Politics and health care economics
As per (HBS Working Knowledge, 2007) healthcare headlines most of the times in the U.S hence a proof that it is a primary determiner of how the state runs. Healthcare does consume almost 40% of the gross income hence an issue that is assigned priority. The healthcare system is changing as per the current technology as more medical services are realized. The U.S government does influence the process of healthcare in that its services are incorporated in the budget.
Clinging onto (Russellsage.org, 2016) as per the constitution of the U.S, the Affordable Act enacted in 2010 reformed the health systems in the U.S.Its primary aim is to increase health insurance as well as drive quality care to citizens for them to receive these medical services. The government hence directly influences the systems since it is incorporated in its budget. According to (HBS Working Knowledge, 2007) healthcare meets an expense of up to $2 trillion per year. Countries that have a higher expectancy tend to receive a lot more hence some recipients rarely get access to such services.
According to (Conklin, 2002) to add to the government, cultural beliefs and values do affect healthcare systems hence grouped as economical and situational factors. Looking at on-U.S healthcare systems, for example, Japan. As per (Arnquist, 2016) Japan has the lowest capital healthcare systems yet its population turns out to be the healthiest among the most advanced nations in the world. Lifestyle, minimal rates of obesity does reduce the size of an unhealthy population.
By paying of premiums proportional to their respective incomes, everyone in Japan is covered by insurance that provides medical care and drugs. The truth is, despite a broad range of insurers, competition is rare since most of them include the same drugs all at the same price. Rates for doctors and hospitals are negotiated and set after a period of two years. Medical bankruptcy is not common or even known in Japan hence able to maintain its population. With better chronic care since most of the population has some elderly people hence brings in the idea of long-term healthcare.
Old people aged 75 years and above gain access to long-term healthcare services. Common in countries worldwide healthcare is usually incorporated in the budget. As per (Nurse.or.jp, 2016) In the year 2008, Japan did realize an expenditure of 34,808.4 billion yen where more than half did cover elderly people aged 65 years or older. It is compared to only 9.9% of the national income expenditure.
As per (Tokyofoundation.org, 2016) the Japanese healthcare system happens to be divided in that insurance is based either in the workplace, government-managed and national based health insurances. The government comes in that it becomes a free access system. Access to medical institutions of their option and examinations despite the symptoms. A problem of excessive demand from patients on doctors has been realized. With the aging population causing issues in the country’s finances, the government structures a plan in that work based insurance systems tend to increase the rates of the younger to the national to cover for the elderly and unemployed. It tends to be one way that the government controls and influences the health care systems in Japan.
Various amendments are on the rise in the past. Major political parties in Japan did have healthcare platforms in which they used to express what they feel should be done or introduced the latest being the People’s New Party win which they put emphasis on investment in medical facilities. Health care systems do differ a lot depending on countries. Looking at the U.S and Japan, there are slight similarities. As per (LiveScience.com, 2016) most of Japans population is insured. This is because the residents provide the 30% while the government takes the remaining 70% to help improve and provide these systems. In the U.S millions are uninsured while those under insurance do avoid the doctors in that they get disgusted since its time consuming.
As per (PBS NewsHour, 2016) Japan was among the first in the Asian countries to come up with a stable system since it covers it all citizens. The U.S on the other side has a public policy that only covers the elderly and families that have a low income. Most services are provided by private insurers hence a lot of competition among such insurers. The U.S spends a lot as compared to Japan since it has higher prices and wider volume of services that are of superior technology.
Conklin, T. (2002). Health Care in the United States: An Evolving System. Michigan Family Review, 07(1). Retrieved from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mfr/4919087.0007.102/–health-care-in-the-united-states-an-evolving-system?rgn=main;view=fulltext
HBS Working Knowledge,. (2007). What Is the Government’s Role in US Health Care?. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/what-is-the-governments-role-in-u-s-healthcare
LiveScience.com,. (2016). Healthcare Systems: U.S. vs. Japan. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://www.livescience.com/7830-healthcare-systems-japan.html
Nurse.or.jp,. (2016). Japanese Healthcare System | Japanese Nursing Association. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://www.nurse.or.jp/jna/english/nursing/medical.html
PBS NewsHour,. (2016). Comparing International Health Care Systems. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/health-july-dec09-insurance_10-06/
Russellsage.org,. (2016). The Social, Economic and Political Effects of the Affordable Care Act | Russell Sage Foundation. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://www.russellsage.org/research/social-economic-and-political-effects-affordable-care-act
Tokyofoundation.org,. (2016). Addressing the Problems in the Japanese Healthcare System — The Tokyo Foundation. Retrieved 13 February 2016, from http://www.tokyofoundation.org/en/articles/2009/addressing-the-problems-in-the-japanese-healthcare-system