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 It is essential to develop the ability to write effective paragraphs.Paragraph writing is a significant production skill, integrating both composing and organizing skills. In order to write an effective paragraph, a careful writing plan should be adapted to ensure proper length, unity, coherence, logical development and organization of ideas.

 There are four significant devices which may help to attain coherence, namely:

a) Pronouns

b)  Repetition

c)  Synonyms

d)  Connectives

a) Pronouns: A pronoun is used as a substitute for a noun which is its antecedent. This help in maintaining continuity of thought. For example: ‘he’, ‘they’, ‘she’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘and’, ‘it’ are all pronouns.

b) Repetition: Repetition of certain words also gives coherence to a graph. While using repetition the writer must be very careful because too much repetition may lead to monotony.

c) Synonyms: Synonyms are used in place of certain words, already used and have similar meaning. This includes variety and thus helps the writer to avoid monotony.

d) Connectives: The use of connective is another device which lends coherence to paragraph. These connectives, which occur at the beginning of a sentence, link it to the sentence that comes before. The connectives such as and, but, or, therefore, as a result and in short may be used.

In order to obtain unity of a paragraph the entire paragraph may be developed in certain ways. These are:

1. Inductive order

2. Deductive order

3. Question to answer order

4. Time order

5. Exposition

6. Comparison and contrast

7. Space order

Sentence emphasis refers to idiomatic stress in writing: It is essential to know how to place important words in the emphatic positions in a sentence in order to make your sentence effective. Some of the techniques of sentence emphasis include:

1) Placing the theme correctly

2) Using parallel construction

3) Using correct subordination

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