STRATEGY LITERATURE REVIEW

0 Comments

 

 

1. Introduction

Diabetes is a life-long ailment that impacts the glucose handing capacity in a person’s body. It has been noted that Type 2 diabetes affects people in various age-groups all over the world. There were reportedly 15% of people over 65 years of age who self-reported their diabetic condition (Figure 1), as per the ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Having said that, the report stated that there were an average of 849,000 adults above 18 years of age, who reported about their diabetic condition. According to the survey, the rate of reporting among Australian men (5.4%) is higher as compared to women (4.2%). This rate also varies according to the area of living. Like the reporting rate is found to be higher in inner regions (5.5%), while in major cities only 4.8% people report about their disease (12) (13) (14) (15) .

Figure 1: Self-reported popularity of type 2 diabetes among adults in Australia, by sex and age, 2011–12

Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Microdata: Australian Health Survey, Core Content—Risk Factors and Selected Health Conditions, 2011-12.

The purpose of this literary review is to analyze a range of health promotion policies which have been implemented to enhance Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus treatment uptake. This literature review was drafted around a schema that studies the health promotion procedures on a critical approach to fuse concise data pertaining to the health promotion procedures, its validity in a specific topic, in the context of theories and constructs used. The methodology provides a brief outline of literature search and the justification for selection and exclusion of research articles. The result section provides a summary of the whole literature that analyses drive, background, theories, strategies, assessment and applicability in a specific health topic. An inclusion/exclusion methodology was applied. The review strategy discovered that the conventional approaches for reducing Type 2 Diabetes reporting rates were health awareness, provider-based methodologies and communication strategies.

2. Review

2.1 Methodology

This section defines the search strategy, choosing and exclusion criteria followed in this review and kinds of studies reviewed. An in-depth literature search has been conducted through library data bases with the help of different academic databanks. The articles included are randomized control tests, case studies, peer reviewed journals, case series and comparative analyses on the chosen health topic. The inclusion criteria was restricted to studies within last six years, studies conducted within Australia, and researches of academic and government health units. However, a few older studies have also been used.

The evaluative methods employed in this research included questionnaires. The participants included are adult male and female Indigenous population in Australia, who are over 65 years of age. A number of interviews were also conducted among people of this age-group, so as to understand how the people coped with this ailment. The interventions observed are culturally suitable services and policies applied in the Indigenous population. The health promotion strategy results evaluated on the basis of data contributed to better disease management, improved attitude of individual and family towards diabetes and better preventive strategies.

Electronic search results

The databases that will be electronically searched are: Science Direct, Online Library, The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), PLOS, The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Journal of Periodontology Online, American Journal of Epidemiology and Europe PubMed Central. Table 1 clearly shows the search methods and the text words used.

Table 1: Search Strategy

Name of

Journal

Keyword 1Keyword 2Keyword 3Keyword 4Keyword 5
Science DirectType diabetes mellitus2Type diabetes mellitus Australia2 inType diabetes mellitus Australia2

in in

Type diabetes mellitus Australia2 inDiabetes in

Australian adults

old people above 65

years of age

Online Library Type 2

diabetes among

Australians

Diabetes in

Australians

Diabetic patients AustraliainDiabetic adults Australiain
MJA Diabetes in

Australians

Diabetic

adults in

Australia

Type diabetes Australia2 inDiabetes Australiain
PLOSDiabetic

patients in

Australia

Type 2

diabetes

among

Australians

Type diabetes2
NJEMAustralian diabeticsAustralian adult diabetics Diabetes in

Australians

Journal of

Periodontology Online

Type 2

diabetes mellitus

Type 2

diabetes

Diabetes mellitus in

adults

Europe PubMed Diabetes in

Australia

Australian diabetics Diabetes in

Australian adults

American

Journal of

Epidemiology

Australia type

2 diabetes

mellitus

Type 2

diabetes mellitus

Type 2

diabetes mellitus in

Australia

 

Articl e IdBrief descriptio

n of strategy being evaluated (refer to

2B,2.1)

Theori

es,

metho ds, constr ucts used(r efer to 2B,2.1)

Strate gy level (Indivi dual, group, popula

tion)

Strate gy

contex t/ setting (refer to 2C)

Research question

or purpose (refer to

2D,2.9)

Evaluatio n methods, measures and

results(ref

er to

2D,2E,3)

Interpreta tion with respect to

quality and applicabili ty to your project(re fer to 4)

Level of evid

ence

(I-

IV)(r efer

to

appe nd1)

Ott awa

cha

rter acti on are a

(1) Sazlin a SG, 2015To boost

physical

activities and

exercise among old people with type 2 diabetes

Provid

er

medic al

educat ion

21 suitabl e

studies were review ed

Comm

unity setting

Does physical activity beneficial in

reducing

type 2

diabetes among

older

Increased level Physical activity

has been proven a beneficial strategy

Showed an improve ment in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus1OC

1

 

mellituspeople?
(2)

Tuomi

lehto et al.,

2011

Lifestyle changes can

reduce

type 2

diabetes mellitus

Provid er

educat ion

110,66

0 individ uals tested for glucos e tolera nce

Old age Popula

tion with type 2 diabet es mellitu

s

Does

lifestyle

changes

like

reduced alcohol intake, increasing physical activities, weight loss etc. help in

reducing

type 2

diabetes mellitus?

Observati onal studies have provided firm evidence that multiple lifestylerelated factors either increase or decrease

the risk of type 2 diabetes.

People changed their life style to reduce

type 2

diabetes mellitus

1OC

1

3)

Post et al, 2012

There is a link

between intake of dietary fiber and diabetes type 2

Group educat ion15

Appro

priate studies have been rando mly selecte

d to compl

ete the test

Type 2 diabeti

c old age Popula

tion

How

beneficial

it is to

An interventi on including fiber

suppleme ntation for type 2 diabetes mellitus can lessen fasting blood glucose and

HbA1c.

The project shows that intake of suppleme

ntary fiber help the people to reduce the fasting blood glucose

111-

2

OC

1

(4)

Rizvi,

2009

Nutrition and food related

education for old

age diabetic patients

Group educat ionOld age

popula

tion

Comm unity settingWhat is the true connectio n between the nutritional diet and type 2

diabetes mellitus among old age patient?

Diet with good

amount

of fruits, vegetable , milk and dairy products showed

excellent results in managing

type 2

diabetes

The project

identified

how the

dietary patterns

help to manage

the type 2 diabetes mellitus

1OC

1

(5)ImprovedProvidOldCommHowGlycemicIncreased11OC

 

Walla

ce, 2015

glycemic control reduces the risk of

microvasc ular disease in diabetic patients

er

educat ion

age popula

tion

unity settingmicrovasc ular disease among

diabetic patients

can be

reduced with increased glycemic control

control is an excellent method

to control

microvasc ular disease in type 2

diabetic patients

glycemic control reduces the risk of

microvasc ular

disease among old age

people

4
(6)

Omar and

Lai,

2014

Medicatio n

adherenc e among type 2

diabetes mellitus

patients above 65 years of age

Provid er

educat ion

147 diabeti c

patien t have been rando mly selecte d

Comm

unity setting

How many people are aware of

their

medicatio

n while

having diabetes?

 

53.7% of

total

participan

ts were found to be aware of their medicatio

n and

illness

This study identified among 147 diabetic patients5 3.7% people were aware of

their medicatio

n and

illness

111-

2

OC

3

(7)

Nice,

2011

Changing healthconcerne d behaviorHealth educat ionOld age people with type 2 diabet es

mellitu

s

Old age Popula

tion

If a person changes his/her healthrelated behavior,

how much helpful it is in managing the illness?

Results show that positive attitude towards the healthissue

helps to

manage the problem with ease

Positive attitude

of the

people help to

manage the problem

1OC

1

(8)

Abrah

im, 2015

Self-care among type 2

diabetes mellitus patients

Group educat ion31 suitabl e studies have been review edDiabet

ic

popula

tion

How much helpful is self-care for

managing

type 2 diabetes mellitus

To improve a

Type 2 DM

patients self-care activities the present study concluded that

The study shows that selfcare activities can

manage

type 2 diabetes mellitus

OC

2

 

Demogra

phic,

Socio-

Economic and Social support factors are

among

the positive contribut

ors in

patients of Type 2 DM

successful Self-Care activities.

(9)

Hovan ec et

al,

2012

Resistanc e trainingProvid er

educat ion

Contro

lled clinical trials

and

literat ure review

Health care

facility

How

helpful is strength and

Resistanc e training increase muscle strength and increases metabolic rate that helps in managing diabetes and cardiovas cular diseasesResistanc e training leads to increased metabolic rate and that will help to

manage diabetes mellitus

OC

4

(10)

Toma s,

2015

Neurobiof eedback

treatment for diabetics

Provid er

educat ion

Diabet ic

popula

tion

Health care settingHow

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetics

can be managed with neurobiof eedback?

Neurobiof eedback

treatment help to reduce

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetic patients

This project

shows that

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetic

patient

can be managed by neurobiof eedback

11OC

3

(11) CarrarPhysical counsellinGroup educat23 relevaHealth careHow much personal68.4% studies It shows

that

1OC

2

 

o et

al,

2015

g among old age

diabetic patients

ionnt studies have been review edfacilitycounsellin

g is

beneficial for old age diabetic patients?

reviewed showed

significant

improvem

ent

among people taking physical counsellin

g

counsellin g help the old age people to manage

their

diabetic

in a

better way.

(12) Confo s et

al,

2003

Screening for diabetic retinopat hyProvid er

educat ed

Popula tion:

genera

l

practiti oners

Health care

facility

To enhance the

knowledg

e of

general physicians for diabetic

retinopath

y

Measured short term impact: general physicians have showed good knowledg e about

retinopat hy after the study

This study evaluate the knowledg e of the general practition ers about the diabetic retinopat hyOC

4

(13)

O’Brie n and Chand

ra

Moha

n,

2003

Education campaign on good

diabetic foot examinati on

Promo

tion, provid er

educat ed

Popula tion: health care practiti oners and patien t with diabet es type 2Health care

facility

increase complianc e with the performan ce of a

proper foot examinati on through a

predomin antly physiciandirected campaign

With minimum

cost, time and

investme nt; the document ation of diabetic

foot can

be implemen ted.

Moreover , follow-

ups of foot

checkup

can be

reminded

Education campaign has been done by

the health practition ers about

the

importan

ce of diabetic foot examinati on

OC

4

(14) Peters and David son, 1995Support from

subspecial

ists for

diabetic patients

Group educat ion, enviro nment

&

Diabet ic

patien

t

Health care

facility

To avoid complicati

ons and

hospitaliza

tions of

diabetic

Hospitaliz ation

rates

dropped

significant ly

Support from the subspecia

lists to the diabetic

OC

2

1(old age) AND (diabetes )AND (type 2) OR (statistics)
2(elderly) OR(Australia) OR (type 2 diabetes)
3(elderly)AND (diabetes) OR (Statistics)
4(old people) AND (culture) AND (type 2 diabetes)
5(elderly) And (“common effects”) AND (diabetes)
6(over 65 years) AND( Prevalence) OR (diabetes)
7(“Health policies” )AND (elderly )AND (diabetes type 2)
8(“elderly citizens” )AND( effects )AND( “diabetes”)
policie spatientspatients

help to reduce the

complicat ion and

hospitaliz ation

(15)

Sandy

, 2005

Poster campaign to check diabetesCampa ign & promo

tions

Diabet

ic

patien

ts

Health care

facility

To encourage people to get their glucose level checked on timeThe populatio

n of

people going to

hospitals for getting their glucose level checked, increased tremendo

usly

Through Poster campaign people going to the hospital for getting their glucose

level checked increased significant ly.

OC

4

 

 

 

3. SUMMARY:

It is still unclear as to what causes type 2 diabetes (1). Type 2 diabetes also provides strong genetic in addition to spouse and kids related risk factors (2). This review laid emphasis on literature in context of reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes among people over 65 years of age in Australia to minimize the risk of the health condition through culturally appropriate health and social welfare policies. From the extensive volume of materials that were studied for the purpose of this research, 15 peer reviewed articles (the most relevant) were chosen, and the review spanned across different themes.

9(Prevalence )AND( “diabetes type 2” )AND (elderly)
10(“Health policies”) And (“diabetes type 2 management”)And ( Australia )

Later on it was reviewed that diabetic patients should change their lifestyle, increase intake of nutritional food and especially dietary fiber in order to cope with this condition. (3)(4)(5) Diabetes makes the bone very week and this increased the chances of fracture among older patients and many other complications. Hence diabetic patients should take care of their diet. In this paper, the relation between diabetes and kidney disease has also been reviewed (4)(5). Diabetic patients of type 2 diabetes have been selected to examine CKD (chronic kidney disease) among them. The results were positive. 6,7

It has also been observed that diabetes led to the failure of the treatment of worm infection. This study was conducted on older as well as middle aged people and showed the positive results (8).

However type 2 diabetes statistics in elderly indigenous population is a broader theme that has direct or secondary relationship with the national culture, life, values and beliefs. Only few researches discuss the effectiveness of a medico-pharmacological approach in the reduction of cases of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. A chunk of the literature suggests the need for holistic and environmental approach to decrease the number of cases. Some of the articles stressed on the change in lifestyle, which has a direct relationship with the high rate of type 2 diabetes in those above 65 years of age. Hospital and primary health articles were found beneficial in discussing various factors which could slow down the instances of type 2 diabetes.

Studies have also revealed that there is a close link between the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of the citizens of Australia. Research has also proven that physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and the use of steroids could also be responsible for the increase in the cases of type 2 diabetes among citizens over the age of 65 years of age. Keeping in mind the alarming rates of diabetes occurrence among people of an older age group, it is necessary for the government to take the necessary steps to ensure that those rates are brought under control. Also, in order to cope with the current situation of diabetes among the elderly, it is necessary that there be provision for optimum healthcare facilities that can help the patients cope with the condition, without letting it affect their routine in a negative way.

4.Conclusion :

This strategic literature review focuses on the literature, the possible causes, and the effectiveness of current health policies in context of type 2 diabetes cases among people above the age of 65 years in Australia. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can be quite high in Australia. The state is at risk to an episode with critical diseases, and has any health marketing project to improve treatment in addition to management involving type several diabetes amid adults over 65 years of age. This report searched for current proof of health marketing strategies that have been used in the Australian in addition to International setting to face this difficulty. The research methodology involved an inclusion/exclusion criteria for getting data in addition to results were being analyzed having a public wellness interventions Schema as well as the Australian Center with regard to wellness promotion. Results indicate substantial evidence for political in addition to provider primarily based interventions (9). Additionally, a clear link was observed between the instances of type 2 diabetes among the elderly and the increased inactivity, high blood pressure levels, high cholesterol levels and so on. Conversation techniques, like the growth involving trustful man relationships, were considered a crucial intervention for addressing health insurance and psychological limitations to diabetes. The findings on this review may be used to develop an ecological based mostly health marketing project for the Australian adults preceding 65 years (10).

However, the alarming rise in the cases of type 2 diabetes among the elderly in Australia is a warning bell for steps to be taken to ensure that this rise is curbed. Research has indicated that dietary and lifestyle changes could be used to bring the instances of this disease under control. Government initiatives such as workshops and other such educative media could be used to guide citizens as to how they can steer clear of this disease. Overall, the research was able to substantiate the belief that the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in Australia was in fact linked to a number of dietary and lifestyle factors. It is necessary that dietary and lifestyle changes be made in order to bring these statistics within range again. Exercise must be made an integral part of the lifestyle of the patient. In terms of diet, the patients must be educated to consume whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables instead of processed, sugary foods.

 

 

References:

  1. Sazlina SG e. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2015 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392445
  2. Tuomilehto J, Schwarz P, Lindstrom J. Long-Term Benefits from Lifestyle Interventions for Type 2

Diabetes Prevention: Time to expand the efforts. Diabetes Care. 2011;

34(Supplement_2):S210-S214.

  1. Post R, Mainous A, King D, Simpson K. Dietary Fiber for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2012; 25(1):16-23.
  2. Rizvi A. Nutritional challenges in the elderly with diabetes [Internet]. Sciencedirect.com. 2009

[cited 14 September 2015]. Available from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877593409000162

  1. Wallace J. Management of Diabetes in the Elderly [Internet]. Journal.diabetes.org. 1999 [cited 14

September 2015]. Available from:

http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/v17n11999/Pg19.htm

  1. Omar M, Lai San K. Diabetes knowledge and medication adherence among geriatric patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus [Internet]. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical

Sciences. 2014 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol6Issue3/8838.pdf

  1. http://www.nice.org.uk/. Preventing type 2 diabetes: population and community-level interventions [Internet]. 2011 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from:

http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph35/resources/guidance-preventing-type-2-diabetespopulation-and-communitylevel-interventions-pdf

  1. Abrahim M. SELF-CARE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES [Internet]. http://www.diva-portal.org/. 2011 [cited 14

September 2015]. Available from: http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:504528/FULLTEXT01.pdf

  1. Hovanec N, Sawant A, Overend T, Petrella R, Vandervoort A. Resistance Training and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Strength of the Evidence. Journal of Aging Research. 2012; 2012:1-12.
  2. Tomas S. Impact of Neurobiofeedback Therapy on Cognitive Impairment among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients [Internet]. DELHI PSYCHIATRY JOURNAL. 2012 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://medind.nic.in/daa/t12/i2/daat12i2p287.pdf
  3. Carraro E, Roppolo M, Bonetta S, Gilli G. The Role of Physical Counselling in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2015; 05(02):97-110.
  4. Confos N, Frith J, Mitchell P. (2003) Training GPs to screen for diabetic retinopathy. The impact of short term intensive education. Aust Fam Physician. 32(5):381-382, 384.
  5. O’Brien, K. E., V. Chandra Mohan, et al. (2003). “Effect of a physician-directed educational campaign on performance of proper diabetic foot exams in an outpatient setting.” J Gen Intern

 

  1. Sandy, P. (2005) “Poster helps to lower elevated blood glucose levels” Performance Improvement Advisor, p.63-65

 

 

 

 

 

 

STRATEGY LITERATURE REVIEW

Health Topic:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Old Age People Over 65

Years in Australia

 

Contents

  1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
  2. Review ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
    • Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
    • Results ………………………………………………………………………………. Error! Bookmark not defined.
  3. SUMMARY: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

4.Conclusion : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

 

 

1. Introduction

Diabetes is a life-long ailment that impacts the glucose handing capacity in a person’s body. It has been noted that Type 2 diabetes affects people in various age-groups all over the world. There were reportedly 15% of people over 65 years of age who self-reported their diabetic condition (Figure 1), as per the ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Having said that, the report stated that there were an average of 849,000 adults above 18 years of age, who reported about their diabetic condition. According to the survey, the rate of reporting among Australian men (5.4%) is higher as compared to women (4.2%). This rate also varies according to the area of living. Like the reporting rate is found to be higher in inner regions (5.5%), while in major cities only 4.8% people report about their disease (12) (13) (14) (15) .

Figure 1: Self-reported popularity of type 2 diabetes among adults in Australia, by sex and age, 2011–12

Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Microdata: Australian Health Survey, Core Content—Risk Factors and Selected Health Conditions, 2011-12.

The purpose of this literary review is to analyze a range of health promotion policies which have been implemented to enhance Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus treatment uptake. This literature review was drafted around a schema that studies the health promotion procedures on a critical approach to fuse concise data pertaining to the health promotion procedures, its validity in a specific topic, in the context of theories and constructs used. The methodology provides a brief outline of literature search and the justification for selection and exclusion of research articles. The result section provides a summary of the whole literature that analyses drive, background, theories, strategies, assessment and applicability in a specific health topic. An inclusion/exclusion methodology was applied. The review strategy discovered that the conventional approaches for reducing Type 2 Diabetes reporting rates were health awareness, provider-based methodologies and communication strategies.

2. Review

2.1 Methodology

This section defines the search strategy, choosing and exclusion criteria followed in this review and kinds of studies reviewed. An in-depth literature search has been conducted through library data bases with the help of different academic databanks. The articles included are randomized control tests, case studies, peer reviewed journals, case series and comparative analyses on the chosen health topic. The inclusion criteria was restricted to studies within last six years, studies conducted within Australia, and researches of academic and government health units. However, a few older studies have also been used.

The evaluative methods employed in this research included questionnaires. The participants included are adult male and female Indigenous population in Australia, who are over 65 years of age. A number of interviews were also conducted among people of this age-group, so as to understand how the people coped with this ailment. The interventions observed are culturally suitable services and policies applied in the Indigenous population. The health promotion strategy results evaluated on the basis of data contributed to better disease management, improved attitude of individual and family towards diabetes and better preventive strategies.

Electronic search results

The databases that will be electronically searched are: Science Direct, Online Library, The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), PLOS, The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Journal of Periodontology Online, American Journal of Epidemiology and Europe PubMed Central. Table 1 clearly shows the search methods and the text words used.

Table 1: Search Strategy

Name of

Journal

Keyword 1Keyword 2Keyword 3Keyword 4Keyword 5
Science DirectType diabetes mellitus2Type diabetes mellitus Australia2 inType diabetes mellitus Australia2

in in

Type diabetes mellitus Australia2 inDiabetes in

Australian adults

old people above 65

years of age

Online Library Type 2

diabetes among

Australians

Diabetes in

Australians

Diabetic patients AustraliainDiabetic adults Australiain
MJA Diabetes in

Australians

Diabetic

adults in

Australia

Type diabetes Australia2 inDiabetes Australiain
PLOSDiabetic

patients in

Australia

Type 2

diabetes

among

Australians

Type diabetes2
NJEMAustralian diabeticsAustralian adult diabetics Diabetes in

Australians

Journal of

Periodontology Online

Type 2

diabetes mellitus

Type 2

diabetes

Diabetes mellitus in

adults

Europe PubMed Diabetes in

Australia

Australian diabetics Diabetes in

Australian adults

American

Journal of

Epidemiology

Australia type

2 diabetes

mellitus

Type 2

diabetes mellitus

Type 2

diabetes mellitus in

Australia

 

Articl e IdBrief descriptio

n of strategy being evaluated (refer to

2B,2.1)

Theori

es,

metho ds, constr ucts used(r efer to 2B,2.1)

Strate gy level (Indivi dual, group, popula

tion)

Strate gy

contex t/ setting (refer to 2C)

Research question

or purpose (refer to

2D,2.9)

Evaluatio n methods, measures and

results(ref

er to

2D,2E,3)

Interpreta tion with respect to

quality and applicabili ty to your project(re fer to 4)

Level of evid

ence

(I-

IV)(r efer

to

appe nd1)

Ott awa

cha

rter acti on are a

(1) Sazlin a SG, 2015To boost

physical

activities and

exercise among old people with type 2 diabetes

Provid

er

medic al

educat ion

21 suitabl e

studies were review ed

Comm

unity setting

Does physical activity beneficial in

reducing

type 2

diabetes among

older

Increased level Physical activity

has been proven a beneficial strategy

Showed an improve ment in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus1OC

1

 

mellituspeople?
(2)

Tuomi

lehto et al.,

2011

Lifestyle changes can

reduce

type 2

diabetes mellitus

Provid er

educat ion

110,66

0 individ uals tested for glucos e tolera nce

Old age Popula

tion with type 2 diabet es mellitu

s

Does

lifestyle

changes

like

reduced alcohol intake, increasing physical activities, weight loss etc. help in

reducing

type 2

diabetes mellitus?

Observati onal studies have provided firm evidence that multiple lifestylerelated factors either increase or decrease

the risk of type 2 diabetes.

People changed their life style to reduce

type 2

diabetes mellitus

1OC

1

3)

Post et al, 2012

There is a link

between intake of dietary fiber and diabetes type 2

Group educat ion15

Appro

priate studies have been rando mly selecte

d to compl

ete the test

Type 2 diabeti

c old age Popula

tion

How

beneficial

it is to

An interventi on including fiber

suppleme ntation for type 2 diabetes mellitus can lessen fasting blood glucose and

HbA1c.

The project shows that intake of suppleme

ntary fiber help the people to reduce the fasting blood glucose

111-

2

OC

1

(4)

Rizvi,

2009

Nutrition and food related

education for old

age diabetic patients

Group educat ionOld age

popula

tion

Comm unity settingWhat is the true connectio n between the nutritional diet and type 2

diabetes mellitus among old age patient?

Diet with good

amount

of fruits, vegetable , milk and dairy products showed

excellent results in managing

type 2

diabetes

The project

identified

how the

dietary patterns

help to manage

the type 2 diabetes mellitus

1OC

1

(5)ImprovedProvidOldCommHowGlycemicIncreased11OC

 

Walla

ce, 2015

glycemic control reduces the risk of

microvasc ular disease in diabetic patients

er

educat ion

age popula

tion

unity settingmicrovasc ular disease among

diabetic patients

can be

reduced with increased glycemic control

control is an excellent method

to control

microvasc ular disease in type 2

diabetic patients

glycemic control reduces the risk of

microvasc ular

disease among old age

people

4
(6)

Omar and

Lai,

2014

Medicatio n

adherenc e among type 2

diabetes mellitus

patients above 65 years of age

Provid er

educat ion

147 diabeti c

patien t have been rando mly selecte d

Comm

unity setting

How many people are aware of

their

medicatio

n while

having diabetes?

 

53.7% of

total

participan

ts were found to be aware of their medicatio

n and

illness

This study identified among 147 diabetic patients5 3.7% people were aware of

their medicatio

n and

illness

111-

2

OC

3

(7)

Nice,

2011

Changing healthconcerne d behaviorHealth educat ionOld age people with type 2 diabet es

mellitu

s

Old age Popula

tion

If a person changes his/her healthrelated behavior,

how much helpful it is in managing the illness?

Results show that positive attitude towards the healthissue

helps to

manage the problem with ease

Positive attitude

of the

people help to

manage the problem

1OC

1

(8)

Abrah

im, 2015

Self-care among type 2

diabetes mellitus patients

Group educat ion31 suitabl e studies have been review edDiabet

ic

popula

tion

How much helpful is self-care for

managing

type 2 diabetes mellitus

To improve a

Type 2 DM

patients self-care activities the present study concluded that

The study shows that selfcare activities can

manage

type 2 diabetes mellitus

OC

2

 

Demogra

phic,

Socio-

Economic and Social support factors are

among

the positive contribut

ors in

patients of Type 2 DM

successful Self-Care activities.

(9)

Hovan ec et

al,

2012

Resistanc e trainingProvid er

educat ion

Contro

lled clinical trials

and

literat ure review

Health care

facility

How

helpful is strength and

Resistanc e training increase muscle strength and increases metabolic rate that helps in managing diabetes and cardiovas cular diseasesResistanc e training leads to increased metabolic rate and that will help to

manage diabetes mellitus

OC

4

(10)

Toma s,

2015

Neurobiof eedback

treatment for diabetics

Provid er

educat ion

Diabet ic

popula

tion

Health care settingHow

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetics

can be managed with neurobiof eedback?

Neurobiof eedback

treatment help to reduce

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetic patients

This project

shows that

cognitive impairme

nt in diabetic

patient

can be managed by neurobiof eedback

11OC

3

(11) CarrarPhysical counsellinGroup educat23 relevaHealth careHow much personal68.4% studies It shows

that

1OC

2

 

o et

al,

2015

g among old age

diabetic patients

ionnt studies have been review edfacilitycounsellin

g is

beneficial for old age diabetic patients?

reviewed showed

significant

improvem

ent

among people taking physical counsellin

g

counsellin g help the old age people to manage

their

diabetic

in a

better way.

(12) Confo s et

al,

2003

Screening for diabetic retinopat hyProvid er

educat ed

Popula tion:

genera

l

practiti oners

Health care

facility

To enhance the

knowledg

e of

general physicians for diabetic

retinopath

y

Measured short term impact: general physicians have showed good knowledg e about

retinopat hy after the study

This study evaluate the knowledg e of the general practition ers about the diabetic retinopat hyOC

4

(13)

O’Brie n and Chand

ra

Moha

n,

2003

Education campaign on good

diabetic foot examinati on

Promo

tion, provid er

educat ed

Popula tion: health care practiti oners and patien t with diabet es type 2Health care

facility

increase complianc e with the performan ce of a

proper foot examinati on through a

predomin antly physiciandirected campaign

With minimum

cost, time and

investme nt; the document ation of diabetic

foot can

be implemen ted.

Moreover , follow-

ups of foot

checkup

can be

reminded

Education campaign has been done by

the health practition ers about

the

importan

ce of diabetic foot examinati on

OC

4

(14) Peters and David son, 1995Support from

subspecial

ists for

diabetic patients

Group educat ion, enviro nment

&

Diabet ic

patien

t

Health care

facility

To avoid complicati

ons and

hospitaliza

tions of

diabetic

Hospitaliz ation

rates

dropped

significant ly

Support from the subspecia

lists to the diabetic

OC

2

1(old age) AND (diabetes )AND (type 2) OR (statistics)
2(elderly) OR(Australia) OR (type 2 diabetes)
3(elderly)AND (diabetes) OR (Statistics)
4(old people) AND (culture) AND (type 2 diabetes)
5(elderly) And (“common effects”) AND (diabetes)
6(over 65 years) AND( Prevalence) OR (diabetes)
7(“Health policies” )AND (elderly )AND (diabetes type 2)
8(“elderly citizens” )AND( effects )AND( “diabetes”)
policie spatientspatients

help to reduce the

complicat ion and

hospitaliz ation

(15)

Sandy

, 2005

Poster campaign to check diabetesCampa ign & promo

tions

Diabet

ic

patien

ts

Health care

facility

To encourage people to get their glucose level checked on timeThe populatio

n of

people going to

hospitals for getting their glucose level checked, increased tremendo

usly

Through Poster campaign people going to the hospital for getting their glucose

level checked increased significant ly.

OC

4

 

 

 

3. SUMMARY:

It is still unclear as to what causes type 2 diabetes (1). Type 2 diabetes also provides strong genetic in addition to spouse and kids related risk factors (2). This review laid emphasis on literature in context of reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes among people over 65 years of age in Australia to minimize the risk of the health condition through culturally appropriate health and social welfare policies. From the extensive volume of materials that were studied for the purpose of this research, 15 peer reviewed articles (the most relevant) were chosen, and the review spanned across different themes.

9(Prevalence )AND( “diabetes type 2” )AND (elderly)
10(“Health policies”) And (“diabetes type 2 management”)And ( Australia )

Later on it was reviewed that diabetic patients should change their lifestyle, increase intake of nutritional food and especially dietary fiber in order to cope with this condition. (3)(4)(5) Diabetes makes the bone very week and this increased the chances of fracture among older patients and many other complications. Hence diabetic patients should take care of their diet. In this paper, the relation between diabetes and kidney disease has also been reviewed (4)(5). Diabetic patients of type 2 diabetes have been selected to examine CKD (chronic kidney disease) among them. The results were positive. 6,7

It has also been observed that diabetes led to the failure of the treatment of worm infection. This study was conducted on older as well as middle aged people and showed the positive results (8).

However type 2 diabetes statistics in elderly indigenous population is a broader theme that has direct or secondary relationship with the national culture, life, values and beliefs. Only few researches discuss the effectiveness of a medico-pharmacological approach in the reduction of cases of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. A chunk of the literature suggests the need for holistic and environmental approach to decrease the number of cases. Some of the articles stressed on the change in lifestyle, which has a direct relationship with the high rate of type 2 diabetes in those above 65 years of age. Hospital and primary health articles were found beneficial in discussing various factors which could slow down the instances of type 2 diabetes.

Studies have also revealed that there is a close link between the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of the citizens of Australia. Research has also proven that physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and the use of steroids could also be responsible for the increase in the cases of type 2 diabetes among citizens over the age of 65 years of age. Keeping in mind the alarming rates of diabetes occurrence among people of an older age group, it is necessary for the government to take the necessary steps to ensure that those rates are brought under control. Also, in order to cope with the current situation of diabetes among the elderly, it is necessary that there be provision for optimum healthcare facilities that can help the patients cope with the condition, without letting it affect their routine in a negative way.

4.Conclusion :

This strategic literature review focuses on the literature, the possible causes, and the effectiveness of current health policies in context of type 2 diabetes cases among people above the age of 65 years in Australia. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can be quite high in Australia. The state is at risk to an episode with critical diseases, and has any health marketing project to improve treatment in addition to management involving type several diabetes amid adults over 65 years of age. This report searched for current proof of health marketing strategies that have been used in the Australian in addition to International setting to face this difficulty. The research methodology involved an inclusion/exclusion criteria for getting data in addition to results were being analyzed having a public wellness interventions Schema as well as the Australian Center with regard to wellness promotion. Results indicate substantial evidence for political in addition to provider primarily based interventions (9). Additionally, a clear link was observed between the instances of type 2 diabetes among the elderly and the increased inactivity, high blood pressure levels, high cholesterol levels and so on. Conversation techniques, like the growth involving trustful man relationships, were considered a crucial intervention for addressing health insurance and psychological limitations to diabetes. The findings on this review may be used to develop an ecological based mostly health marketing project for the Australian adults preceding 65 years (10).

However, the alarming rise in the cases of type 2 diabetes among the elderly in Australia is a warning bell for steps to be taken to ensure that this rise is curbed. Research has indicated that dietary and lifestyle changes could be used to bring the instances of this disease under control. Government initiatives such as workshops and other such educative media could be used to guide citizens as to how they can steer clear of this disease. Overall, the research was able to substantiate the belief that the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in Australia was in fact linked to a number of dietary and lifestyle factors. It is necessary that dietary and lifestyle changes be made in order to bring these statistics within range again. Exercise must be made an integral part of the lifestyle of the patient. In terms of diet, the patients must be educated to consume whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables instead of processed, sugary foods.

 

 

References:

  1. Sazlina SG e. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2015 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392445
  2. Tuomilehto J, Schwarz P, Lindstrom J. Long-Term Benefits from Lifestyle Interventions for Type 2

Diabetes Prevention: Time to expand the efforts. Diabetes Care. 2011;

34(Supplement_2):S210-S214.

  1. Post R, Mainous A, King D, Simpson K. Dietary Fiber for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2012; 25(1):16-23.
  2. Rizvi A. Nutritional challenges in the elderly with diabetes [Internet]. Sciencedirect.com. 2009

[cited 14 September 2015]. Available from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877593409000162

  1. Wallace J. Management of Diabetes in the Elderly [Internet]. Journal.diabetes.org. 1999 [cited 14

September 2015]. Available from:

http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/v17n11999/Pg19.htm

  1. Omar M, Lai San K. Diabetes knowledge and medication adherence among geriatric patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus [Internet]. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical

Sciences. 2014 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol6Issue3/8838.pdf

  1. http://www.nice.org.uk/. Preventing type 2 diabetes: population and community-level interventions [Internet]. 2011 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from:

http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph35/resources/guidance-preventing-type-2-diabetespopulation-and-communitylevel-interventions-pdf

  1. Abrahim M. SELF-CARE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES [Internet]. http://www.diva-portal.org/. 2011 [cited 14

September 2015]. Available from: http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:504528/FULLTEXT01.pdf

  1. Hovanec N, Sawant A, Overend T, Petrella R, Vandervoort A. Resistance Training and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Strength of the Evidence. Journal of Aging Research. 2012; 2012:1-12.
  2. Tomas S. Impact of Neurobiofeedback Therapy on Cognitive Impairment among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients [Internet]. DELHI PSYCHIATRY JOURNAL. 2012 [cited 14 September 2015]. Available from: http://medind.nic.in/daa/t12/i2/daat12i2p287.pdf
  3. Carraro E, Roppolo M, Bonetta S, Gilli G. The Role of Physical Counselling in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2015; 05(02):97-110.
  4. Confos N, Frith J, Mitchell P. (2003) Training GPs to screen for diabetic retinopathy. The impact of short term intensive education. Aust Fam Physician. 32(5):381-382, 384.
  5. O’Brien, K. E., V. Chandra Mohan, et al. (2003). “Effect of a physician-directed educational campaign on performance of proper diabetic foot exams in an outpatient setting.” J Gen Intern

 

  1. Sandy, P. (2005) “Poster helps to lower elevated blood glucose levels” Performance Improvement Advisor, p.63-65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Are you looking for this answer? We can Help click Order Now"

UK BEST WRITING