Oman’s history stretches back to 3000 b.c.e., when Sumerian traders imported copper from the people of this region. The region also was a key supplier of frankincense, highly desired in the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe. Arabs arrived from present-day Yemen in the 2nd century, and there were settlers also from Persia. Islam arrived in Oman in 630 c.e., during Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime, in the form of a letter carried by the Prophet’s emissary Amr Ibn al-As to the brothers Abd and Jaifar al-Julanda, who ruled Oman. Having embraced Islam, Oman’s leaders unified the Arabs and drove the Persians out. Maritime trade flourished. Sohar became the largest seaport in the Islamic world. Omani merchants and delegates spread the message of Islam and Arab culture as far as China. After Vasco da Gama’s voyage, the Portuguese projected imperial power briefly in the area but were expelled in 1650. Although never considered a foreign occupational power, the British declared Oman a protectorate and assumed control of the Omani military. Oman flourished as a major trade link between Europe and Asia.

In 1970, with the assistance of the British, Qaboos bin Said al-Said overthrew his father, declared Omani independence, and became the sultan of Oman. The sultan appoints a cabinet with ministers known as the Diwans. Remaining quietly in the background of regional politics, Oman housed British and American troops during the Iraq wars of 1991 and 2003 as well as the 2002 Afghanistan war. Nearly 50 percent of Oman’s 3.3 million residents live in the capital Muscat. Of Oman’s population, 75 percent are Ibadhi Muslim. Indian merchants, the majority of whom are Hindu, have traded in Muscat for over 200 years. Some people of Persian and Baluchi ancestry live in the north. The official language is Arabic. English is quickly becoming a second language. Hindi is also growing due to the influx of Indian migrants. Commercial petroleum exports from Oman commenced in 1967. With over 740,000 barrels of oil produced per day, petroleum revenues are crucial to the economy. Oman’s main petroleum buyers are China, South Korea, Japan, and Thailand. To reduce dependence on oil, al-Said has implemented plans to open Oman to the outside world and to diversify and transform the economy.

Tourism and natural gas exports are being developed. With globalization, education has become increasingly important. Sultan Qaboos University, Oman’s first, opened in 1986. Nine other private institutions specialize in study-abroad programs and international education. Education reforms led by al-Said are vital to the country’s social and economic progress. Women are being brought into the social and economic mainstream. Women have training and career opportunities equal to men, traditional culture and Muslim religious practices are honored, and international differences are respected. The sultan appointed a woman to head the new Ministry of Tourism. Oman’s natural attractions include beaches, mountains, deserts, and wadis. Multinational companies are opening luxury hotels. Resorts surrounding Muscat offer tropical marine excursions and tours of the country’s most breathtaking sights. The booming tourist hotspot of the Musandam Peninsula is not connected to Oman’s mainland, but juts out into the Strait of Hormuz at the tip of the United Arab Emirates. Musandam Peninsula is easily accessible by road from Dubai, and attracts visitors seeking a relaxed interlude from the high-energy bustle of Dubai. The Muscat Festival, held annually from January to February, offers a traditional cultural experience. Tony shopping malls are springing up such as the Muscat City Centre, financed by the United Arab Emirates. 4. Francis Owtram, A Modern History of Oman: Formation of the State Since 1920 (I.B. This example Oman Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.

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