In a short paragraph (4-5 sentences), discuss how math is all around you in your everyday life — in business as well as in your personal life. Give one example of an everyday application from a business standpoint of how math is used on a daily basis. Provide two replies to other student posts. These replies should be at least 2-3 sentences and should be written to further the discussion. The Discussion Board is where you post your responses to the Discussion topics and share your experiences in completing exercises and applying the concepts of this course. You will need to post an initial response that thoroughly covers the topic(s). You will also need to respond substantially to at least two of your classmates’ posts. These replies should be at least 2-3 sentences that further the discussion (remark on something specific from the post, tactfully point out mistakes, ask questions about the post, etc.).

You should post throughout the unit to get assistance on problems with which you may be having issues. This will also to give your classmates the opportunity to respond to your ideas. The Instructor Graded Assignment is a different and completely separate Assignment from the MML Graded Practice, which is an online Assignment in MML that provides practice in solving problems related to the unit concepts. The Instructor Graded Assignments for each unit contain problems that will give you practice with calculations for the topics covered in each unit. Go to Doc Sharing found on the top menu of the course, scroll down to “Unit 1 Instructor Graded Assignment” and click the link. The document is a template that you will complete for this Assignment and also includes the instructions for you to follow. All of your work will be done in this template. When you complete this Assignment, you will need to rename the document, save it in a place where you can find it, and then upload it to the unit Dropbox. All Assignments are due by Tuesday at 11:59 PM ET of the assigned unit. Save your Assignment as a Word document with the proper naming convention: first name lastname-MM255-section-Unit X Assignment (section is your course section; X is your unit number). Make certain to save your Assignment in a location where you can find it, such as your desktop.

Computers are useful in any biology job, but there are some careers in which a knowledge of biology, computer science, and math is vital. Biostatistics, which is sometimes called biometrics, is the use of statistical methods to analyze large amounts of data in areas such as public health, medicine, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, and other topics related to biology. A biostatistician formulates questions that need to be answered, decides how to collect relevant data, analyzes and interprets the data, and publicizes the results so that they can be used by others. Does vitamin E improve memory in elderly women? Do women who take a certain medicine during pregnancy have babies with a lower birth weight? Does eating a certain food additive raise LDL cholesterol? Biostatisticians use computer software to store data, help them analyze the data, and publish their conclusions. Biostatisticians with a biology degree need to know how to use a computer effectively and must have a very good knowledge of math. Some students approach the career from a different direction, getting a math degree and taking biology courses as well. Many (but not all) biostatisticians have an advanced degree.

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of diseases and health problems within populations. Epidemiologists try to find out why an infection or a particular health problem has appeared within a certain group of people. They also try to discover how the problem is spreading within the group. The epidemiologist’s data and analyses are used to plan intervention, management, and prevention strategies. Epidemiologists need to have a math background. They use computers in their work, including biostatistics software and software that creates mathematical models. An example of a model that might be created is one that predicts the spread of a disease. Just as in the preparation for a biostatistics career, students majoring in biology as undergrads need to make sure that they take computer science courses and lots of math courses if they are thinking of becoming an epidemiologist. A student will need to obtain a master’s degree in epidemiology once he or she has a bachelor’s degree in biology. Some epidemiologists are medical doctors, but many aren’t. Bioinformatics is the use of computers in the acquisition, storage, management, and analysis of biological and medical data. It’s frequently used in the fields of molecular biology and genetics.

Huge databases of biological information are being created. With the aid of computers, people who are interested can access these databases and make use of the information. By examining and analyzing the information they sometimes discover new facts about biological and medical processes. Students who plan a career in bioinformatics need to study computer science and statistics as well as biology. They will also need to study for a master’s degree in bioinformatics after getting a bachelor’s degree in biology. As in most careers that are related to biology, a PhD degree will offer the best career opportunities. Some universities now offer a bachelor’s degree in biostatistics or bioinformatics, which provides another route of entry into these careers. Biologists are hired by universities to teach students and do research. Colleges and high schools also require biology teachers. Naturalists and park rangers teach the general public. Museums, zoos, aquariums, and conservation organizations hire people to educate their visitors.

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