7 years) that led to massive devastation as compared to the Americans. In addition, the lower middle class constituted a bigger part of the rebellion as compared to the loyalists who made the biggest part of the revolution in America (Countryman, 1989).
The Role of Industrial Revolution on the Lives of Europeans and how Intellectuals Responded to the Changes
By the end of World War two, the Iron Curtain had divided Europe into an American dominated region and the East that was mainly Soviet dominated. The NATO put Western countries under its jurisdiction and consequently came up with the Economic Community of Europe within them. At this time, the East was comprised of communist territories that were under the Soviet Union which meant they were under military leadership. At the same time, there were neutral countries within the union (Historylearningsite.co.uk, 2007). The late 80’s marked the fall of the Soviet Union and a gain of independence by Communist Bloc countries. The integration of the west deepened and led to the expansion and inclusion of most of the former Eastern Communist around 2004. Industrial revolution and the changes around the early 19Th Century caused many improvements and in Agriculture, transportation, socio-economic and cultural issues. Subsequently, this spread to North America Europe and eventually the rest of the world through the process of industrialization (Hunt, L., et al, 2001). Towards the end of the 18Th Century, manual labor was beginning to be overtaken by industry based equipment that intensified production scale.
The construction of vast canals made it possible for railways and roads to be constructed so as to make trade and transportation easier. The invention of steam power that was powered by coal made significant increases in the scale of production in many industries especially the textile. Metallic tools and machines heightened the process of industry making the effect spread to Europe and the rest of the world (Historylearningsite.co.uk, 2007). This revolution gave opportunity to people to earn a living working in these industries and at the same time made their lives easier. Critics argued that these changes would cause negative effects to the social and economic structure of society through economic wrangles and the changes in societal structure (Hunt, L., et al, 2001). With time, this has been adopted to suit the different structures of the socio-economic diversity of different societies.
Why did European nations become increasingly imperialistic from the 1880s until the early 1900s? What was the outcome of this new imperialism?
New Imperialism is the expansion of colonies that was adopted by most European powers and also Japan and the US later on. During the 19Th and early 20Th Centuries this expansion took place beginning with the conquest of Algeria by the French. Commercial and economic competition led to rivalry for markets for their excess produce (Porter, 1996). Powers such as France, Germany and the US became industrialized and created the need to have external markets and dominance within external territories. This sought of competition increased within the Long Depression that lasted between1873-1896. As a result there was pressure on governments to abandon free trade and adopt an agreement between regions. The limitation of export opportunities and domestic markets made governments’ and leaders across Europe to seek a solution for sheltered markets that dealt with trade barriers and at the same time offer raw materials at a cheap price (Kindelberger,1961).
The System Theory of the World’s approach by Immanuel Wallerstein looks at imperialism as an extension of capital investment. By echoing Immanuel’s perspective, historian Porter Bernard, claims Britain’s adoption of this form imperialism as having an effect on the relative diminishing of the world. This neo-imperialism led to the spread of Europeanism from the West of Europe, North America and finally the rest of the world. As a result, industrialization and development has become a global improvement to the rest of the world that has ensured the global improvement of countries (Porter, 1996). In addition, there has been an improved socio-economic and cultural matter of the world at large that causes cultural understanding and harmony.