Obedience to Authority

Obedience is an essential part of everyday life of members of modern society. This word has become a synonym of good work and quality performance in the work place. People who are obedient are more likely to be accepted by the society and comforted by it, because disobedience usually means severe consequences especially when an order or a request comes from someone in direct authority to the object. In today’s world people are becoming more and more distanced from their own understanding of things happening around them and thus are easily involved in matters that might be highly unpleasant for them. This happens because the major responsibility is taken by someone, a usually unseen and remote person who is in charge. The comprehension of the whole matter does not occur to the obedient object and thus for both parties, those who order and those who perform, it is much easier now to do things that would not be done if complete responsibility was taken by a single person.

Stanley Milgram’s experiment is well known as an experiment of human willingness to obey the orders of authority, even if there is no real authority and no necessity to follow the orders. The whole experiment was based on the ‘teachers’ and ‘learners’ functions, one of them being asked questions and the other answered. The ‘learner’ was an actor who pretended to experience pain from shocks that were given to him by the ‘teacher’ in case of a wrong or no answer. The experiment has revealed numerous interesting observations which were not evident about human nature prior to its start. It became clear that people no matter what profession they held, or if they were employed at all were eager to please an authority figure, who in this situation was the experimenter, professor in a white coat. The evidence of a serious experiment proved by the appropriate environment, as in a real scientific laboratory, made ‘teachers’ behave in a determined way and imposed a meaning of high significance of what they were doing. Moreover the presence of the professor made them ‘punish’ a wrong answer severer than when he was talking to them over the phone. It shows that people are more likely to follow orders when the authority figure is in their obvious proximity.

Another side of the experiment carried a social meaning to the ‘teachers’ and even when the person in the electric chair started screaming as if from pain, 65% of them continued increasing the voltage as they were told so by the professor. They were eager to please the authority and also did not want to look impolite or unreliable. This feeling of higher power over them ordering what to do and realization of the importance of the experiment strengthened by white walls of the lab unified into desire to continue obeying.

A few people in the course of the experiment requested to stop it and refused to continue when the screaming from the nest room began. Those people explained their behavior by not willing to be responsible for the lives or health of those under shock. It is clear that those people understood and took consequences of this experiment as their own personal responsibility and were not ready to take it. From that one can make a conclusion that when people feel the weight of the consequences in the future for what they do now, they are not likely to follow orders that can lead to bed results, personally for them. They are thinking from the perspective of their individual life not from the perspective of doing harm and causing pain for others, although that also could be one of the factors.

An interesting notion of people’s self imagine is also an important factor that has to be taken into consideration when investigation obedience to authority. When a person is used to see a certain image of himself/herself it is difficult to make them believe different. Thus when something is ordered that contradicts with their usual self image, people tend to disregard the experience or interpret it in a way that would suit their life. In the Milgram’s experiment ‘teachers’ viewed themselves and what they were doing as an important discovery in the scientific world rather than a pain causing trial. It follows that humans are most likely to obey when they believe in the good and important side of the matter and when they are assured in their goodness. Basically the combination of the authoritative command, respect for the authority, willingness to be a good member of the team, and a feeling of self importance typically contributes to obedience.

How To Prepare For A Foreclosure

For people out there who seem to find their fate to be destined on the way to foreclosure, you need to know how you should face it. There are a lot who would just sulk and wait for their property to be foreclosed. However, this is not the correct attitude in facing an Albany foreclosure. The following are the most appropriate measures to take in order to stop an Albany foreclosure or prepare you when facing Albany home foreclosure.

1. Know what you are dealing with. Instead of cowering and worrying, read things about Albany foreclosure and make sure that you get all the necessary things that you need to know to help you understand the foreclosure process. This will help you see where things are going and help you prepare yourself with what is to come.

2. Know the Albany foreclosure law. Part of knowing what you are dealing with is knowing the laws regarding home foreclosures in Albany. The reason why most people are scared with Albany foreclosures is because of the law problems entailed. However, by knowing the laws that concern foreclosures, you will also know how to face law problems if the need arise. Foreclosure laws in Albany are different from other places. Thus what may apply in some places may not apply in your quest to prevent Albany foreclosure.

3. Get real help from somebody reliable. If you think you cannot face foreclosure alone then you are right. You need somebody well-informed about the topic to help you get through. An Albany real estate agent, and a very dependable one, is a very good choice.

4. Calculate how much money is at stake. How much will you lose with your property? This is more than just the money you spent to buy that property. This also includes the effort, time, memories, among others that you have in that memory. The other important question is, “How much are you willing to spend to retain it?”

5. If after calculating, your money is still enough, look for dependable financing. The next question after, “How much money you are willing to spend to retain your property?” should concern the amount of money you have to sustain the price you have to pay. If it is not enough then go for a financing that does not pose any problems to you in the future. Usually, if one finds out that they would have to borrow more than they could pay just to keep the property being foreclosed, and that borrowing money from any financing aid will just give more problems afterwards, some people just back out from fighting their foreclosure problems and just opt to find new Albany property for sale.

Agriculture in India: Issues and Challenges

– Ramaiah Bheenaveni
– Dept. of Sociology,
– Osmania University,
– Hyderabad – 07.

“Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian Economy”- said Mahatma Gandhi five decades ago. Even today, as we enter the new millennium, the situation is still the same, with almost the entire economy being sustained by agriculture, which is the mainstay of the villages. Not only the economy, but also every one of us looks up to agriculture for our sustenance too.
Significance of Agriculture:
Although agriculture contributes only 21% of India’s GDP, its importance in the country’s economic, social, and political fabric goes well beyond this indicator. The rural areas are still home to some 72 percent of the India’s 1.1 billion people, a large number of whom are poor. Most of the rural poor depend on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods.
The sharp rise in foodgrain production during India’s Green Revolution of the 1970s enabled the country to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains and stave off the threat of famine. Agricultural intensification in the 1970s to 1980s saw an increased demand for rural labor that raised rural wages and, together with declining food prices, reduced rural poverty.
Sustained, although much slower, agricultural growth in the 1990s reduced rural poverty to 26.3 percent by 1999/00. Since then, however, the slowdown in agricultural growth has become a major cause for concern. India’s rice yields are one-third of China’s and about half of those in Vietnam and Indonesia. With the exception of sugarcane, potato and tea, the same is true for most other agricultural commodities.
The Government of India places high priority on reducing poverty by raising agricultural productivity. However, bold action from policymakers will be required to shift away from the existing subsidy-based regime that is no longer sustainable, to build a solid foundation for a highly productive, internationally competitive, and diversified agricultural sector.
Issues and Challenges
It is here the challenge arises considering the implementation of the technology at various levels in the Global community. The need of the hour is not application of the technology but the adoption of appropriate technology, which would suit the particular level of the global community. In India, the farming practices are too haphazard and non-scientific and hence need some forethought before implementing any new technology.
Applications of agricultural inputs at uniform rates across the field without due regard to in-field variations in soil fertility and crop conditions does not yield desirable results in terms of crop yield. The management of in-field variability in soil fertility and crop conditions for improving the crop production and minimizing the environmental impact is the crux of precision farming.
Thus, the information on spatial variability in soil fertility status and crop conditions is a pre-requisite for adoption of precision farming. Space technology including global positioning system (GPS) and GIS holds good promise in deriving information on soil attributes and crop yield, and allows monitoring seasonally- variable soil and crop characteristics, namely soil moisture, crop-phenology, growth, evapotranspiration, nutrient deficiency, crop disease, and weed and insect infestation, which, in turn, help in optimizing inputs and maximizing crop yield and income. Though widely adopted in developed countries, the adoption of precision farming in India is yet to take a firm ground primarily due to its unique pattern of land holdings, poor infrastructure, lack of farmers’ inclination to take risk, socio-economic and demographic conditions.
Factors Contribution to Decline of Agriculture:
Slow Down in Agricultural and Rural Non-Farm Growth: Both the poorest as well as the more prosperous ‘Green Revolution’ states of Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh have recently witnessed a slow-down in agricultural growth and it ultimately lead for farmer’s suicide. Some of the factors hampering the revival of growth are:
• Poor composition of public expenditures: Public spending on agricultural subsidies is crowding out productivity-enhancing investments such as agricultural research and extension, as well as investments in rural infrastructure, and the health and education of the rural people. In 1999/2000, agricultural subsidies amounted to 3 percent of GDP and were over 7 times the public investments in the sector.
• Over-regulation of domestic agricultural trade: While economic and trade reforms in the 1990s helped to improve the incentive framework, over-regulation of domestic trade has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty, undermining the sector’s competitiveness.
• Government interventions in labor, land, and credit markets: More rapid growth of the rural non-farm sector is constrained by government interventions in factor markets — labor, land, and credit — and in output markets, such as the small-scale reservation of enterprises.
• Inadequate infrastructure and services in rural areas. Infrastructure is also a significant factor in the process of development but country like our rural Bharat has not posses the infrastructure such as roads, electricity, fertilizer and pesticides availability which caused the vulnerable damage to the growth of agriculture.
Weak Framework for Sustainable Water Management and Irrigation:
 Inequitable allocation of water: Many states lack the incentives, policy, regulatory, and institutional framework for the efficient, sustainable, and equitable allocation of water.
 Deteriorating irrigation infrastructure: Public spending in irrigation is spread over many uncompleted projects. In addition, existing infrastructure has rapidly deteriorated as operations and maintenance is given lower priority.
Inadequate Access to Land and Finance:
 Stringent land regulations discourage rural investments: While land distribution has become less skewed, land policy and regulations to increase security of tenure (including restrictions or bans on renting land or converting it to other uses) have had the unintended effect of reducing access by the landless and discouraging rural investments.
Computerization of land records has brought to light institutional weaknesses: State government initiatives to computerize land records have reduced transaction costs and increased transparency, but also brought to light institutional weaknesses.
Rural poor have little access to credit: While India has a wide network of rural finance institutions, many of the rural poor remain excluded, due to inefficiencies in the formal finance institutions, the weak regulatory framework, high transaction costs, and risks associated with lending to agriculture.
Weak Natural Resources Management: One quarter of India’s population depends on forests for at least part of their livelihoods.
A purely conservation approach to forests is ineffective: Experience in India shows that a purely conservation approach to natural resources management does not work effectively and does little to reduce poverty.
Weak resource rights for forest communities: The forest sector is also faced with weak resource rights and economic incentives for communities, an inefficient legal framework and participatory management, and poor access to markets.
Weak delivery of basic services in rural areas:
Low bureaucratic accountability and inefficient use of public funds: Despite large expenditures in rural development, a highly centralized bureaucracy with low accountability and inefficient use of public funds limit their impact on poverty. In 1992, India amended its Constitution to create three tiers of democratically elected rural local governments bringing governance down to the villages. However, the transfer of authority, funds, and functionaries to these local bodies is progressing slowly, in part due to political vested interests. The poor are not empowered to contribute to shaping public programs or to hold local governments accountable.
Measures Needed Areas:
1. Enhancing agricultural productivity, competitiveness, and rural growth
Enhancing productivity: Creating a more productive, internationally competitive and diversified agricultural sector would require a shift in public expenditures away from subsidies towards productivity enhancing investments. Second it will require removing the restrictions on domestic private trade to improve the investment climate and meet expanding market opportunities. Third, the agricultural research and extension systems need to be strengthened to improve access to productivity enhancing technologies. The diverse conditions across India suggest the importance of regionally differentiated strategies, with a strong focus on the lagging states.
Improving Water Resource and Irrigation/Drainage Management: Increase in multi-sectoral competition for water highlights the need to formulate water policies and unbundle water resources management from irrigation service delivery. Other key priorities include: (i) modernizing Irrigation and Drainage Departments to integrate the participation of farmers and other agencies in irrigation management; (ii) improving cost recovery; (iii) rationalizing public expenditures, with priority to completing schemes with the highest returns; and (iv) allocating sufficient resources for operations and maintenance for the sustainability of investments.
Strengthening rural non-farm sector growth: Rising incomes are fueling demand for higher-value fresh and processed agricultural products in domestic markets and globally, which open new opportunities for agricultural diversification to higher value products (e.g. horticulture, livestock), agro-processing and related services. The government needs to shift its role from direct intervention and overregulation to creating the enabling environment for private sector participation and competition for agribusiness and more broadly, the rural non-farm sector growth. Improving the rural investment climate includes removing trade controls, rationalizing labor regulations and the tax regime (i.e. adoption of the value added tax system), and improving access to credit and key infrastructure (e.g. roads, electricity, ports, markets).
2. Improving access to assets and sustainable natural resource use
Balancing poverty reduction and conservation priorities: Finding win-win combinations for conservation and poverty reduction will be critical to sustainable natural resource management. This will involve addressing legal, policy and institutional constraints to devolving resource rights, and transferring responsibilities to local communities.

Improving access to land: States can build on the growing consensus to reform land policy, particularly land tenancy policy and land administration system. States that do not have tenancy restrictions can provide useful lessons in this regard. Over the longer term, a more holistic approach to land administration policies, regulations and institutions is necessary to ensure tenure security, reduce costs, and ensure fairness and sustainability of the system.

Improving access to rural finance: It would require improving the performance of regional rural banks and rural credit cooperatives by enhancing regulatory oversight, removing government control and ownership, and strengthening the legal framework for loan recovery and the use of land as collateral. It would also involve creating an enabling environment for the development of micro-finance institutions in rural areas.

3. Strengthening institutions for the poor and promoting rural livelihood
Promoting Community-Based Rural Development: State Government efforts in scaling up livelihood and community-driven development approaches will be critical to build social capital in the poorest areas as well as to expand savings mobilization, promote productive investments, income generating opportunities and sustainable natural resource management. Direct support to self-help groups, village committees, user’s associations, savings and loans groups and others can provide the initial ‘push’ to move organizations to higher level and access to new economic opportunities. Moreover, social mobilization and particularly the empowerment of women’s groups, through increased capacity for collective action will provide communities with greater “voice” and bargaining power in dealing with the private sector, markets and financial services.
Strengthening Accountability for Service Delivery: As decentralization efforts are pursued and local governments are given more prominence in the basic service delivery, the establishment of accountability mechanisms becomes critical. Local governments’ capacity to identify local priorities through participatory budgeting and planning needs to be strengthened. This, in turn, would improve the rural investment climate, facilitating the involvement of the private sector, creating employment opportunities and linkages between farm and non-form sectors


1. Bottelier, Pieter What India (2007) : “Can Learn from China and Vice Versa”, China & World Economy, Volume 15, Number 3, May-June , pp. 52-69(18)

2. Schuh, G.E. (2002): Developing country interests in WTO agricultural policy. Political economy of international trade law: essays in honor of Robert E. Hudec / ed. by D.L.M. Kennedy and J.D. Southwick. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, p. 435-449

3. David Rindos (1984) : “The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective”
Academic Press,

4. Kulshreshtha, S. (1996): “Indian agriculture and GATT and WTO: Some Reflections – India and WTO” : Udhayam Offset, Madras

5. Aggarwal G.C (1995) : “Fertilizer and irrigation management for energy conservation in crop production” : Fuel and Energy Abstracts, Volume 36, Number 5, , pp. 383-383(1), Elsevier Publisher

6. Society of American Foresters (1997) Agriculture and Forestry in China; Journal of Forestry, Volume 15, Number 8 – 1 December , pp. 1014-1016(3)

How Can We Achieve Unity, Coherence and Sentence Emphases in Technical Writing

 It is essential to develop the ability to write effective paragraphs.Paragraph writing is a significant production skill, integrating both composing and organizing skills. In order to write an effective paragraph, a careful writing plan should be adapted to ensure proper length, unity, coherence, logical development and organization of ideas.

 There are four significant devices which may help to attain coherence, namely:

a) Pronouns

b)  Repetition

c)  Synonyms

d)  Connectives

a) Pronouns: A pronoun is used as a substitute for a noun which is its antecedent. This help in maintaining continuity of thought. For example: ‘he’, ‘they’, ‘she’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘and’, ‘it’ are all pronouns.

b) Repetition: Repetition of certain words also gives coherence to a graph. While using repetition the writer must be very careful because too much repetition may lead to monotony.

c) Synonyms: Synonyms are used in place of certain words, already used and have similar meaning. This includes variety and thus helps the writer to avoid monotony.

d) Connectives: The use of connective is another device which lends coherence to paragraph. These connectives, which occur at the beginning of a sentence, link it to the sentence that comes before. The connectives such as and, but, or, therefore, as a result and in short may be used.

In order to obtain unity of a paragraph the entire paragraph may be developed in certain ways. These are:

1. Inductive order

2. Deductive order

3. Question to answer order

4. Time order

5. Exposition

6. Comparison and contrast

7. Space order

Sentence emphasis refers to idiomatic stress in writing: It is essential to know how to place important words in the emphatic positions in a sentence in order to make your sentence effective. Some of the techniques of sentence emphasis include:

1) Placing the theme correctly

2) Using parallel construction

3) Using correct subordination