Pain

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Pain

There are three main types of pain namely acute, chronic and referred pain. People experience pain because of their body system reaction to stimuli. The basic definition of pain is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience that occurs after tissue is damaged. The neurological system affects all parts and functions of the body through nerve stimulation. Nerves also control the sensation and reflection of pain. Pain is subjective, and as such, everyone learns the application of the word differently (Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer), 2012). Despite the fact that people describe pain in many ways, health specialists label pain according to the duration and source. This paper will compare three forms of pain namely acute, chronic, and referred pain.

Acute pain refers to instantaneous pain whose route physiology relates to personal trauma, or accident, such as a fall, an assault, a sprain, a skeletal part fracture, inflammation, and/or contamination (Huether & McCance, 2012). On the other hand, chronic long-term pain is often a product of chronic infection a previous wound or perhaps surgery. Chronic pain is different from acute pain in that it moves away with time and remedy is enduring and long in nature. Chronic pain continues even after healing has appeared or when the source or origin of the pain perseveres. The two also differ in that acute pain is a sign that certain thing requires a reaction by the pain sufferer while chronic pain is not. Numerous situations cause chronic pain including arthritis, rheumatic disorders, and long-term situation such as lupus. Eventually, there is referred pain, which is reflective pain. One experiences it at some area away from where the pain starts. Health specialists also refer to referred pain as reflective pain. It is different from acute and chronic pain in that one experiences it away from a direct injury. The other two occur in areas of injury, but referred pain is away from the injury site.

Health experts have made tremendous strides in understanding the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of the systems that convey and modulate information about noxious events. This is the principal cause of pain. Researchers have found a lot of information relating to acute inflammation, which routinely drives these neural methods. In contrast, there is relatively little information on the pathophysiology of pain. Acute pain is a physiological answer that warns us about the hazard. The pathophysiology of acute pain involves regular processing of pain and the answers to noxious stimuli that are impairing or potentially impairing to usual tissue. The precise mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic pain are convoluted and unsure. Following injury, rapid and long-term alterations occur in components of the central nervous system that transmits and modulates pain. The pathophysiology of mentioned pain refers to the ways through which one notices, understands, and answers to painful stimulation. Peripheral receptors initiate obnoxious feelings that the body modulates in the dorsal and the anterior of spinal cord before coming to the cerebrum. An answer of pain relies on interpretation in exact cerebral hubs and the resultant motor function. With the advent of purposeful MRI and favorite scanners, the comprehending of the cerebral interpretation of pain is increasing. The similarity in the three forms of pain is that they all occur because of mind neuro transmissions. The similarity between chronic and referred pain is that the two may last long, while acute pain can last only for a short duration of time (Huether & McCance, 2012)

Health practitioners and researchers understand that gender impacts on diagnosis, medication and management of pain among people, and thus it is essential to consider it for effective pain treatment. Current human research regarding gender differences in experimental pain indicates greater pain sensitivity amidst females compared with males for most pain modalities. Research indicates that women are more likely to get under treatment for pain than men are. Gender affects pathophysiology of pain in people because a broad range of variables, from genotype to psychosocial processes contributes to person’s reaction to pain. Research shows that women are more sensitive to pain that men because the noxious stimuli in women is relatively higher than in men. It seems that gender affects not only pain levels, coping, and diagnosis, but also pain-related behaviors, encompassing healthcare use. It is likely that men and women differ in their responses to pain treatments. Gender influences treatment options because of the varied gene expression, which affects the way men and women metabolize drugs. It is for this reason that doctors will most likely prescribe anesthesia and ibuprofen for men and not for women. This is for the reason that women are less responsive to these drugs than men. Women report more cases of acute and chronic pain because of the difference in the way the bodies of men and women work. It is essential to glimpse that other factors such as anxiety also affect perception and diagnosis of pain in women. In some instances, the diagnosis process has to be rigorous especially in cases of referred pain because anxiety and other factors that surround women pain have almost similar symptoms. It is for this reason that doctors mostly prescribe anxiety relief medicine for women going through pain (Farquhar-Smith, 2008).

Age is another factor that leverages pain grades in a one-by-one. Pain is common amidst older people. As people grow old, they report little pain. This could be because of a decrease in sensitivity to pain and change in mind-set toward pain. Aged people are more likely to have side consequences from pain relievers (analgesics) than younger persons, and some side consequences are more likely to be critical. These pharmaceuticals may stay in the body longer, and older persons may be more perceptive to them. Numerous older people take several pharmaceuticals, expanding the chances that a drug will merge with the analgesic, decreasing the effectiveness of one of the pharmaceuticals or expanding the risk of edge consequences. In older people, health care practitioners will diagnose pain utilizing the symptoms and body dialects that indicate likely pain. These encompass adversities in carrying out normal bodily purposes such as consuming and strolling. The most widespread cause of pain in elderly people is a musculoskeletal disorder. However, numerous older people have chronic pain, which may have numerous determinants (Katz & Page, 2010).

In conclusion, there are many views on pain because pain is subjective and people describe it according to their experiences. People differ in their ability to tolerate and deal with pain. Just like other body reactions, there are factors that affect the source, levels, diagnosis, and treatment of pain in individuals.

References

Farquhar-Smith, W. (2008). Anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology of pain. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 9(1), 3-7.

Huether, S., & McCance, K.(2012). Understanding patho-physiology (Laureate Custom Edition.Order ID 9655142444). St. Louis MO: Mosby publishers.

Katz, J., & Page, M. G. (2010). Identification of risk and protective factors in transition of pain. Clinical pain management:A Practical Guide. Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 32-41.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). The neurological system. Baltimore, MD: Author.

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