National security policies essay
There has been great struggle in the twenty-first century as governments in all nations are trying to protect human rights of its citizens as well as guaranteeing economic and political freedom and prosperity. People everywhere want to exercise their rights; speak freely, worship, get education, own property and enjoy benefits of their work. The US government fundamental commitment is to defend the nation against its enemies both domestic and external and ensuring its citizens enjoy they rights(Coll, 2012, p. 05). However, this has posed great challenges to the government, shadowy individual networks and terrorism has greatly affected the state. This paper is going to analyses critically the security policy in USA, its strengths, challenges and how it can be improved.
The subject matter of national security in the US has been sensitive throughout history. Since the World War II, America was in the midst of the cold war with the sovereignty union in the wake of 1950s which was based on technology advancements and intelligence. Matters of natural securities were commonly handled by national bodies such as the federal bureau of investigation (FBI). Sub-federal agencies as the local police were left with the responsibility of handling crimes and community protection. In the wake of 9/11; the bombing of the world trade center resulted in the awareness of terrorism. This necessitated for the involved of both local and national security agencies(Cornell, 2010, p. 32. This called for involvement of security agencies such as Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), the military, as well as the local police in gathering intelligence and curb both local and external threats to national development.
The decentralization of security issues lead to positive results, for instance, local police agencies were able to facilitated in national security by cutting down crimes rates and contributing investigation and prosecution of terrorism related crimes, this was enhanced through alarm response arrestments, interrogation and handing over of national related information such as information on terror(Carter & Abeles, 2009.p 13). The national security agencies such as the FBI, where able to use the local police structure to pass information and get information from the public on important issues of national security such as information on criminal on the run and terror suspects. Also, the co-ordination facilitated intelligence gathering, aftermath of September 11 terror attack, the general public was terrified, the local police played a major role in counterterrorism attacks, they would present relevant information to the central security bodies. Furthermore, beside the local police numerical value, there were in position to national security issues, this is due to their superior n knowledge and vast familiarity with local environment. This enable federal officers if tasked to investigate on a specific crime, the local police would widely facilitated in investigation as well in arrestments.
Despite its success federal national security policies have poised challenges. For instance, there is abuse of intelligence, local bodies such as the U.S. police force, in most of them are vested with the capability of determining relevant intelligence on their information, for instance, inquires has shown some targets of intelligence operations weren’t in any involved in criminal behaviors rather involved in political opposition activities. Furthermore state federal units are perceived more professional and important than the local police, this generates tension and unreliability on the police information and intelligence. This may lead to low perception of good intelligence whose neglect can lead to massive consequences such as the September 11 terror attack. There is are the problem of hierarchical command. The constitution was highly designed in such a way that the federal government wouldn’t control the local law organs such as police agencies(Cornell, 2010, p. 11). This leads to slow movement of information, slow investigation and superiority war between the agencies involved resulting into tension and unrest due to possibility of occurrence of national threats.
The government and policy makers can formulate a clear, transparent plan to ensure integration of a good security policy. For instance, there is need for a collaborative security design. In collaborating planners and other professionals in security issues. They should also involve local security agencies since they execute the policies on ground level(Caudle, 2009, p. 21). Also, government maintain funding upon all government security agencies to maintain easy execution of security activities such investigation. Information sharing frameworks and networks should also be addressed this is to ensure free flow of information between the local police, federal agencies and the community(Caudle, 2009, p. 23) This will facilitated information and intelligence flow.
In conclusion, a good policy guide in security is essential. It will enable define the role of planners in national security, security architects and the responsibilities federal security agencies and local units such as the police force. This is essential in forming a highly adaptive, efficient security system that enables detection, prevention, inspection of threats by having quality intelligence. Defending our nation against all sorts of insecurity such terrorism, crime and social injustices is key to economic, social and political growth and prosper
Carter, L. A., & Abeles, N. (2009). Ethics, Prisoner Interrogation, National Security, and the Media. Psychological Services. doi:10.1037/a0011116
Caudle, S. L. (2009). National Security Strategies: Security from What, for Whom, and by What Means. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
Coll, B. D. (2012). Safety net: Welfare and social security, 1929-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Cornell, C. S. (2010). James V. Forrestal and American national security policy, 1940-1949.