Corporate Culture is the Answer to Depersonalized, Bureaucratic Work

Is Corporate Culture and Depersonalized, Bureaucratic Work
Introduction
Corporate culture refers to the way employees do things around the company, and displays a system of shared beliefs and values that work together with individuals, organizational structures, as well as, systems to produce norms. This implies that corporate culture has a significant effect on employee behavior, perception, and work attitudes. Bureaucracy on the other hand, is comprised of written and inflexible rules, laws, and regulations together the systems of administrations that are distinguished by clear hierarchies of authority. In such instances, corporate culture represents the company’s personality, and therefore, appeals to the irrational, affective and emotional elements within the employees.

Bureaucracy
Authority and power together with the insidious preoccupation with modern trends of rationalization interested Max Weber; this prompted him to investigate the operations of modern large enterprises in terms of administrative, economic, and political realities. He described bureaucracies as organized in terms of rational principles, such as offices being ranked in hierarchical order and how they operate is characterized according to interpersonal rules (Sullivan, 2009)

Governance of the managers applies methodical allocation of areas, as well as, delimited spheres of duty. Appointment and recruitment are made using the specialized qualifications instead using the written criteria. This type of coordinating actions of a large number of individuals is increasingly becoming the dominant structural feature of the modern forms of organizations. It is through the bureaucracy that large scale planning for the modern economy and modern state has remain to survive, as well as, enabled heads of state to centralize and mobilize resources for political power that have been dispersed in a number of varieties of centers during feudal times (Basu, 2004. )

It therefore, implies that it aids mobilization of economic resource that remained initialized during the pre modern times. Bureaucratic organizations are instrumentally privileged in shaping the modern polity, technology, and the economy, and therefore, this means that bureaucratic organizations are technically advanced to other types of administrations just like machinery production is superior to handmade methods (Sullivan, 2009)

However, there are certain disadvantages of the bureaucracies systems of corporate culture, such as the presence of ambiguities in calculating results. Bureaucracies make it difficult to measure the outcome especially when dealing with personal cases. This makes bureaucratic and modern rationalized systems of law into becoming incapable of dealing with individual personal differences and particularities (Basu, 2004. )

Bureaucratization and rationalization are inescapable of modern methods of organization that have greatly enhanced the efficiency and effectiveness of organization and production, as well as, enabled unprecedented domination of humans over the nature’s world. The capitalist industrial organization according to the sphere of economic production has led to tot eh expropriation where the employee is the means of production, and therefore, the modern industrial worker contrasts with the handicraft artisan, who deals with his own tools and sets his own production and selling limits (Styhre, 2007)

Bureaucratic formal of organizational culture acts both as an expression and as agent of key modern social innovations, which are clearly manifested within the non-inclusive terms through which people are involved in an organization. The way people get involved themselves in organizations epitomizes, as well as, institutionally embeds the critical and most overlooked cultural points of reference of modernity, in which people undertake actions that are tuned towards a delimited and well specified path , however, they have to sacrifice by suspending and isolating their other social and personal considerations. This therefore, implies that organizational involvement of people qua role agents instead of qua person’s aids in unleashing formal organization from being bound to the indolence of the human body, as well as, languish the process of psychological or personal re-orientation (Styhre, 2007)

Bureaucratic organizational cultures have rendered it possible to address some of the shifting contingencies, which underlies the modern life through reassembling and reshuffling the roles and role patterns by which the system is made. This implies that the unique historical adaptive capacity of the bureaucratic systems remains. However, hidden behind the ubiquitous presence of standard and routine procedures are mistakenly exchanged for the quintessence of the bureaucratic form (Manning, 2003)

Bureaucratization is a sociological concept that emphasizes that increased rationalization is inherent in social life, and therefore, cages people into systems that are founded on teleological efficiency, control, and rational calculation. This implies that the modern society is increasingly becoming more characterized by movements in the motivation of individual worker behaviors. It is imperative to argue that social actions are becoming increasingly base on efficiency rather than the older types of social actions that were purely based on kinship or lineage, and therefore, behavior is goal driven instead of relying on tradition and values (Manning, 2003)

Corporate culture
Corporate culture comprises the behaviors and beliefs of the people within an organization, and determines how the organization’s employees, as well as, the management handle and interact with outside business deals. The organizational culture of a company organically develops over time emanating from the cumulative traits of the individuals that the organization employs. This could be reflected the employee dress code, hiring decisions, business hours, treatment of clients, client satisfaction, turnover, office setup, employee benefits, as well as, all aspects of the organizations operations (Cremer, 1993)

The main rational reason of examining corporate culture is the relationship between performance and organizational culture, and garners more interest due to the managerial implications related to control, which can easily be communicated, developed, and illustrated using vivid and clear anecdotes.

Corporate culture refers to the unique dominant patterns of shared beliefs, values, assumptions, and the particular norms that shape the path of socialization, language, symbols, and practices of the group of people that constitutes the organization. The approaches and attitudes that typify the way the employees carry out their various tasks and jobs. This therefore, means that culture id developed and transmitted by individuals either consciously or unconsciously to their subsequent generations (McDonald, 2008)

Corporate culture in the classical sense can be referred to as the way of doing things in an organization, and therefore, there are a number of elements that go in helping to determine on what and why to do certain things , and in a certain way. This implies that culture is something that exists and influences how work is done in organizations, which in turn critically affects the overall corporate success or failure, who fits and who does not, as well as, determines the entire mood of the whole organization (Cremer, 1993).

The corporate culture is quite influential during periods of organizational change, such as company mergers where there are possible cultural clashes with the partnering companies. Other notable examples are during growth or any other kind of strategic change, which will imply that the incumbent corporate culture will become inappropriate, and hence would hinder growth and progress rather that promote it (McDonald, Postle & Dawson, 2008).

In static work environments, corporate cultural issues take center stage in being responsible for absenteeism, low morale, or even hog employee turnover, and thus such instances have adverse effects on the organizational productivity. With all the elusiveness, corporate culture has a great influence on the organizational work, as well as, productivity and output. The elusiveness of corporate culture is important for developing approaches and strategies that play a key role when planning organizational change (Styhre, 2007)

One element of corporate culture is the control systems that specifies the ways in which the company is controlled, and therefore, includes control structures in quality systems, financial systems, as well as, reward systems. The control systems therefore specify the procedures and processes that require either weakest or strongest controls or whether the organization is tightly or loosely or controlled. It also specifies how the employees get rewarded or punished for the good or the poor work that they do (McDonald, 2008)

However, the performance and the corporate culture link can be elusive and ambiguous because of the lack of a clear definition of corporate culture. On the other hand corporate culture can be conceptualized in response to observable values and norms that can typically be stressed through quantitative measurement schemes, which in turn helps to examine behavior instead of phenomenological meaning(Basu, 2004)

Conclusion
The corporate culture is definitely a solution to the problems associated with depersonalized bureaucratic work, since it debilitate the negative aspects of the bureaucratic control systems. Most bureaucratic actions are characterized by insincerity, incompetency, and incoherent managerial actions, which end up creating unhappy and unhealthy work environments, which in turn consistently works to destroy the corporate value, as well as, illuminates disrespect towards the worth of the individual employee.

Bibliography
Basu, R. (2004. ). Public administration: Concepts and theorie. New Delhi, India: Sterling Publishers.

Cremer, J. (1993). Corporate culture and shared knowledge. . New York- 3, volume 35, pp. 1-386.: Industrialand Corporate Change,.

Manning, S. (2003). Bureaucracy: Theories and forms with moral implications. Chapter 8 In Ethical leadership in human services: a multi-dimensional approach . Needham Heights: MA: Allyn & Bacon.

McDonald, A. P. (2008). Barriers to retaining and using professionalknowledge in local authority social work practice with adults in the UK. British Journal of Social Work, , 38 (7), 1370-1387.

Styhre, A. (2007). The innovative bureaucracy: Bureaucracy in an age of fluidity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Sullivan, M. (2009). Social workers in community care practice: Ideologies and interactionswith older people. . British Journal of Social Work, , 39 (7), 1306-1325.

GLOBALIZATION

Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, its negative side should not be forgotten. Discuss.

Over a period of time, globalization has had a huge impact, on the way, people live. On one hand experts believe that globalization has helped boost economies. Whereas some of them are of the opposite view. In this essay we will shed light on the merits and demerits of globalization.

Firstly, it would not be wrong to say that, due to the affects of globalization, products made in one part of the world, are available in almost every country. Secondly, due to globalization countries have become competitive. The commodities and services have become cheaper due to foreign players entering the domestic markets. For instance, Maruti Suzuki, Ambassador and Bharat Motors were few companies manufacturing cars in India and not everyone owned a car. However, with the entrance of new players, things have changed prices have decreased and there are more bundled offers, making four wheelers affordable.

Nevertheless, every coin has two sides, Globalization has brought in many benefits, but the drawbacks are present too. of all, with new organizations, offerings in the host country are impacting the local vendors and producers. This is because some of these companies are enormous; they have higher availability of resources. In that case domestic players are being thrown out of the competition. Furthermore, the local craftsmen are suffering the brunt, since similar crafts are being bulk produced and sold at very low prices. For Example, Wal-Mart retail gives items at a give away sum, since they have purchased huge quantities. On the other hand, Local traders don’t have that much financial capability, so they lose their competitiveness.

In conclusion, it would not be wrong to say that the drawbacks of globalization outweigh the merits. However it is inevitable so the governments should take steps, so that the interests of the natives are taken care of.

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Marketing Environment PEST/STEP analysis

Marketing Environment

There are many variables that operate within an organisations environment that have a direct or indirect influence on their strategy. A successful organisation is one which understands and can anticipate and take advantage off changes within their environment.

An organisations operating environment can be analysed by looking at:

External forces (those factors that an organisation has no control over),
Internal forces (factors that an organisation has direct control over)

The external environment of an organisation can be analysed by conducting a P.E.S.T analysis. This is a simple analysis of an organisation Political, Economical Social and Technological environment.

Political

Political factors can have a direct impact on the way business operates. Decisions made by government affect our every day lives and can come in the form of policy or legislation. The governments introduction of a statutory minimum wage affects all businesses, as do consumer and health and safety laws and so on. The current increase in global petrol prices is having a profound impact on major economies, it is estimated that £200bn has been added to the global fuel bill since the price increases started (BBC news 19/9/00).

The political decision as to whether the UK signs up to the Single European Currency is again having an impact on UK businesses. Firms like Nissan who have recently invested in the UK have signaled that they will withdraw their business from the UK if the government fails to sign up.

Economical

All businesses are affected by economical factors nationally and globally. Interest rate policy and fiscal policy will have to be set accordingly. Within the UK the climate of the economy dictates how consumer may behave within society. Whether an economy is in a boom, recession or recovery will also effect consumer confidence and behaviour.

An economy which is booming, is characterised by certain variables. Unemployment is low, job confidence is high, because of this confidence spending by consumers is also high. This has an impact on most businesses. Organisations have to be able to keep up with the increased demand if they are to increase turnover. An economy which is in a recession is characterised by high unemployment, and low confidence. Because of high unemployment spending is low, confidence about job security is also low. Businesses face a tough time, consumers will not spend because of low disposable income. Many businesses start cutting back on costs i.e. Labour, introduce shorter weeks and cut back on advertising to save money.

Case: In the early 1990’s when the UK economy was in a slump, and businesses were folding repeatedly, a security company called ‘Dreadlocks security’ to combat falling sales embarked on strategy of cutting back on labour costs, and doubling advertising expenditure. The companies’ theory was that not their entire target segment was affected by the recession and he had to fight for the customers that still had the income to spend on security products.

Economies globally also have an impact on UK businesses, cheaper labour abroad affects the competitiveness of UK products nationally and globally. An increase in interest rates in the USA will effect the share price of UK stocks or adverse weather conditions in India may affect the price of tea.

A truly global player has to be aware of economic conditions across all borders and ensure they employ strategies and tactics that their protects their business.

Social

Within society forces such as family, friends, media affect our attitude, interest and opinions. These forces shape who we are as people and the way we behave and what we ultimately purchase. For example within the UK peoples attitudes are changing towards their diet and health. As a result the UK is seeing an increase in the number of people joining fitness clubs and a massive growth for the demand of organic food. On the other end of the spectrum the UK is worried about the lack of exercise its youngster are obtaining. These ‘fast food games console’ children are more likely to experience health problems in their future because of the lifestyle they are living now.

Population changes also have a direct impact on all organisations. Changes in the structure of a population will effect the supply and demand of goods and services within an economy.

In Japan the fall in the birth rate has had a major impact on the sales of toys, as demand falls competition for the remaining market becomes very intense. If this trend continues it will have an impact on other sectors within the future affecting teen products, 20’s products and so on.

As society changes, as behaviours change organisations must be able to offer products and services that aim to complement and benefit peoples lifestyle and behaviour.

Technological

Changes in technology is changing the way business operates. The Internet is having a profound impact on the marketing mix strategy of organisations. Consumers can now shop 24 hours a day comfortably from their homes. The challenge these organisation faces is to ensure that they can deliver on their promise. Those businesses, which are slow to react, will fall at the first few hurdles. This technological revolution means a faster exchange of information beneficial for businesses as they can react quickly to changes within their operating environment.

There is renewed interest by many governments to encourage investment in research and development and develop technology that will give their country the competitive edge. The pace of technological change is so fast that in the computer industry the average life of a computer chip is approximately 6 months. In the name of progression technology will continue to evolve organsiations that continue to ignore this will face extinction.

Recommended Books

Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler

Principles of Marketing by Frances Brassington and Stephen Pettitt.