One of the issues to consider in defining communication is intentionality. Which of the following best exemplifies the belief that communication must be intentional? a. communication is goal-oriented behavior b. communication is any interpretation of meaning c. communication is the perception of power d. communication is a means by which truth is established

One of the issues to consider in defining communication is intentionality.  Which of the following best exemplifies the belief that communication must be intentional?

  1. communication is goal-oriented behavior
  2. communication is any interpretation of meaning
  3. communication is the perception of power
  4. communication is a means by which truth is established
  5. Having a conversation with someone over walkie-talkies is an example of which model of the communication process?
  6. linear
  7. interactional
  8. transactional
  9. Information transfer
  10. Communication is considered transactional when
  11. a person waits to hear feedback after sending a message
  12. the people communicating send and receive messages simultaneously
  13. one person is responsible for sending the message; the other person is responsible for understanding the message
  14. each element of the communication process is not connected to the others


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  1. Selecting the word rage to label your feeling of anger is a process known as
  2. feedback
  3. decoding
  4. encoding
  5. semantics
  6. Littlejohn defines a theory as “any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon.” Based on our class discussion, why is it important to notice the word “OR” in this definition?
  7. it narrows the definition by making it too inclusive
  8. it broadens the definition by including many approaches to theory
  9. it strengthens the definition by making anything a theory
  10. all of the above
  11. none of the above
  12. The ultimate goal of communication theory development is to produce an accumulating body of reliable knowledge enabling us to
  13. predict, explain, and control communication behavior
  14. explain, predict, and manipulate communication behavior
  15. predict, understand, manipulate communication behavior
  16. explain, manipulate, dominate communication behavior
  17. A theorist who asks, “Should I develop a theory that will change society’s view of gay marriage?” is asking him/herself a question that pertains to the area of
  18. ontology
  19. epistemology
  20. axiology
  21. phenology


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  1. Theories about communication phenomena
  2. include definitions of concepts
  3. may include explanations about the relationships between and among concepts
  4. concern abstract ideas
  5. all of the above
  6. none of the above
  7. All theories must
  8. contain causal necessity
  9. contain practical necessity
  10. be logically consistent
  11. include hypotheses
  12. When you are unable to see the concepts explained in a theory operating in real life, the theory does not have
  13. precision
  14. scope
  15. validity
  16. power

Symbolic Interaction Theory

  1. Symbolic interaction theory argues that meaning
    1. can only exist when people share common interpretations of the symbols they exchange in an interaction
    2. occurs between people
    3. is affected by society
    4. all of the above
    5. none of the above

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  1. According to Mead, one of the most critical activities people accomplish through thought is


  1. projection
  2. role taking
  3. the Pygmalion effect
  4. the concept of mind
  1. The looking-glass self is best defined as
    1. the mental image others have of us
    2. the mental image we have of ourselves
    3. the mental image we have of how others see us
    4. the mental image of the physical attributes we observe
  2. True or False? One of Mead’s ontological assumptions is that human communication is social.
    1. true
    2. false

Coordinated Management of Meaning

  1. Coordinated management of meaning
    1. refers to how individuals establish rules for creating and interpreting meaning
    2. refers to how rules are used in a conversation
    3. assumes that humans co‑create reality
    4. all of the above
  2. Which of the following is a speech act?
    1. a compliment
    2. an insult
    3. a sarcastic remark
    4. all of the above

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  1. Deanna and her son Aidan are talking about manners. Deanna tells Aidan, “Cover your mouth when you sneeze.”  This is an example of which type of rule?
    1. constitutive
    2. unwarranted
    3. regulative
    4. patterned


Cognitive Dissonance Theory

  1. Cognitive dissonance can be defined as
    1. the feeling people have when they do things that don’t fit with what they believe
    2. the feeling people have when some of their opinions do not fit with other opinions they hold
    3. the feeling people have when their actions are congruent with what they know
    4. both a and b
    5. none of the above
  2. You believe that smoking is dangerous to your health; and yet, you smoke a pack of cigarettes a day. When this inconsistency is pointed out to you, you are likely to experience
    1. dissonance
    2. consonance
    3. irrelevance
    4. none of the above
  3. When confronted with the fact that you smoke even though you think it is bad for you, you rationalize that it’s okay for you to smoke because you are under a tremendous amount of stress in college and smoking helps to calm your nerves. This rationalization process is likely to
    1. increase your dissonance
    2. anger your Comm 300 professor

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  1. restore consonance
  2. all of the above
  3. none of the above
  1. Which of the following is an assumption of Cognitive Dissonance Theory?


  1. human beings desire inconsistency in their cognitions


  1. dissonance is created by physiological discomfort


  1. dissonance is an aversive state that drives people to change attitudes and/or behaviors


  1. none of the above


Uncertainty Reduction Theory

  1. According to URT, the two primary goals of individuals engaged in an initial interaction are _________________ and __________________.
    1. understanding, disclosure
    2. prediction, explanation
    3. disclosure, explanation
    4. prediction, control
  2. In the ____________ phase of interpersonal communication, self‑disclosure increases as parties begin to reduce their uncertainty about one another.
    1. entry
    2. primary
    3. personal
    4. exit


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Social Exchange Theory

  1. Relationships in which costs exceed rewards are perceived as being


  1. interdependent
  2. negative
  3. supportive
  4. positive


  1. We are likely to leave a relationship when our satisfaction is __________ and our comparison level for alternatives is __________.


  1. low, high
  2. low, low
  3. all of the above
  4. none of the above


Social Penetration Theory

  1. All of the following statements about self‑disclosure are true EXCEPT
    1. nonintimate relationships typically progress to an intimate level without engaging in self‑disclosure
    2. self‑disclosure can be strategic, which means that disclosures are planned
    3. self‑disclosure can be nonstrategic, which means that disclosures are spontaneous
    4. stranger‑on‑the‑train refers to instances in which people reveal information in public places to complete strangers
  2. Julianne and Ricardo have reached the point in their relationship at which they openly express their thoughts and feelings with one another. Their communication is viewed as being efficient. Which stage of social penetration describes the current state of their relationship?


  1. orientation
  2. exploratory affective
  3. affective exchange
  4. stable exchange



Relational Dialectics Theory

  1. Kip has been dating Theresa for less than a month. During a recent date, he discovered that he was uncomfortable because he had revealed a lot of information about his dysfunctional childhood to


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Theresa but had not told her about the time he was arrested for driving under the influence.  Which dialectical tension is Kip experiencing?

  1. autonomy and connection
  2. openness and protection
  3. novelty and predictability
  4. real and ideal
  1. Relational dialectics is grounded in four main assumptions that reflect its contentions about relational life EXCEPT
    1. Relationships are linear


  1. Contradiction is the fundamental fact of relational life


  1. Communication is central to organizing and negotiating relational contradictions


  1. Relational life is characterized by change.


  1. People share more information about themselves spontaneously in the personal phase of relationship development.


  1. True



Part II. Symbolic Interaction Theory – Short Essay – at least 250 words (20 points)


Analyze this scene from the movie “You’ve Got Mail.”  It takes place in an elevator where Joe Fox (the Tom Hanks character) and his girlfriend (Parker Posey) and two other people get stuck in an elevator:



Using the list of seven “assumptions” about Symbolic Interaction Theory describe how this scene in the elevator explains four of them.  Hint:  Look at nonverbal as well as verbal behaviors.  Be specific.



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