The Five Cs of Copy Editing

Copy editing involves changes made to a manuscript by the copy editor before it is sent for printing or publishing. What are the five Cs of copy editing? Before I spell them out let me tell that each C represents the job and skills required of any good copy editor. The final edited copy must have the features represented by the Cs. The five Cs are,

  • Clear copy
  • Correct,
  • Concise,
  • Comprehensible
  • Consistent

Before any manuscript is sent for proofreading the copy editor has to check for many defects in it which may include functions like,

  • Punctuation checking
  • Spelling checks
  • Correcting grammatical mistakes
  • Remove semantic errors
  • Check all terminologies used
  • Check that the publishers “in house” style is being maintained
  • Incorporate headers / footers etc
  • Ensure there will be no legal problems after publishing
  • Summarize or shorten text (abridgement)

A good copywriter must also be a good copy editor and have good command of the language and must also be fairly aware of a wide range of topics with a very strong background in grammar. He must also have an eye for spotting errors and inconsistencies in manuscripts. It is also necessary that he be able to work under pressure and finish work within the given deadline. The growing online publications requires more than just journalistic and language skills. As editors may have to publish articles directly on the Internet, they should be also be good with computers, different word processing programs and must also have the required pagination and technical knowledge/skills.

Funerals – Eastern Star Service

In this article we’re going to briefly discuss an offshoot of the Masonic service, one for women called the Eastern Star Funeral Service.

The Eastern Star organization is an offshoot of the Masons for women. The reason for this is that a woman can’t become a Mason. The reasons why, at least for this article, are unimportant. However, there is an organization for women who want to be a part of the Masonic community. That organization is the Eastern Star. The only requirement for becoming a member of the Eastern Star is that the woman has to be the descendent of a Mason. Yes, there is a catch. Your father or grandfather or husband or somebody in your family has to be a Mason himself. If this one condition is met and you then become a member of the Eastern Star you are then entitled to an Eastern Star memorial service.

So how does one qualify for an Eastern Star funeral service? Well, when a member of the Eastern Star in good standing, dies, they are entitled to this service. Good standing means that their dues are paid up in full and have no Masonic charges filed against them.

When an Eastern Star member dies the chapter to which they belong sends a floral arrangement to the funeral home. This arrangement is in the shape of a five pointed star and with the mystical colors of the order.

Before the actual service takes place however, the members of the chapter meet at their chapter building for what they call a draping ceremony. At this ceremony their alter is draped in black and a special opening of the chapter is then performed. This is, in many cases, done just once during the year to commemorate all the members who have died that year. After the draping at the chapter the members then proceed to the funeral home.

At the home there is a special Eastern Star service. It is very similar to the Masonic service in some respects but very different in others. For one thing, where the Masonic service is memorized, the Eastern Star service is read from what is called a book of ritual. This book contains the entire Eastern Star funeral service and must be read word for word.

In a Masonic service one person does the reading, but in an Eastern Star service there are many readers. The readings are done by various members of the fraternity who occupy specific stations as officers. Each officer reads a part assigned to their station. Each individual part is rather short but putting them all together the actual service can run 15 to 20 minutes.

After the service is over the members of the chapter pay their final respects to the deceased and process out of the funeral home room. Afterwards they will meet with the family and friends of the deceased, many who are probably Eastern Star members themselves of other chapters.

The Eastern Star funeral service is one of the most beautiful services of any kind that a person could attend. It is something of which the order of Eastern Star can and should be very proud of.

Is Cyber School Right For Me? 5 Questions to Ask Yourself

Cyber school is different from public school, but it is still school. It’s important in cyber school to be able to independently get work done because you don’t have teachers and peers that you see every day that can encourage you. Here are five questions I think you should ask yourself before you or your child considers it.

5 Question Quiz:

1. Can I motivate myself to get work done each day?

2. Do I understand concepts and lessons easily?

3. Do I struggle without a teacher explaining it to me in person?

4. Am I good at planning and scheduling out my day?

5. What else am I going to do with my extra free time?

The first question is important because even though you might have counselors, teachers and online teachers around to encourage you to get work done, you have to be very independent. Instead of sitting in a class room where a teacher can see you procrastinating or playing with your pen instead of doing work, they can’t see you do that online. It gives you a lot of freedom and tempts you to slack off.

The second and third questions are related as in can you comprehend written words or are you more of a visual learner? Many cyber schools are different, but in most you will probably encounter a lesson that tells you to read something, and then answer questions on it. This can be especially difficult in subjects like math and science where you have to work through problems that the answers aren’t found right on the page.

The fourth is something you will definitely encounter in cyber school. For my schedule I usually get up and start school at 8am and then work until anywhere between 9-12. This allows a lot of free time in the day. It’s important to not become like a sloth, and just sit around the house all day. Wasting your day away can lead to bad health and hurt your future. Let’s face it guys, we only have a little while until we’re adults, and have to live in the real world where there are things like college, careers, rent, etc.

The fifth question is the next step to the fourth question, as it asks what are you going to do with your free time? There is really a lot you can do that can turn out to be beneficial. As for myself I fill up my time by planning Sunday school lessons, picking out games for youth group and a Christian club at my school, blogging or reading. You can also do things like hiking, art, writing, running, biking, getting a job, finding a cure for various diseases, deep sea fishing, save the world…

It’s important to remember that there are still positives to Public school. You can click here to see some of the negatives of public school in my last post.

Public school allows kids to learn how to deal with situations and problems that will be encountered everywhere. People all over the world do things like fight, get jealous of one another, say rude things and gossip. For example ever go to a soccer game? You can almost always hear one of the soccer moms gossiping about their neighbor’s weird fetish of lawn gnomes. Being in high school allows you to grow using trial and error. This is awesome because in the real world trial and error can get you in big trouble.

I personally am happy that I went to public school through sophomore year because I now know how to get my point across to many different types of people, and how to handle things like ridicule or gossip.

Another perk to public school is the helpful learning environment. While some teachers may be unhelpful and waste time, other teachers can help you grasp concepts and understand subjects you wouldn’t have been able to fully understand on your own. With that thought there are also a lot more resources at your disposal each day in public school to help you get through the year very easily.

Be sure not to jump into doing cyber school. Talk it over with family, counselors and peers who have done it before making your decision. While it is a very nice alternative for some, for others it can be confusing and difficult.

6 Different Types of Requirements Documentation

Requirements Documents are used to accurately and unambiguously convey the needs of a business. A Business Requirements Document is a well-known ‘requirements’ document however there are other types of requirements documents that are also important in progressing a project through to completion. The template of a Requirement Document to be used depends upon the type of requirements that it is meant to capture. Organizations develop and adapt their own templates to suit their needs.

Business Requirements Document (BRD)

It defines the high level business goals and core functions of a product. It is prepared by a business analyst or a project manager. It contains sections to describe the project scope, functional, non-functional, data and interface requirements. It provides a good understanding of the types of users and their expectations. It presents an idea of the proposed system from the point of view of the business organization that commissions the system.

Functional Requirements Document

It describes in detail, the services provided by the system. It specifies the sequence of events, inputs, outputs, data stored and computational processes for every function. It captures the behavior of the system for every event and user action. Text descriptions are supported by wire diagrams for better understanding.

Quality Requirements Document

This document describes the acceptance criteria for the end product. It states what the end users expects from the system in terms of throughput, response time, reliability, disaster recovery, fail safe mechanisms, maintainability, accessibility, load handling capability, portability and robustness. These are also termed as non-functional requirements.

Technical Requirements Document

Software, Hardware and Platform requirements of the final product are described in this document. Software requirements state what programming language the system should be developed on, what software will be used to access the system and the type of database. Hardware requirements state the processor speed, memory size, disk space, network configuration and capacity of the application and database servers to be deployed when the system goes live (production environment). Platform requirements state the constraints on the system’s environment and the limitations on the technology to be employed while building the system. If the system is to be deployed in multiple locations, the hardware and software environment of each location is described. The document lists the limitations to be considered while designing the system architecture.

User Interface Requirements Document

It describes the look and feel of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the system. It defines the positioning of user input fields, messages, menus, header and footer on the application screen. It explains how the screens will be accessed by the user and the sequence of user actions for each process. It contains mock-up screen shots to give the project team an idea of what the end product will look like. It shows:

• How the content is presented to the user

• Color codes to be used

• User navigation

• Hints / tips / suggestions to be displayed to the user on the screen

• “Save data and continue operation later” options when the user has to enter a large amount of data into the system

Shortcut-keys for frequently used functions

Market Requirements Document (MRD)

It defines the needs of the end user of the system (i.e. customers of the company for which the system is to be deployed). This document is prepared by marketing managers, product managers or business analysts. It defines the system’s functions in accordance with the current market trend and expectations of the targeted customer base. It lists features that give the company a competitive advantage in the market.