The Whitewashing of Indian Hisory

The History of India has been whitewashed and distorted first by European rulers which after Independence were continued by eminent historians of India and their supporters the Leftists, Seculars and self claimed Progressives of India to meet their own ends. They have painted the pre-Islamic invasion period as Dark Age and have glorified the Islamic period to be very peaceful and prosperous. (The subject of distortions of history had been dealt by me in brief in the article “Indian History and ‘Avarana’ [Masking] of Truth by Marxists” which I elaborate here)

Ram Swarup says- “Marxists have taken to rewriting Indian history on a large scale and it has meant its systematic falsification. They have a dogmatic view of history and for them the use of any history is to prove their dogma. Their very approach is hurtful to truth…. The Marxists contempt for India, particularly the India of religion, culture and philosophy, is deep and theoretically fortified. It exceeds the contempt ever shown by the most die-hard imperialists”1 Some of the common claims of these eminent historians are-
1] Aryan Invasion Theory is True2
2] Large scale destruction of Buddhists and Jain temples was done by Hindus in pre-Islamic India3
3] The Muslim rulers were religiously tolerant and the Islamic rule was prosperous. The eminent historians deny the destruction of Hindu temples or the killing of Hindus at the hands of Muslim rulers. They also deny the religious motive behind the killing of Hindus at the hands of Muslim rulers.4

Let us examine the Aryan Invasion Theory [AIT].

The AIT was introduced to justify the presence of the British among their Aryan cousins in India, being merely the second wave of Aryan settlement there. It supported the British view of India as merely a geographical region without historical unity, a legitimate prey for any invader capable of imposing himself. It provided the master illustration to the rising racialist worldview-“the dynamic whites entered the land of the indolent dark natives and established their dominance and imparted their language to the natives; they established the caste system to preserve their racial separateness; some miscegenation with the natives took place anyway, making the Indian Aryans darker than their European cousins and correspondingly less intelligent; hence, for their own benefit they were susceptible to an uplifting intervention by a new wave of purer Aryan colonizers.”5

Dr.Koenraad Elst, in his “The Vedic Evidence”6 after examining the Vedic corpus for any evidence for Aryan invasion theory proposed by the Marxist school, concludes- “The status question is still, more than ever, that the Vedic corpus provides no reference to an immigration of the so-called Vedic Aryans from Central Asia….” He further provides Astronomical and Literary evidences against the AIT in his other essays.
Jim Shaffer. Wrote “Current archaeological data do not support the existence of an Indo-Aryan or European invasion into South Asia any time in the pre- or protohistoric periods. Instead, it is possible to document archaeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural developments from prehistoric to historic periods…”7 Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, a U.S. expert who has extensively studied such skeletal remains, observes- “Biological anthropologists remain unable to lend support to any of the theories concerning an Aryan biological or demographic entity..”8
David Frawley while commenting on the Political and Social Ramifications concludes-“First it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other… Second, it gave the British an excuse for their conquest of India. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago. This same justification could be used by the Muslims or any other invaders of India. Third, it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from the Middle Eastern… Fourth, it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis… Fifth, it gave the Marxists a good basis for projecting their class struggle model of society on to India, with the invading Brahmins oppressing the indigenous Shudras (lower castes)” He further concludes that- “In short, the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary or archeological but political and religious that is to say, not scholarship but prejudice”9
Archaeological evidence in no way contradicts Indian tradition, rather it broadly agrees with it (except for its chronology). Whether from North or South India, tradition never mentioned anything remotely resembling an Aryan invasion into India. Sanskrit scriptures make it clear that they regard the Vedic homeland to be the Saptasindhu, which is precisely the core of the Harappan territory. As for the Sangam tradition, it is equally silent about any northern origin of the Tamil people. These clearly show that AIT which Marxists have been propagating is based on assumptions and pre-conceived notion, rather than hard evidences.
About the alleged destruction of Buddhist and Jain temples by Hindus, Sita Ram Goel observes10- “It is intriguing indeed that whenever archaeological evidence points towards a mosque as standing on the site of a Hindu temple, our Marxist professors start seeing a Buddhist monastery buried underneath. They also invent some Saiva king as destroying Buddhist and Jain shrines whenever the large-scale destruction of Hindu temples by Islamic invaders is mentioned. They never mention the destruction of big Buddhist and Jain complexes which dotted the length and breadth of India, Khurasan, and Sinkiang on the eve of the Islamic invasion, as testified by Hüen Tsang” He asks the eminent historians to produce epigraphic and literary evidences to suggest the destruction of Buddhists and Jain places by Hindus, the names and places of Hindu monuments which stand on the sites occupied earlier by Buddhist or Jain monuments. But, till today no concrete evidence has been given by the eminent historians to substantiate their claim.
But, there are enough evidences to show that Buddhist and Jain temples and monasteries at Bukhara, Samarqand, Khotan, Balkh, Bamian, Kabul, Ghazni, Qandhar, Begram, Jalalabad, Peshawar, Charsadda, Ohind, Taxila, Multan, Mirpurkhas, Nagar-Parkar, Sialkot, Srinagar, Jalandhar, Jagadhari, Sugh, Tobra, Agroha, Delhi, Mathura, Hastinapur, Kanauj, Sravasti, Ayodhya, Varanasi, Sarnath, Nalanda, Vikramasila, Vaishali, Rajgir, Odantapuri, Bharhut, Champa, Paharpur, Jagaddal, Jajnagar, Nagarjunikonda, Amravati, Kanchi, Dwarasamudra, Devagiri, Bharuch, Valabhi, Girnar, Khambhat Patan, Jalor, Chandravati, Bhinmal, Didwana, Nagaur, Osian, Ajmer, Bairat, Gwalior, Chanderi, Mandu, Dhar etc were destroyed by the sword of Islam.11
It should be noted that though Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain sects and sub-sects had heated discussions among themselves and used even strong language for their adversaries, the occasions when they exchanged physical blows were few and far between. The recent spurt of accusations that Hindus also were bigots and vandals like Christians and Muslims seems to be an after-thought. Apologists, who find it impossible to whitewash Christianity and Islam, are out to redress the balance by blackening Hinduism.
The Islamic conquest has been described as the “Bloodiest”12, as “, monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations, and destructions.”13 And as “bigger than the Holocaust of the Jews by the Nazis; or the massacre of the Armenians by the Turks; more extensive even than the slaughter of the South American native populations by the invading Spanish and Portuguese”14
Irfan Husain in his article “Demons from the Past” observes- “While historical events should be judged in the context of their times, it cannot be denied that even in that bloody period of history, no mercy was shown to the Hindus unfortunate enough to be in the path of either the Arab conquerors of Sindh and south Punjab, or the Central Asians who swept in from Afghanistan…The Muslim heroes who figure larger than life in our history books committed some dreadful crimes. Mahmud of Ghazni, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, Balban, Mohammed bin Qasim, and Sultan Mohammad Tughlak, all have blood-stained hands that the passage of years has not cleansed..Seen through Hindu eyes, the Muslim invasion of their homeland was an unmitigated disaster. Their temples were razed, their idols smashed, their women raped, their men killed or taken slaves. When Mahmud of Ghazni entered Somnath on one of his annual raids, he slaughtered all 50,000 inhabitants. Aibak killed and enslaved hundreds of thousands. The list of horrors is long and painful.These conquerors justified their deeds by claiming it was their religious duty to smite non-believers. Cloaking themselves in the banner of Islam, they claimed they were fighting for their faith when, in reality, they were indulging in straightforward slaughter and pillage…”
Dr.Koenraad Elst while while summarizing the Hindu losses at the hands of Muslim invaders concludes15- “There is no official estimate of the total death toll of Hindus at the hands of Islam. A first glance at important testimonies by Muslim chroniclers suggests that, over 13 centuries and a territory as vast as the Subcontinent, Muslim Holy Warriors easily killed more Hindus than the 6 million of the Holocaust. Ferishtha lists several occasions when the Bahmani sultans in central India (1347-1528) killed a hundred thousand Hindus, which they set as a minimum goal whenever they felt like “punishing” the Hindus; and they were only a third-rank provincial dynasty. The biggest slaughters took place during the raids of Mahmud Ghaznavi (ca. 1000 CE); during the actual conquest of North India by Mohammed Ghori and his lieutenants (1192 ff.); and under the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). The Moghuls (1526-1857), even Babar and Aurangzeb, were fairly restrained tyrants by comparison. Prof. K.S. Lal once estimated that the Indian population declined by 50 million under the Sultanate, but that would be hard to substantiate; research into the magnitude of the damage Islam did to India is yet to start in right earnest.”
From Mohamud Quasim to Tipu Sultan, every Mohammedan invader killed, converted, taken as slave or put Jiziya on Hindus. Entire cities were burnt down and the populations massacred, with hundreds of thousands killed in every campaign, and similar numbers deported as slaves. While describing the conquest of Kanauj, Utbi sums up the situation thus: “The Sultan[Ghazni] levelled to the ground every fort, and the inhabitants of them either accepted Islam, or took up arms against him. In short, those who submitted were also converted to Islam. In Baran (Bulandshahr) alone 10,000 persons were converted including the Raja”. The conquest of Afghanistan in the year 1000 was followed by the annihilation of the Hindu population; the region is still called the Hindu Kush, i.e. Hindu slaughter. The Bahmani sultans (1347-1480) in central India made it a rule to kill 100,000 captives in a single day, and many more on other occasions. The conquest of the Vijayanagar empire in 1564 left the capital plus large areas of Karnataka depopulated.
About the Conversion of Hindus to Islam, K.S.Lal observes- “The process of their conversion was hurried. All of a sudden the invader appeared in a city or a region, and in the midst of loot and murder, a dazed, shocked and enslaved people were given the choice between Islam and death. Those who were converted were deprived of their scalp-lock or choti and, if they happened to be caste people, also their sacred thread. Some were also circumcised. Their names were changed, although some might have retained their old names with new affixes. They were taught to recite the kalima and learnt to say the prescribed prayers”.16
When Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked Waihind in 1001-02, he took 500,000 persons of both sexes as captive[This figure is given by Abu Nasr Muhammad Utbi, the secretary and chronicler of Mahmud Gahzni] Next year from Thanesar, according to Farishtah, the Muhammadan army brought to Ghaznin 200,000 captives[Tarikh-i-Farishtah, I, 28]. When Mahmud returned to Ghazni in 1019, the booty was found to consist of (besides huge wealth) 53,000 captives. The Tarikh-i-Alfi adds that the fifth share due to the Saiyyads was 150,000 slaves, therefore the total number of captives comes to 750,000. In 1195 when Raja Bhim was attacked by Aibak 20,000 slaves were captured, and 50,000 at Kalinjar in 1202. Sultan Alauddin Khalji had 50,000 slave boys in his personal service and 70,000 slaves worked continuously on his buildings. In the words of Wassaf, the Muslim army in the sack of Somnath took captive a great number of handsome and elegant maidens, amounting to 20,000, and children of both sexes. Iltutmish, Muhammad Tughlaq and Firoz Tughlaq sent gifts of slaves to Khalifas outside India. To the Chinese emperor Muhammad Tughlaq sent, besides other presents, 100 Hindu slaves, 100 slave girls, accomplished in song and dance and another 15 young slaves. Firoz Tughlaq collected 180,000 slaves.17
About the destruction of Hindu Temples, Sita Ram Goel writes -“Mahmûd of Ghazni robbed and burnt down 1,000 temples at Mathura, and 10,000 in and around Kanauj. One of his successors, Ibrãhîm, demolished 1,000 temples each in Hindustan (Ganga-Yamuna Doab) and Malwa. Muhammad Ghûrî destroyed another 1,000 at Varanasi. Qutbu’d-Dîn Aibak employed elephants for pulling down 1,000 temples in Delhi. “Alî I ‘Ãdil Shãh of Bijapur destroyed 200 to 300 temples in Karnataka. A sufi, Qãyim Shãh, destroyed 12 temples at Tiruchirapalli. Such exact or approximate counts, however, are available only in a few cases. Most of the time we are informed that “many strong temples which would have remained unshaken even by the trumpets blown on the Day of Judgment, were levelled with the ground when swept by the wind of Islãm”.18
Some of the Temples converted into Mosques are19-
Epigraphic evidences-
1. Quwwat al-Islam Masjid, Qutb Minar, Delhi by Qutbud-Din Aibak in 1192 A.D.
2. Masjid at Manvi in the Raichur District of Karnataka, Firuz Shah Bahmani, 1406-07 A.D
3. Jami Masjid at Malan, Palanpur Taluka, Banaskantha District of Gujarat: ?The Jami Masjid was built? by Khan-I-Azam Ulugh Khan, The date of construction is mentioned as 1462 A.D. in the reign of Mahmud Shah I (Begada) of Gujarat.
4. Hammam Darwaza Masjid at Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh, Its chronogram yields the year 1567 A.D. in the reign of Akbar, the Great Mughal
5. Jami Masjid at Ghoda in the Poona District of Maharashtra, The inscription is dated 1586 A.D. when the Poona region was ruled by the Nizam Shahi sultans of Ahmadnagar
6. Gachinala Masjid at Cumbum in the Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh, The date of construction is mentioned as 1729-30 A.D. in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.

Literary evidences-
7. Jhain[name of the place], Jalalud-Din Firuz Khalji went to the place and ordered destruction of temples, mentioned in Miftah-ul-Futuh.
8. Devagiri, Alaud-Din Khalji destroyed the temples of the idolaters , , mentioned in Miftah-ul-Futuh.
9. Somanath, Ulugh Khan, mentioned in Tarikh-i-Alai
10 Delhi, , Alaud-Din Khalji , Tarikh-i-Alai
11. Ranthambhor, mentioned in Tarikh-i-Alai
12. Brahmastpuri (Chidambaram), Malik Kafur, Tarikh-i-Alai
13. Madura, mentioned in Tarikh-i-Alai
14. Fatan: (Pattan), mentioned in Ashiqa
15. Malabar: (Parts of South India), Tarikh-i-Alai
16 The Mosque at Jaunpur. This was built by Sultan Ibrahim Sharqi
17 The Mosque at Qanauj it was built by Ibrahim Sharqi
18 Jami (Masjid) at Etawah. it is one of the monuments of the Sharqi Sultans
19 Babri Masjid at Ayodhya . This mosque was constructed by Babar at Ayodhya
20 Mosques of Alamgir (Aurangzeb)

According to the reports of Archeological survey of India.

21 Tordi (Rajasthan)- early or middle part of the 15th century
22 Naraina (Rajasthan)- The mosque appears to have been built when Mujahid Khan, son of Shams Khan, took possession of Naraina in 1436 A.D
23 Chatsu (Rajasthan)- At Chatsu there is a Muhammadan tomb erected on the eastern embankment of the Golerava tank. The tomb which is known as Gurg Ali Shah’s chhatri is built out of the spoils of Hindu buildings. The inscription mention saint Gurg Ali (wolf of Ali) died a martyr on the first of Ramzan in 979 A.H. corresponding to Thursday, the 17th January, 1572 A.D.
24 SaheTh-MaheTh (Uttar Pradesh)
25 Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)- the inscriptions found there extending to the twelfth century A.D
26 Vaishali (Bihar)
27 Gaur and Pandua (Bengal)- The oldest and the best known building at Gaur and Pandua is the Ãdîna Masjid at Pandua built by Sikandar Shãh, the son of Ilyãs Shãh. The date of its inscription may be read as either 776 or 770, which corresponds with 1374 or 1369 A.D? The materials employed consisted largely of the spoils of Hindu temples and many of the carvings from the temples have been used as facings of doors, arches and pillars
28 Devikot (Bengal)- The Dargah of Sultan Pir, The Dargah of Shah Ata are the Muhammadan shrines built on the site of an old Hindu temple
29 Tribeni (Bengal)

These whitewashing of history, the policy of “Suppresio Veri, Suggestio Falsi” followed by ‘Eminent Historians’ of India is not only dangerous to national integration but also the future of the entire nation. It is time that, the self interests are kept aside and the facts of history is made known to the masses.

Footnotes-

1 Indian Express, January 15, 1989, quoted in book “Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 1” by Sita Ram Goel
2 For example, JNU historian Romilla Thapar.[Article titled “Romila Thapar Defends the Aryan Invasion Theory!” by Vishal Agarwal published here- http://www.india-forum.com/articles/60/1 ]
3 In letter published in The Times of India dated October 2, 1986, Romilla Thapar had stated that handing over of Sri Rama’s and Sri Krishna’s birthplaces to the Hindus, and of disused mosques to the Muslims raises the question of the limits to the logic of restoration of religious sites. How far back do we go? Can we push this to the restoration of Buddhist and Jain monuments destroyed by Hindus? Or of the pre-Hindu animist shrines? [ Quoted in book- Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 2
The Islamic Evidence by Sita Ram Goel]
4 In his book Medival India [NCERT 2000], Satish Chandra writes- “The raid into India (by Timur) was a plundering raid, and its motive was to seize the wealth accumulated by the sultans of Delhi over the last 200 years… Timur then entered Delhi and sacked it without mercy, large number of people, both Hindu and Muslim, as well as women and children losing their lives.”, but Timur repeatedly states in his memoirs, the Tuzuk-i-Timuri, that he had a two-fold objective in invading Hindustan. “The first was to war with the infidels,” and thereby acquire, “some claim to reward in the life to come.” The second motive was “that the army of Islam might gain something by plundering the wealth and valuables of the infidels.” He further says “Excepting the quarter of the saiyids, the ulema and other Musulmans, the whole city was sacked.”
5 Koenraad Elst, in “The Politics of the Aryan Invasion Debate”
6 “The Vedic Evidence – The Vedic Corpus Provides no Evidence for the so-called Aryan Invasion of India” by Koenraad Elst
7 Jim G. Shaffer, “The Indo-Aryan Invasions : Cultural Myth and Archaeological Reality,” in Michel Danino “The Indus-Sarasvati Civilization and its Bearing on the Aryan Question”
8 Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, “Have Aryans been identified in the prehistoric skeletal record from South Asia ?” in Michel Danino “The Indus-Sarasvati Civilization and its Bearing on the Aryan Question”
9 David Frawley, in “Myth of Aryan Invasion Theory of India”
10 Sita ram Goel, Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 2-
the Islamic Evidence
11 Sita ram Goel, Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 2 –
the Islamic Evidence
12 Will Durant in “Story of Civilization” observes- “The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within.”
13 “Histoire de l’ Inde” – By Alain Danielou; he notes- “”From the time Muslims started arriving, around 632 AD, the history of India becomes a long, monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations, and destructions. It is, as usual, in the name of ‘a holy war’ of their faith, of their sole God, that the barbarians have destroyed civilizations, wiped out entire races.” Mahmoud Ghazni, continues Danielou, “was an early example of Muslim ruthlessness, burning in 1018 of the temples of Mathura, razing Kanauj to the ground and destroying the famous temple of Somnath, sacred to all Hindus. His successors were as ruthless as Ghazni: 103 temples in the holy city of Benaras were razed to the ground, its marvelous temples destroyed, its magnificent palaces wrecked.” Indeed, the Muslim policy vis a vis India, concludes Danielou, seems to have been a conscious systematic destruction of everything that was beautiful, holy, refined.”
14 Francois Gautier
15 Dr. Koenraad Elst in “Was There an Islamic “Genocide” of Hindus?”
16 K.S. Lal in “Indian Muslims Who Are They”
17 K.S. Lal in “Muslim Slave System in Medieval India”
18 Sita Ram Goel, in “Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 2
The Islamic Evidence”
19 It is taken from the large list of places documented by Sita Ram Goel in his magnum Opus “Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them Vol. 1- The Preliminary Survey”

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"Theoretical and Practical Applications of Emergent Technology in ELT Classrooms; How the ‘Blog' Can Change English Language Teaching"

Abstract

The classic picture of the ELT (English Language Teaching) classroom is one in which there are rows of desks, a blackboard, students, a teacher, paper and pencils.  Even with the advent of instantaneous information via the World Wide Web, the ELT classroom remains relatively unchanged.  However, the winds of change are upon the ELT profession.  Many educators are now taking advantage of the vastness of the Internet.  Moreover, most teachers are using the Internet for planning, research and the exchange of ideas.  There is so much more to be found and used.  If harnessed correctly and constructively, the Internet can be a priceless tool for the ELT classroom.   This paper will discuss current practices for reading and writing in the ELT setting, and more specifically, the use of ‘web logs’ or ‘blogs’ in the ELT classroom.   First, a discussion covering common methods used in most ELT classes and move to a more progressive approach to alternative assessment, portfolio assessment, and journaling.  Next, an explanation of this technology, its uses, and potential will be given.  Finally, suggestions for use, ideas, and links will be listed. The sky is truly the limit where the ELT profession is going and it is an exciting time to be involved.

Introduction

For as long as there have been schools, teachers and students, there have been words.  These words are represented by symbols and letters, the words connect together to form sentences and then into speech and writing.  The job of the ELT teacher is to teach these concepts, and all the nuances that go with them, to the English Language Learner.  The following paper looks at the traditional ELT classroom and then moves onto how content is taught and learned by second language learners.  The topic of journaling and learning logs will be covered along with how educational technology is utilized in the ELT setting.  Next, weblog history, it’s meaning and uses will be explored.  Finally, how easily an ELT educator can use blogs in your classrooms with little or no training.  Adding more tools to the ELT ‘toolbox of materials’ is essential to effective ELT teaching and will benefit educators and learners.

The Traditional ELT Classroom

As the use of English has increased in popularity (evident by the number of current English language training centers in operation worldwide), so has the need for qualified teachers to instruct students in the language.  Most colleges and universities in most of the English speaking countries offer degrees and certifications in teaching English to speakers of other languages.  Whether the pupil is learning for pleasure or out of necessity, the instruction is relatively the same.  The instruction to English learners remains relatively unchanged today.  It’s true that there are teachers who use ‘cutting edge’ techniques and technology, but the majority of teachers still teach in the same manner of instruction that has been used for 20 or 30 years.

Here is an example of the traditional ELT classroom: usually, it will have many desks or tables and a board (white, black, chalk or marker).  The students will repeat what the teacher says and then, maybe, try on their own.  Often the teacher will stand in front of the class and model how his/her mouth looks as he/she says the sounds, having the students also model this behavior.  Sometimes, an audiocassette or CD will be played with words, sentences and stories for the students to hear native speakers speaking.  Another popular activity in these classes is role-playing.  Two or three students will practice together, having a simple conversation.  After having ample time to practice, or memorize their various ‘roles,’ they will stand up, maybe go to the front of the class, and recite what they have just practiced with their respective groups.

None of these activities are bad or damaging to the students.  In fact, they have proven to be very useful.  However, there are many more opportunities for students to gain confidence, practice, and extend themselves – especially for the ESL student who must learn the language for more than just pleasure.  For students who are displaced for whatever reason or who are studying to go abroad, content is also an important factor.

Content Learning for English Language Learners

In the ELT class, the instructor needs to put the language learning of the students as a high priority.  There are many ways to accommodate this.  Educators will have different theories and philosophies.  According to Peregoy & Boyle (2001), the six elements that create optimal content learning for ‘English Language Learners’ are: meaning and purposeprior knowledgeintegration of opportunities to use language and literacy for learning purposesscaffolding for supportcollaboration, & variety.

Meaning and purpose in each activity in the ELT class is of the utmost importance to the English learners.  If the activity has meaning and purpose, then the learner will take ownership over it and then a sense of pride and confidence will result.  Often the activities with ‘real world’ ties have the greatest impact.  This is an element that should be present in ELT instruction from the youngest language learners to the eldest.

Prior knowledge of a subject in their home language and culture allow students to create links to topics or activities in English. For example, when talking about traffic rules in an English speaking country, the second language learners can relate their own experiences in their home countries.  Of course, this will only be meaningful to students with prior knowledge of the traffic laws and rules.  If the learners are too young, their prior knowledge in many areas will be limited.   If old enough, the learners can relate the information from their experiences and often feel more connected to the learning community.

Integration of opportunities to use language and literacy for learning purposes is crucial to bringing concreteness to the abstract/theoretical concepts and ideas.  This means that it is important to make room for learning opportunities to take place in order for students to put their newly acquired skills to work.  If a teacher asks the students to review an article and share their findings with the class, the teacher is integrating chances for students to make light of what they are learning.

Scaffolding for support means that the teacher will first model the desired behavior, give assistance the first few times that the learners attempt the tasks, and finally, the learners will attempt on their own.  This gives learners the skills and confidence needed to complete the assigned tasks.  Scaffolding is not only used in ELT classes, but in many other subjects as well.

Collaboration is key to group learning and ultimately, to individual learning.   Collaboration is used in modern offices and businesses globally.  It has many ties to the skills needed to work with others in any endeavor that a person might undertake.  There are very few instances in the ‘real world’ where there is not some degree of collaboration.  Collaboration is of vast importance in the ELT classroom to encourage cooperation skills.

Variety is needed in lessons and activities to avoid burnout and boredom.  From the adult learners of English to the youngest of learners, variety in their activities will spark creativity and excitement in almost all topics covered.  When students walk into a classroom day after day and week after week, they expect some variety in their routine.  If no variety is given, the students may plateau in their learning because of lack of interest.

All of these elements should be present in the ELT classroom for the educator to be effective.  There are many activities in the ELT classroom that ELT teachers will use that support these points.  Journaling is one of the most effective and commonly used activities for ELT and English classes alike.

Traditional Journaling and Learning Logs

The style of journaling a teacher prefers to use is inconsequential compared to the regularity of the activities involving writing and logging their thoughts and reflections.  The student of English, native or not, needs constant practice and feedback.  “Fluency, the ability to get words down on a page easily, can only come with writing practice and continued English language development.” (Peregoy & Boyle, 2001)  Journals or learning logs are a great way to find out a student’s thoughts and ideas about a topic or activity.  Often the most timid student is the most reflective writer.

Traditionally, these journals or logs have been kept on paper or in a book.  It is paramount for students to have a record of their thoughts and their progress as a writer and user of English.  The advent of computers, the Personal Digital Assistant or PDA, mobile phones, e-mail, and the Internet usher in a new world of recording ones thoughts.  Why not take advantage of these technologies in the ELT classrooms?  The next section, will discuss what teachers are doing in their classes in order that technology is used to the fullest extent.

Move to Educational Technology in the Classroom

What is technology?  Technology is anything that extends human capability.  By definition, paper clips and staples are forms of technology because they extend human capability.  Nevertheless, paper clips and staples are ‘low-tech;’ audio, video, and computer driven tools are considered ‘high-tech,’ or commonly referred to as ‘technology.’

Most people have an e-mail address or at least, know what e-mail is.  When a person looks around the World Wide Web, the “Internet,” there are advertisements everywhere for degrees and certificates in ‘Educational Technology.’  Educational Technologyis using any form of technology (high-technology, by the above definition) in an educational setting, to assist teachers in their instruction.   From CD-ROM games for students to MS Power Point presentations to help explain a concept, idea, or topic, technology is here to stay so why are some teachers still afraid to use it?

The term ‘technophobe’ means a person who is afraid to use technology.  Many teachers are technophobes.  They are not certain or unaware that technology can help them to become better educators.  It is true that not all technology is good and often can be counter-productive.  However, an educator must be open to trying and evaluating new and emerging technologies to see where this might fit into their instruction.  Whether or not a teacher knows it, their English language learners may be using and interacting with technology everyday.  Therefore, teachers need to at least be aware of the impact technology is having on their learners.

Web logs and Their History

According to, www.blogger.com, the “Blogger” website (2004),

“A blog is a web page made up of usually short, frequently updated posts that are arranged chronologically — like a what’s new page or a journal. The content and purposes of blogs varies greatly — from links and commentary about other web sites, to news about a company/person/idea, to diaries, photos, poetry, mini-essays, project updates, even fiction.  Blog posts are like instant messages to the web.”

When ELT educators look at this definition, they will instantly see where this can fit in ELT classes.  Individuals, families, groups, classes, departments, schools, universities, businesses, etc. are currently all using blogs.  There are hundreds of sites offering ‘free’ blog accounts for anyone.  Also, according to the “Blogger” website (2004),

“Blogs are also excellent team/department/company/family communication tools. They help small groups communicate in a way that is simpler and easier to follow than email or discussion forums. Use a private blog on an intranet to allow team members to post related links, files, quotes, or commentary. Set up a family blog where relatives can share personal news. A blog can help keep everyone in the loop, promote cohesiveness and group culture, and provide an informal “voice” of a project or department to outsiders.”

Rebecca Blood is the author of several articles and books on blogging.  According to Blood’s, “Weblogs: A history and perspective” (2000), she outlines the extremely short history of this budding new medium to share thoughts, ideas and opinions.  According to Blood, in 1998 there were only 23 weblogs on the entire Internet.  In September 2000, there were ‘thousands,’ and with the numbers of users growing exponentially. According to “Wired News” reporter Shachtman, (2002), “…there are now more than 970,000 registered users of Pyra’s popular Blogger software, up from 343,000 a year ago.” Today, in 2004, there are probably millions.

Benefits of Using Blogs in ELT Classrooms

At this point, the reader may ask, “What are the benefits of using this technology if I do not know much about it?”  The following reasons will assist in answering that question.  The reasons used below are by no means exhaustive; they merely serve as a starting point to move teachers in the right direction.

  • Using technology is exciting for the learner.  English language learners like to use and take part in activities that are familiar to them.  More often than not, the learner is already using technology or is eager to learn.  The technology represents a ‘fun’ and ‘interesting’ activity.
  • Because blogs are a form of publishing, the learner will be ‘published.’ The idea that a learner can publish their thoughts and ideas for the world to see is an exciting opportunity for the learner and the teacher. “A contraction of the term ‘Web logging,’ blogging can best be described as a form of micropublishing” (Roberts, 2004).
  • It creates a forum for the learner to be an individual. As mentioned above, each learner will be an ‘author.’  For some learners that is a scary idea, but some of the quieter, more introverted learners are yearning for a stage of their own.
  • Teacher feedback can be given instantly in the form of comments or as a response to what the learner has written. When the teacher posts a comment to an entry, the learner can read the comment instantly and even reply to the teachers posting.  Learners of English need a lot of feedback and encouragement, and blogging would be an easy way to give them that ‘instant’ feedback they need.
  • Gives the learner confidence and pride in their work. The learner can edit/delete/save their work.  It is dated and logged chronologically.  This allows students to actually see the progress they are making in English.  Consequently, this will give them pride and increase their confidence in using the language.
  • The teacher, as administrator, has control over the content of the blog. With blogging technology, the administrator (teacher) has sole management of the site.  The teacher can add or delete entries as they see fit.  They can also decide who can and cannot be a member of the blog.
  • Can lead to a life-long habit of journaling for the learner. Through the use of blogs, learners should acquire a habit that is positive and will enable them to continue to grow in self knowledge and the knowledge of the world around them.
  • Makes the learner more prepared for future educational and professional opportunities. While aiding with their English, the teacher is also assisting the learner to obtain new skills that will be very important in future educational and professional opportunities. The skills learned while blogging such as typing, editing, putting thoughts into words are essential for success beyond the ELT classroom.  The learners will be able to use these skills throughout school and in the workplace.
  • Uses prior skills and knowledge (for some learners) and creates an opportunity for them to put that knowledge and skills to use in an academic setting. Many learners are already using the relevant technology at home or in school so blogging will enable them to express themselves in a medium in which they are familiar.
  • Provides an opportunity to individualize instruction for multi-leveled classes. In most, if not all ELT classes, there are learners with varying levels of English.  Blogging allows for differentiation.
  • Allows for flexibility in the schedule of the learner and teacher. Being the very nature of the Internet, there are no set hours of operation (it never closes).  So the learners can ‘log on’ at any time of the day or night.  Learners can use blogs whenever they are in the writing mood.  The same applies to the teacher.

This is not to suggest that an instructor should abandon journaling on paper. Blogs can simply add much-needed variety for the learners in the ELT classroom.  Blogs are a great tool in the ELT teachers’ repertoire.

Limitations and Possible Fixes of Blogs for Educational Use

With every activity in the ELT setting there are drawbacks and constraints.  Blogs are no exception.  The following list of reasons is also not exhaustive, but highlights some of the most obvious limitations to using Blogs, and how a teacher might work around them.

  • Connection options. What happens when the learners cannot access the Internet at home or school, or their connection speeds are too slow to handle the information being passed along?  Teachers who want to add blogging to their curriculum will immediately pose this question.  As in other forms of teaching, instructors must always have a contingency plan.  For example, some teachers might choose to allow students to work in pairs or small groups, while other teachers might arrange alternative options for individual students.
  • Software is not user-friendly. If the teacher has piloted this web-logging package, then the potential problems in user-friendliness should have been assessed; however, there is still the possibility of problems with some users.  The teacher will need to be prepared to do some scaffolding and one-to-one tutoring for learners that have difficulty or lack prior experience.
  • Some learners and teachers lack typing skills. Some learners do not know how to type.  Some students may not even want to learn.  Ask the learner to have a try and if he or she is still have too much trouble, then more scaffolding from the teacher or assistance from a student stronger with typing skills.
  • Some learners are ‘technophobes.’ As mentioned earlier, a technophobe is someone afraid to use technology.  This may not be a problem with most young learners, but if a teacher is working with older learners of English, then it might become an issue.  An easy way around this problem is for the teacher to plan on more scaffolding than with a younger group of learners.  Modeling the appropriate behavior and adding in support where needed will help to soften the shock on the technophobe.
  • Lack of computer availability. Some of the learners will not have access to a computer.  One way to handle this is to clarify the hours for the school computer lab.  If there is a computer in the classroom, the teacher can arrange a schedule for learners’ to use the computer(s).
  • Learners cannot understand the instructions on the website. This will be a problem area for the vast majority of English language learners.  Because of their lack of interaction with the language the learner will struggle.  This is where scaffolding is very important.  It is also important that the teacher add extra demonstration time for the class.  Being patient with the learner is also important during this foundational phase in their online learning.
  • Time constraints for the teacher. The first attempt at running a blog with the students will probably be the most time consuming for the ELT teacher. “It should be said that the undertaking of an online journal project [blog] requires the teacher to have a certain amount of time available” (Stanley, 2004).  However, as the students and the teacher become more familiar with the format and the system, they will all become more comfortable and the time involved with decrease.

Just like any other teaching activity or assignment, blogging has some limitations.  However, these limitations should not outweigh the benefits of blogging.  If the ELT teacher is committed and invested into making this project work, both the students and the teacher will benefit.

The ‘Ins and Outs’ of using Blogs

The first step for teachers is to try out blogging for themselves.  In this scenario, teachers cannot expect their students to do something that they are not willing to do themselves.  Each teacher will have his or her own reasons for starting a blog.  These reasons must be clear or the blog will not serve the learner’s language development.  The blogs can be as general as a journal of daily thoughts, or be more specific in nature.  The teacher should prepare beforehand, an activity that will be a catalyst for the language learner’s needs.  When the teacher has had a chance to try this out first, the next step will be to choose the most appropriate software.  (In a later section there is a list of links and suggestions.)

Once the teacher has chosen a program, he or she will need to set up membership for each student with the blogger site.  This is often free.  (Many school systems are even setting up their own blogging sites.)  Then the teacher, as the administrator of the site, must make a membership list of the students so they are able to comment on the teacher’s entry.  The next decision for the teacher is if the students should have their own page or to only allow the students comment on the teacher’s page.  By having his or her own blog page, the teacher is allowing the student to have a certain amount of control over the blog’s appearance, content, membership, links, etc.  If the learners are too young, it is probably best to let them comment on the teacher’s page/entry.  For the older learners (middle school aged and older) having control of his or her own page would be more plausible.

When the control of learners’ pages is given to them, they will be able to adjust the look and feel of their blog.  The learner will have the choice of various templates and formats for their page.  They will have the ability to block or allow members to comment on their pages.  When the learners feel comfortable with their blogs they tend to use it more. Once the learners are happy with their pages and the entries, they will continue to grow with pride and confidence.

Practical Uses of Blogs in the ELT Classrooms

The discussion in this section covers three main uses of blogs in the ELT classroom.  Alternative assessment, student portfolios, and what has been the major focus of this paper, journaling.  As the needs of the English Language Learner continue to change and evolve, there are requests from educators, parents, and students for other forms of assessment.  Blogging can be one of these styles of alternative assessment.  It gives the learners the opportunity to demonstrate what they have been learning and their thoughts on a given topic, ideas, concepts, etc.  The teacher can then read the entries on the learner’s page, or those which have been posted on the teacher’s page, giving feedback, and assessing the learner’s progress.

Portfolios are another use for blogs.  The portfolio can include only written work or may include other work from class.  The students can display their work from the past term, semester, school year, or even, in some cases, school career.  By using blogs, the students can upload photos, work samples, include links to related work, etc.  This can even serve to foster skills that will be useful in the future careers of the students.  Many of the students can use their portfolios in the future to demonstrate their English abilities, and prove their writing skills.  The teacher can, again, use this as a form of alternative assessment.

The online journal is what is probably most appealing to the teacher.  This is collection of often-updated entries.  Here again is an example used earlier about the various traffic laws:  Teachers might want to upload (or add to the blog) some photos of traffic signs and let the students comment on what they think the pictures represent.  Then the students could elaborate on what might happen if the traffic laws pictured were violated.  The teachers may want learners to compose their own story about something related to traffic.  This is a simple example, but teachers would be using all six of Peregoy & Boyle’s (2001) “elements that create optimal content learning for ‘English Language Learners.'”

Suggestions and Links for More Information

As educators considering using blogs in ELT classes, teachers will need a place to get started and to stay updated in their information and knowledge.  Teachers can get started in many ways.  There are several books on blogging available.  By using any of the online bookshops, teachers can order and ship books anywhere in the world.  For more ideas on starting out, teachers might find it generally easier to look to the millions of bloggers blogging everyday.  It is quite easy to find out about education blogs and specific interests blogs.  Merely type a search in your favorite search engine.  One that is particularly useful is “Schoolblogs.com” (http://www.schoolblogs.com).   Free accounts are available for anyone who wants to join.  Also, there are a multitude of resources on blogging and interest specific blogs.  Another blog, that has a different style and feel, is “mBlog.com” (http://mblog.com).  The users can choose from a wide variety of templates and styles for their blogs.  Photos and links can be included to help supplement the blog, as well.  Mobile devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, can be used to transmit data to the mBlog account.  This makes it very convenient to update blogs.

After researching and starting a blog, it would be beneficial to read the article by Blood entitled, “Ten Tips for a Better Weblog” (2003).  In it, Blood, outlines the top ten tips for better blogging.  It can be useful reading for the teacher and the English learner.  There are terms and concepts that can make for lively class discussions.  Staying updated in the blogging technology and current trends will help the teacher become more prepared and better equipped to smoothly run a blog.

Summary and Conclusion

In conclusion, the benefits of blogging far outweigh the pitfalls.  Ease of use and clean appearance are making the blog a major force on the Internet.  Therefore, not just the teachers teaching English language learners but any teacher need to stay up-to-date with educational trends and should stay abreast with emergent technology that will drive this information age for years to come.  Technology and education should go hand-in-hand and should not be separated because undoubtedly the learner will always use technology.  Blogs are a great tool to achieve many goals for English language learners and, in the long term, what all teachers desire, authentic learning.  With or without blogs, teachers of English language learners need to remember the goal of what they are doing.  Educating is the number one priority.

Blogs may not replace the traditional ‘hand-written’ journals, but then again they might.  However, the more options teachers offer learners; the more the needs of learners are met.  The ELT classroom setting needs to evolve, and for many, blogs will be the first step in that evolution.  By selecting the best attributes from the past experience and looking forward to the future will produce the strongest ELT instruction.  Now is the time to take action and use technology to meet the ever-growing needs of English language learners.


References

Blood, R., (2000). Weblogs: A History and Perspective. Rebecca’s Pocket, September, 2000.  Online:http://www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html (access date: April 2004).

Blood, R., (2003). Ten Tips for a Better Weblog. Rebecca’s Pocket, March, 2003.  Online: http://www.rebeccablood.net/essays/ten_tips.html (access date: April 2004).

Ferdig, R.E., & Trammell, K.D., (2004).  Content Delivery in the ‘Blogosphere’. T.H.E. Journal, February, 2004. at http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/articleprintversion.cfm?aid=4677 (access date: April 2004).

Oop-Beckman, L., (2004). How to Succeed In Web-Based Teaching. Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

Peregoy, S.F., & Boyle, O.F., (2001). Reading, Writing, & Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers – 3rd Edition. New York: Longman.

Roberts, S., (2004). Campus Communications & the Wisdom of Blogging. Syllabus Magazine, 5 April, 2004. at http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7982 (access date: April 2004).

Shachtman, N., (2002). “Blogs Make the Headlines.” Wired News, 23 December 2002. Online: http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,56978,00.html(access date: April 2004).

Stanley, G., (2004). Introducing Your Students to Blogs.  IATEFL Issues, April – May, 2004, No. 178.

Other Works Cited

Anderson, N.J., (2002). The Role of Metacognition in Second Language Teaching and Learning.  ERIC Digest, April, 2002.  Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0110anderson.html (access date: November 2003).

Blogger, (2004). What is a Blog? Online: http://help.blogger.com/bin/answer.py?answer=36&topic=16 (access date: April 2004).

Branch, R.M., Kim, D., & Koenecke, L., (1999). Evaluating Online Educational Materials for Use in Instruction. ERIC Digest, June, 1999. Online:http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed430564.html (access date: November 2003).

Burton, J., & Usaha, S., (2004). Standing on Burning Coals. Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

Crandall, J., Jaramillo, A., Olsen, L., & Peyton, J.K., (2002). Using Cognitive Strategies to Develop English Language and Literacy. ERIC Digest, October, 2002.  Online: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0205crandall.html (access date: November 2003).

Earp, S., (1997). More Than Just the Internet: Technology for Language Teaching. ERIC Digest, December, 1997. Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/earp0001.html (access date: November 2003).

Egbert, J., (2004). Two Faces of Technology Use. Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

Gómez, E., (2000).  Assessment Portfolios: Including English Language Learners in Large-Scale Assessments. ERIC Digest, December, 2000. Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0010assessment.html (access date: November 2003).

Haas, M., (2000). Thematic, Communicative Language Teaching in the K-8 Classroom. ERIC Digest, September, 2000. Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0004thematic.html (access date: November 2003).

Han, J.M., (2004). A Reading Problem in Secondary Schools. IATEFL Issues, December 2003 – January 2004, No. 176.

Hancock, C.R., (1994). Alternative Assessment and Second Language Study: What and Why? ERIC Digest, July, 1994.  Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/hancoc01.html (access date: November 2003).

Kasowitz, A., (1998). Tools for Automating Instructional Design.  ERIC Digest, August, 1998.  Online: http://www.ericit.org/digests/EDO-IR-1998-01.shtml (access date: November 2003).

Kessler, G., (2003). Preparing for the Future in CALL. Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 1.

LeLoup, J.W., & Ponterio, R., (2004). ON THE NET: ICT4LT – Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. Language Learning & Technology, January, 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, (pp. 3-7). Online: http://llt.msu.edu/vol8num1/net/ (access date: April 2004).

Morrison, S., (2002). Interactive Language Learning on the Web. ERIC Digest, December, 2002. Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0212morrison.html (access date: November 2003).

Orihuela, J.L., (2003).  “Blogging and the eCommunication Paradigms: 10 Principles of the New Media Scenario. BlogTalk, May, 2003.  Online:http://mccd.udc.es/orihuela/blogtalk/ (access date: April 2004).

Oxford, R., (2001). Integrated Skills in the ESL/EFL Classroom. ERIC Digest, September, 2001.  Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/0105oxford.html (access date: November 2003).

Roderick-Michailidis, M., (2004). Are Your Tasks ‘Learner-Friendly’? IATEFL Issues, February – March, 2004, No. 177.

Rodgers, T.S., (2001). Language Teaching Methodology.  ERIC Digest, September, 2001.  Online: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/rodgers.html (access date: November 2003).

Salaberry, R., (2004). Why the Electronic Class Will Not Replace the Face-to-Face Classroom.  Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

Schrock, K., (2003). Tools You Can’t Live Without: Using Online Programs in Your Lessons Can Make a Big Difference. School Library Journal, 2003. Online: http://slj.reviewsnews.com/ (access date: November 2003).

Stevens, V., (2004). Tools for Building Online Communities. Essential Teacher, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

Tannenbaum, J., (1996). Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students. ERIC Digest, May, 1996. Online:http://www.cal.org/ericcll/DIGEST/tannen01.html (access date: November 2003).

Wall, J., (2000). Technology-Delivered Assessment: Guidelines for Educators Traveling the Technology Highway.  ERIC/CASS Digest, April, 2000.  Online: http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed446327.html (access date: November 2003).

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Convergence of Media

Introduction to convergence:

The Gutenberg era is over. A new digital communications technology has emerged. Convergence is presented as a technological force majeure. In the 21st century it seems nearly impossible to follow developments in technology, business or journalism without encountering the word convergence. An electronic superhighway is beginning to girdle the globe as voice; video and data converge, bringing in their wake a new basket of digital, multimedia and interactive communication technologies.

The term convergence has often been used over the last decade to describe the processes through which technologies, such as computers, telephony, and broadcasting have come together to spark the so-called ‘communication revolution’. It brings things together in a common format or in the same space. In common parlance, it means the coalescence and melting of traditionally separated communications. It denotes a general phenomenon- the ongoing effects of digital technology in media and communications. The features of convergence are that it is driven by technology, is a powerful force for change, and is global, prospective and unpredictable.

There is a strong sense of proliferating links within the communications sector, telecommunication companies, print media organizations, internet service providers, and information publishers and suppliers, among many other parts are part of this sector. The traditional boundaries that circumscribed the roles of traditional stakeholders in the news media no longer exist. This revolution has been greatly hyperbolized by a number of influential commentators in industry, government and academia.

Convergence has been most manifest in the digital communications environment with the merging of the computer, television, and telecommunications industries. Those vying for a slice of the market include telephone, cable television, entertainment, broadcasting, and newspaper companies, as well as satellite, software and computer companies. One of the fundamental drivers of this convergence is reader’s demand for access to content anytime, anywhere.

 

Effects of convergence:

At its most general, convergence is the breaking down of old barriers that once divided communication along several dimensions: between industry and industry; between applications and applications; between producer and consumer; and between country and country. A change is taking place in the consumption of media technologies. Consumption convergence makes a move away from the traditional mode of media consumption. What was once a solitary and singular activity, e.g., early radio listening, has changed into a shared, collective experience not just of media content reception but also in the form of media texts received. What makes consumption convergence unique is that the user is paying attention and is alert to competing media at the one time. With the convergence of media technologies, early research in the field suggests that the use and consumption of media technologies, both old and new, is being irrevocably transformed. Competing newspapers and television stations from alliances to meet a variety of technological, editorial, regulatory and market-based opportunities and challenges. Today, media convergence is sparking a range of social, political, economic and legal disputes because of the conflicting goals of consumers, producers and gatekeepers. With media convergence, new forms of media use have emerged: users can enhance a media encounter by controlling the streams of information and have the ability to interact with not only the media itself, but also the content provider and other users. The implication is that consumers are becoming less and less dependent on any single media type and less and less loyal to any single media type. They can get what they need when they need it from whatever media source is available.

Benefits of convergence:

Media content creators could take advantage of this opportunity to make content that is specifically designed for consumption in a particular context, especially novel or unusual contexts. For content providers, media convergence also implies that creative content will only have to be created once, not several times for the varying media formats. This too, will save content providers time and money in the long run.

For content providers, the switch to convergent media may initially be expensive, as they will have to invest in new equipment. But in the long run, it will open up more possibilities. As of now, television advertisements are usually very elaborate, but the experience is very passive. Viewers cannot simply click on them if they want more information or want to purchase the item being mentioned as they can on the internet. With converged media, it would be possible to integrate both types of advertisement into one, allowing for both elaborate presentations and complex interactions. The addition of informational bits to the media stream, in combination with these all-in-one devices, will allow content to be more customized to the viewer’s needs and wants. The device may have some sort of filtering agent that only displays advertisements that are of interest of the viewers.

Views against convergence:

Convergence created unpredictability. Earlier the behaviour of the media consumers could be predicted with some degree of accuracy. But in the new world of converged media technologies and content, it is far more difficult to predict which of the many media types any demographic will be paying attention to at any given time. The options are far more numerous, which makes for a huge range of permutations.

Convergence brings a further complication; it means the owned/branded content is likely to be sharing space with unbranded or consumer-created content, especially on interactive technologies such as a computer or a cell phone. The consumer-created content may be a text message or an e-mail, blog or instant chat. The fact that consumers themselves can create and distribute media content makes things even more predictable, especially for branded media content. The branded content owners do not just have to compete against each other; they also have to compete for consumer’s time and attention against ordinary consumers who are also creating content. Brands no longer know exactly which sector they are operating in, whom they are competing against and with what tools.

Furthermore, convergence makes life more complicated for publishers because they have to react to other competitors and changing needs and changing media usage of their usage target groups.

Regulation and Legal Aspects:

Convergence presents a challenge for broadcasting policy. Technological change is a feature of the media industries, but shifts in technology and the emergence of new media markets have created new uncertainties. The pace of technological change in media and communications may increase in nearby future. For example, the consequences for broadcasting policy of cheap, ubiquitous, international broadband networks would be far reaching. Technology change has ramifications for many specific areas of media regulation, access to spectrum, the definition of digital television services, ownership and control, and content regulation.

The convergence of the telecommunications networks, media distribution networks, and the internet during the last decade raises important questions about where the locus of control ought to lie with respect to these converged networks, the level of control that governments and others ought to exert, and the relationship between national and international law. To date, regulatory regimes have treated three modes of communication very differently. First, the law has treated the transmission of voice and data over the traditional telephony networks as subject to substantial national regulation and certain international coordination. Second, the law has considered content transmitted over myriad networks as subject to a separate regime of media laws. Third, communications over internet protocol based networks have, in their history, often been left largely unregulated, for a variety of reasons, in an overtly legal sense, but subject to many less formal types of regulation by private and public entities.

The growth of the importance and the scope of the internet, as well as its growing ability to transmit rich data streams across geographic boundaries, present a conundrum for the law by causing a convergence of technologies and challenging the old nation state based regulatory regime.

There are several issues that affect the choice of policies that govern the traditional communications networks and internet protocol-based technologies. Chief among these issues is whether telecommunications and media law and policy should be applied to internet-based technologies as it is; whether the telecommunications and media rules should be adapted to the new environment and then applied to the converged technologies; or whether separate regulatory regimes should exist to cover these two types of networks differently. Changes in communications technology will require policy responses.

The directions and speed of convergence are unclear, but the fact of continuing change in the media and telecommunications industries is certain. Unlike telecommunications, broadcasting policy has been, and continues to be, characterized by highly prescriptive regulation. The legislation concerning the introduction of digital television attempts to mandate specific television formats and services.

Convergence law in India:

The Supreme Court in the case of Secretary of the Ministry of IB v. The Cricket Association of Bengal[1], for the first time went into the dynamics of electronic media. The case related to the denial of up- linking facility to private broadcasting company, to which the Board of Cricket in India had given right to telecast cricket matches. The decision held in this case laid down the foundation of the autonomy of the broadcasting media in the country. The court declared in clear words that Air Waves are public property and their use is to be in public interest and called upon the Parliament to enact the separate Broadcasting act in the country. The judgement thus forms the genesis of Convergence in country. Subsequently various acts to regulate Cable TV and Broadcasting Bill along with the notification of the Prasar Bharti came to be of much importance. The Broadcasting Bill of 1997 is a step towards providing a regulatory mechanism to supervise the growing broadcasting media.

In December 1998, a group under the chairmanship of the Finance Minister to expeditiously implement the telecom policy 1999 whilst taking into account the increasing convergence between telecom and IT. Accordingly, a group on Telecom and IT convergence was duly constituted under the chairmanship of the Finance Minister by Government of India notification dated December 13, 1999. The group recommended the formulation and implementation of Communication Convergence Bill, 2000 which is still pending in the Parliament.

Conclusion:

It can be inferred that convergence is still in its beginning stages and for complete digital convergence to become reality; we’ll need to see technological changes in every stage of the information infrastructure.

Convergence is here to stay and former ‘single media’ publishers have to transform themselves to Information Providers or Entertainment Providers. Media industry is one of the most growing branches but existing players have to adapt to changing needs and to changing media usage and the new players would have to look for co-operations or acquisitions within the traditional business.

There is need for implementing the convergence law considering the vast technological developments taking place in the field and to govern the use of emerging technologies in telecom, information technology, and broadcasting. With technology blurring the lines between telecommunication and broadcasting, a comprehensive law governing both is imperative. Thus the Communication Convergence Bill of 2000 should be brought into effect immediately to regulate the scenario of convergence in the country. Services should be technology agnostic, not hampered by overly expensive charges such as licence fees or other imposts that tilt the playing field in favour of any one technology over the other. Unified licensing, greater flexibility in spectrum allocation and reduction in license fee are all commendable suggestions and need to be considered on a priority basis. 

[1] (1995) 2 SCC 161

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Speak to Peak: Empowering Youth for Success

Speak to Peak: Empowering Youth for Success

Your ability to convey your ideas to others will be an enormous determinant to your success”.

When Warren Buffet spoke that line, he was addressing a group of university youths and emphasising to them the importance of educating themselves in the area of written and verbal communication.

I recently had the privilege of mentoring three youths from Sunway Monash at the Campus Business Plan Competition organised by the Technopreneurship Association of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur.  They had fresh ideas, abundance of enthusiasm and highly contagious excitement. However, so did their competitors. When the moment of judgement arrived, what really mattered and what it all boiled down to was how well each team expressed their ideas through their presentations. The trio from Sunway Monash, with their polished presentations, went on to clinch the top spot.

After having trained over ten thousand youths over the last eight years and having been involved with Speak to Peak LLP, Singapore’s leading speech coaching company, I can say with certainty that our youth today have brilliant ideas that the world can greatly benefit from only if they were able to express them just as inspiringly.

Our youths are living in an increasingly competitive environment. Paper qualifications, family statuses or financial prowess alone are no longer sufficient to ensure them an enviable position in our globalised society. Almost every opportunity needs to be won and competed for.

Youths need to trump each other at university interviews, scholarship interviews and job interviews. Thereafter, they need to constantly be able to pitch their ideas and opinions persuasively and convincingly to their educators, bosses and peers in order to move ahead of the pack. Once in a position of seniority or leadership they need shine amongst the best by being able to rally support, inspire loyalty and motivate.

With such entrenched competitiveness, the one that will triumph is the one who will stand out as the single item of gold in a treasure chest of silver.

Being able to speak well confidently is definitely the trait that can help you stand out from the rest.  People who speak well are often perceived to be competent. 

Many a times, when two people have similar qualifications and paper credentials, the employers will hire the one who has been able to impress them better during the oral interview process. Not that the interviewer can be entirely sure of the chosen candidate yet as he has yet to walk his talk but at least, the interviewer has PERCEIVED the chosen candidate to be more competent than the other.

Therefore, being able to speak well, as highlighted by this scenario, also opens up opportunities for you and thereby provides you with the first step on your ladder towards success.

Speech has also been a primary tool and one of the most effective ammunition to address social issues.  I often share with my participants, a pen may be mightier than the sword but the tongue is both mightier than the pen and sharper than the sword.  We have seen effective use of speech to create massive positive social change on many fronts during the last century. Whether it be Mahatma Gandhi of India, Martin Luther King Jr of USA, Nelson Mendela of South Africa or Mother Teresa, they all rallied people, battled opposition, appealed to hearts and minds and eventually changed societies for the better with a lot of help from their oratory skills.

We need many such speakers to address many other social issues today. We need to empower ourselves, the youth, to speak up for the environment, for the eradication of poverty, for education, for animal protection and for other causes that will give us a united better world. We must equip youths firstly with the confidence to speak up and then the skills to inspire and influence. We need to create for them platforms to speak, to spread their message, to unleash their passion and most importantly to Be Heard.

Speaking, whether conversationally, in terms of presentations, at interviews or in public to large audiences, utilise the same core fundamentals and these fundamentals are easily learnable, acquired and practiced with the help of the right coaches.

Whether it is for your own personal growth and success or it be for the benefit of a larger cause such as the environment, you deserve to be empowered, you deserve to be empowered with this basic life-skill. Be Heard, Speak to Peak.

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