Human Biology


Human Biology

Task 1 a

Ms Brown has got a BMI of 18.5 meaning that she is somehow underweight and cannot afford to lose more weight. BMI is the body mass index. It can also be referred to as Quetelet index. When the BMI is 18.5, you are usually at the lower end of what is seen as healthy. However, you might not be at the weight that is healthy (James et al.; 2001; pp.972).

The recommendations of Ms Brown’s GP were that she carries out cardiovascular exercise. This affects two systems in the body, the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system. The cardio exercises usually increase the rate of the heart. This often makes our muscles in a better shape (Kim et al.; 2004; pp.451). They become more efficient in their functions, and the body becomes quite healthy. The heart is simply made up of muscles and making it work usually makes it more durable. A cardio-vascular system that is more strong implies that more capillaries are supplying oxygen to the cells in the muscle of the body. This empowers the cells in the body to burn more fat throughout both at inactivity and during exercise (Lee et al.;2001; pp.987). This improves both the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system of Ms Brown.

The advice from the GP also targeted the digestive system. Ms Brown was advised eat a balanced diet which includes carbohydrates, proteins, fat and t seven fresh fruit and vegetables daily. This could help her to raise the weight of the body and thus make her healthy and less exposed to underweight complications. This advice on her GP targeted the digestive system. The reason as to why the GP recommends it is to make her healthy. This is because the GP suggested gaining weight, and she was required to add calories to her diet. The lymphatic and immune system was the last system of the target. By the advice of taking more water and many taking fruits and vegetables improves the immune system. It also raises the lymph in the body system, making her healthy (Munger et al.; 2009; pp.1544). The GP also recommended that Ms Brown stops drinking diet sodas. The reason for this is that the diet sodas would prevent the gaining of the weight yet she has BMI of 18.5. These diet sodas usually initiate the sweet receptors that are found in the brain that make individuals desire food. Because some people have an opinion that all diet drinks are healthier, it might cause a person to overconsume these drinks. Ms Brown should not overconsume since she requires to do a lot of cardiovascular and weight bearing exercises. Instead of this, the GP recommends that Ms Brown should replace this with water (Munger et al.; 2009; pp.1544).


Flow Chart

The Structure and Function of Cardio-Vascular System


The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, the blood vessels and the blood.



The Function of Cardiovascular System


According to the recommendations by the GP, Ms Brown should include a variety of weight-bearing as well as cardiovascular exercise. The cardio-vascular exercises that she is recommended were supposed to aid in the function of this system. The cardiovascular system is a multifaceted system of the blood vessels, the blood and the heart. The role of the cardiovascular system is to distribute nutrients to the body system and remove the byproducts from the body tissues. Ms Brown is advised to eat proteins, carbohydrates and fat and eat seven fresh fruit and vegetables daily (Wu; 2006; pp.362). The cardiovascular exercises help in distributing these food particles and removing the waste products that are formed from the food remains. The waste products formed due to activities are also supposed to be withdrawn from the body system by cardio-vascular system. The cardio-vascular exercises are also to make the heart stronger to pump the blood to enable the distribution of these food particles and the waste products. At the middle of the cardiovascular system is the heart. A four-chambered pump that distributes blood to all arteries. The blood vessels transport oxygenated blood and nutrients to the tissues of the body. The blood vessels return the blood that is de-oxygenated to the heart, and the cycle reprises many times in a single day (Wu; 2006; pp.362).


Task 1b


Ms Brown who is experiencing problems of headaches feeling tired bloated stomach finding it difficult to concentrate may have problems within her endocrine system or her urinary system. These may have a scope on the recommendation she is given to stop drinking too much diet soda ,instead have 2 liters of water and a variety of weight-bearing exercises as I will explain have better effects considering her BMI of 18.5

The endocrine system is the system that is made up of hormone producing glands and tissues and how these hormones work to restore homeostasis .some of these glands producing hormones include thyroid gland ,adrenal gland and thymus gland. However these glands don’t work on its-own but highly depend on massages sent from the Hypothalamus a sensory part of the brain. For instance in our case the hypothalamus which is monitoring the blood sugar levels due to intake of diet soda my trigger the endocrine system to restore a balance. The endocrine system restores homeostasis by use of two hormones that is the insulin and glucagon hormone which act opposite by nature. When the glucose levels are high for example for ms Brown upon intake of diet soda the pancreas secrets insulin which increase rate of cell sugar uptake resulting in a decrease in the sugar levels in the blood. The insulin also inhibits the breakdown of glycogen and amino acids to glucose in the liver resulting in decreased glucose in the blood stream.

Ms Brown has a BMI of 18.5 which implies that she has a normal body wait which normally ranges between 18.5 to 24.9 .Physical exercises increase the chances of being overweight or obese which .Physical activities however vary with duration intensity and frequency .


The urinary system is a group of body organs that are concerned with the filtering of waste substances and excess water from the bloodstream and its excretion from the body. It’s made up of , kidney, urethra ,ureters and the bladder. Organs such as the kidney have a great role in in regulating blood pressure and blood sugar. The kidney controls plasma volume by regulating how much water is excreted by the urinary system which is done by use Nacl that increases diffusion and osmosis of water .Ms brown is advised to drink a lot of water maybe her blood pressure is high hence drinking of water rather than diet water which is absorbed into the system lowering the blood pressure. Drinking of water usually 1.5 – 2 liters of water a day also reduces the concentration of urine .A highly concentrated urine causes one to have irritation of the bladder which may cause infections and maybe the cause of the lack of concentration in class for ms brown.

Disorders of



Task 4 (AC4.1) (400-450 Words)

Comparatively, Bacteria and Fungi Are More Similar Than Bacteria and Viruses

I completely agree with the statement that fungi and bacteria are more similar than viruses and bacteria. The statement will be explained below to assess that more similarities exist among the fungi and bacteria and then viruses and bacteria. It will be vividly analysed and found out that there is a close similarity between the bacteria and the fungi than the bacteria and the viruses. Considering their structure, the cell membrane, types of their hosts, the beneficial or harmfulness of the organisms, the genetic material contained in their structure, the number of cells in its structure, the size and the status of living (Blasius and Beutler; 2010; pp.310).

The Structures of Virus, Fungi and Bacteria




By looking at the structures above, I can start by saying that both the three are microorganisms. Some differences exist between the three living organisms. However, there exist some similarities between the fungus and the bacteria than the bacteria and the virus. From the diagrams, there exist a cell wall, and a membrane in both the bacteria and fungus while viruses do not have do not have (Fierer et al.;2007; pp.7062). Even though both the bacteria and the fungi have got the cell membrane, in bacteria commonly present underneath the cell wall. On the other hand, viruses have got spikes, envelope, protein coat and nucleic coat as the organs of its structures. These agencies do not exist in both the bacteria and fungi. Both the three microorganisms do have DNA as the genetic material. However, the genetic material in the viruses can also be in the form of RNA (Gibson and Hunter; 2010; pp.223). This cannot be the case in both the fungi and the bacteria. Regarding the size, it was discovered that the viruses are smaller than the other two microorganisms. As a result of this, it can be deduced that regarding the size there is a close similarity between the fungi and bacteria than the viruses. Even though the size of bacteria is medium while the fungi are the largest of the three microorganisms, some fungi are as small as the scale of some types of bacteria. This is a close similarity.

Another factor to consider in the similarity between the bacteria, fungi and viruses is the type of these particular microorganisms. Under this factor, it can be concluded that there is a close similarity between bacteria and viruses than bacteria and fungi. Both the three microorganisms are intracellular organisms, meaning that they only have one cell. Nonetheless, in addition to fungi being unicellular, some of them can also be (Lopez et al.; 2005; pp.6946). Regarding the hosts they typically attack, viruses can only survive in living cells, which can be plants and animals. On the other hand, bacteria may not directly require living organisms. However, the only difference between fungi and bacteria is that fungi can survive on their own while bacteria can propagate on the surfaces that are non-living. From the argument above, it can be deduced that while comparing the three microorganisms, there exist more similarities between the bacteria and fungi than bacteria and viruses (Russell; 2003; pp.759).


Blasius, A.L. and Beutler, B., 2010. Intracellular toll-like receptors. Immunity, 32(3), pp.305-315.

Fierer, N., Lopez, Breitbart, M., Nulton, J., Salamon, P., Lozupone, C., Jones, R., Robeson, M., Edwards, R.A., Felts, B., Rayhawk, S. and Knight, R., 2007. Metagenomic and small-subunit rRNA analyses reveal the genetic diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses in soil. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(21), pp.7059-7066.

Gibson, C.M. and Hunter, M.S., 2010. Extraordinarily general and fantastically complex: comparative biology of endosymbiotic bacterial and fungal mutualists of insects. Ecology Letters, 13(2), pp.223-234.

James, W.P., Ferro-Luzzi, A. and Waterlow, J.C., 2001.The Definition of chronic energy deficiency in adults. Report of a working party of the International Dietary Energy Consultative Group. European journal of clinical nutrition, 42(12), pp.969-981.

Kim, Y., Suh, Y.K. and Choi, H., 2004. BMI and metabolic disorders in South Korean adults: 2000. Korea national health and nutrition survey. Obesity Research, 12(3), pp.445-453.

Lee, J., Heng, D., Chia, K.S., Chew, S.K., Tan, B.Y. and Hughes, K., 2001. Risk factors and incident coronary heart disease in Chinese, Malay and Asian Indian males: The Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study. International journal of epidemiology, 30(5), pp.983-988.

Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R. and Nerin, C., 2005. Solid-and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 53(17), pp.6939-6946.

Munger, K.L., Chitnis, T. and Ascherio, A., 2009. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology, 73(19), pp.1543-1550.

Russell, A.D., 2003. Similarities and differences in the responses of microorganisms to biocides. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 52(5), pp.750-763.

Wu, Y., 2006. Overweight and obesity in China: the once lean giant has a weight problem that is increasing rapidly. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 333(7564), p.362.



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