Flinders Ranges Outback Discovery, South Australia

The Flinders Ranges in South Australia provide a dramatic departure from the hectic pace of big cities with an Outback Discovery experience, but it’s surprisingly accessible. See the majestic natural amphitheater of Wilpena Pound, a lost world located inside a giant stone crater. Go driving into the deep Outback and spend time exploring our legendary desert tracks. Or take a scenic flight over the Flinders Ranges. There’s hiking trails, places to fossick for opals, and even a desert golf course with no grass.

The Flinders Ranges and Outback covers such a vast area of South Australia, and so many different environments, it’s no surprise that it is one of Australia’s richest areas of Aboriginal heritage and living culture.

This is a 5-day itinerary I would suggest if you are looking to discover the true Flinders Ranges:

Day 1, from Adelaide to the Northern Flinders Northern Flinders

Travel north, from Adelaide, to the Flinders Ranges; enjoy morning tea on the Pt. Augusta foreshore and visit Wadlata Outback Centre for hands-on interpretive displays about the history and culture of the Flinders Ranges.

Lunch at the historic town of Quorn in the friendly Austral Hotel; then pass through the historic town of Hawker to experience the vast and diverse landscapes of the Aussie outback; Continuing north we visit the famous Prairie Hotel at Parachilna for an afternoon drink.

Pass through the outback towns of Leigh Creek and Copley; check in and relax in tonight’s accommodation.

Day 2, full day sightseeing in the Northern Flinders Northern Flinders

After breakfast, start the morning drive to visit a spectacular and secluded Aboriginal engraving and etching site; walk through scenic creek beds and marvel at ancient artwork dating back many thousands of years; enjoy your bush foods morning tea in this timeless location.

Learn about the early history of the Adnyamathanha people. See the remnants of Mineruta a former location of an Aboriginal community. After lunch, we visit an Aboriginal site renowned for its timeless cave paintings. Hear interpretations of the artwork and reflect on the teachings of an Aboriginal creation story.

Day 3, travel to Wilpena Pound Wilpena Pound

Set out for an early morning tour of a local Ochre Pit to see the earthy colours of ochre and find out about its traditional uses, enjoy Billy Tea and bushfood for morning tea in a tree lined creek (weather permitting) and tour Nepabunna Community where you can meet some locals.

Then proceed to tour Ithala Awi and learn about native bushfoods; Visit Balcanoona Rangers’ Headquarters and a beautiful gorge to experience remote yet timeless ancient Aboriginal engravings and rock etchings, and hear a creation story that explains geographical features of the surrounding area while you enjoy a picnic lunch. Leave for a Gorge Tour on a drive through breath-taking Gorges and view the magnificent geological rock formations and look for Yellow-Footed Rock Wallabies and other wildlife.

Arrive at Wilpena Pound Resort, settle in and dine at the impressive resort restaurant or perhaps consider a 30 minute scenic flight.

Day 4, full day exploring the Wilpena Pound area Wilpena Pound

Enjoy a peaceful walk to Wangarra Look-Out for a spectacular view inside Wilpena Pound. Take a tour to “Old Wilpena Station”, enjoy the ‘Living With Land’ interpretative trail where you will gain a glimpse of isolated pastoral settlement life. (approx.1 or 2 hr rtn walk). After this you may want some free time to relax, have a swim or enjoy a drink in the bar.

Day 5, Drive back to Adelaide

Before heading back to Adelaide you may want to visit a local Aboriginal rock art site depicting the creation of Wilpena Pound or enjoy a horse trail ride. Lunch at the historic town of Hawker and visit the Wilpena Panorama Gallery to see a magnificent 360° degree painting of Wilpena Pound and locally produced art, craft and foods. Depart for Adelaide, visit a Cellar Door for a quick wine tasting on the way home (time permitting).

This is just one of many suggested itineraries that would give a wonderful overview of the real Flinders Ranges.

How To Write Academic English Essays

The first step in  writing  a  good   essay  is making sure you completely understand the question posed in your  essay  topic.

Begin researching your topic. Go to your local library to find publications related to your topic and also search the Internet for additional information.

Once you collect enough material to begin, you should plan your  essay . Think about how to assemble all the information you have collected including your your own ideas and interpretations.

Begin  writing  your  essay .  Write  clear sentences which encapsulate the main ideas arising from the information you have gathered, and the ideas you have formed yourself. Start with formulating topic sentences that will begin each argument (paragraph). Try to  write  active sentences with active verbs. Make sure your topic sentences link with the previous paragraphs.

Once you have  written  the body of the  essay  you should then proceed to  write  the introduction to your  essay . Including an interesting fact is a very  good  beginning and may capture the reader’s interest.

After you finish  writing  the introduction you should proceed to your conclusion. Remember that the primary function of the conclusion is to summarize the main points in your  essay , and to confirm your arguments which supported your topic.

Often presentation is worth up to 20% of the allotted marks. Observe correct spelling and grammar and  essay  formatting rules. You may want to use our  essay  marking  service  to help you out with the presentation of your final piece.

Always  write  multiple drafts and make sure your ideas flow from one argument to the next. Never plagiarize! Always keep track of any quotes or citations and include them in footnotes and bibliography. Remember that universities often use computer software that can turn-up plagiarism.

Writing Science Poetry

Science poetry or scientific poetry is a specialized poetic genre that makes use of science as its subject. Written by scientists and nonscientists, science poets are generally avid readers and appreciators of science and “science matters.” Science poetry may be found in anthologies, in collections, in science fiction magazines that sometimes include poetry, in other magazines and journals. Many science fiction magazines, including online magazines, such as Strange Horizons, often publish science fiction poetry, another form of science poetry. Of course science fiction poetry is a somewhat different genre. Online there is the Science Poetry Center for those interested in science poetry, and for those interested in science fiction poetry The Science Fiction Poetry Association. In addition, there’s Science Fiction Poetry Handbook and Ultimate Science Fiction Poetry Guide, all found online. Strange Horizons has published the science fiction poetry of Joanne Merriam, Gary Lehmann and Mike Allen.

As for science poetry, science or scientific poets like science fiction poets may also publish collections of poetry in almost any stylistic format. Science or scientific poets, like other poets, must know the “art and craft” of poetry, and science or scientific poetry appears in all the poetic forms: free verse, blank verse, metrical, rhymed, unrhymed, abstract and concrete, ballad, dramatic monologue, narrative, lyrical, etc. All the poetic devices are in use also, from alliteration to apostrophe to pun to irony and understatement, to every poetic diction, figures of speech and rhythm, etc. Even metaphysical scientific poetry is possible. In his anthology, The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, editor Timothy Ferris aptly includes a section entitled “The Poetry of Science.” Says Ferris in the introduction to this section, “Science (or the ‘natural philosophy’ from which science evolved) has long provided poets with raw material, inspiring some to praise scientific ideas and others to react against them.”

Such greats as Milton, Blake, Wordsworth, Goethe either praised or “excoriated” science and/or a combination of both. This continued into the twentieth century with such poets as Marianne Moore, T. S. Eliot, Robinson Jeffers, Robert Frost and Robert Hayden (e.g. “Full Moon”–“the brilliant challenger of rocket experts”) not to mention many of the lesser known poets, who nevertheless maintain a poetic response to scientific matters. Says Ferris, “This is not to say that scientists should try to emulate poets, or that poets should turn proselytes for science….But they need each other, and the world needs both.” Included in his anthology along with the best scientific prose/  essays  are the poets Walt Whitman (“When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer”), Gerard Manley Hopkins “(“I am Like a Slip of Comet…”), Emily Dickinson (“Arcturus”), Robinson Jeffers (“Star-Swirls”), Richard Ryan (“Galaxy”), James Clerk Maxwell (“Molecular Evolution”), John Updike (“Cosmic Gall”), Diane Ackerman (“Space Shuttle”) and others.

Certainly those  writing  scientific poetry like those writing science fiction need not praise all of science, but science nevertheless the subject matter, and there is often a greater relationship between poetry and science than either poets and/or scientists admit. Creativity and romance can be in both, as can the intellectual and the mathematical. Both can be aesthetic and logical. Or both can be nonaesthetic and nonlogical, depending on the type of science and the type of poetry.

Science poetry takes it subject from scientific measurements to scientific symbols to time & space to biology to chemistry to physics to astronomy to earth science/geology to meteorology to environmental science to computer science to engineering/technical science. It may also take its subject from scientists themselves, from Brahmagypta to Einstein, from Galileo to Annie Cannon. It may speak to specific types of scientists in general as Goethe “True Enough: To the Physicist” in the Ferris anthology. (Subsequent poets mentioned are also from this anthology.)

Science poetry may make use of many forms or any form from lyrical to narrative to sonnet to dramatic monologue to free verse to light verse to haiku to villanelle, from poetry for children or adults or both, for the scientist for the nonscientist or both. John Frederick Nims has written for example, “The Observatory Ode.” (“The Universe: We’d like to understand.”) There are poems that rhyme, poems that don’t rhythme. There’s “concrete poetry” such as Annie Dillard’s “The Windy Planet” in which the poem in in the shape of a planet, from “pole” to “pole,” an inventive poem. “Chaos Theory” even becomes the subject of poetry as in Wallace Stevens’ “The Connoisseur of Chaos.”

And what of your science and/or scientific poem? Think of all the techniques of poetry and all the techniques of science. What point of view should you use? Third person? First person, a dramatic monologue? Does a star speak? Or the universe itself? Does a sound wave speak? Or a micrometer? Can you personify radio astronomy?

What are the main themes, the rhythms? What figures of speech, metaphors, similes, metaphor, can be derived from science. What is your attitude toward science and these scientific matters?

Read. Revise. Think. Proofread. Revise again. Shall you write of evolution, of the atom, of magnetism? Of quanta, of the galaxies, of the speed of sound, of the speed of light? Of Kepler’s laws? Shall you write of the history of science? Of scientific news?

Read all the science you can.

Read all the poetry you can.

You are a poet.

You are a scientist.

What have you to say of the astronomer, the comet, of arcturus, of star-sirls, of galaxies, of molecular evolution, of atomic architecture, of “planck time” to allude to other poetic titles.

What does poetry say to science?

What does science say to poetry?

What is the Definition of Computer Software?

The term “software” is not a recently conceived of word. In his 1935   essay , ‘Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs Problem,’ Alan Turing first proposed and provided the foundation for most modern software. In 1958, the first use of the term software was used by John W. Tukey in an article in American Mathematical Monthly.

Today, the the term ‘computer software’ means  written  programs, rules, or  codes , along with related documentation regarding the operation of a computer system that is stored in read/write memory. The “soft” part of software refers to the many products and technologies developed using different methods such as programming languages and scripting languages. The term ‘software’ is broader and can include different types of devices such as the operation systems of modern consumer devices such as automobiles, televisions, toasters, etc.

Computer software is the job descriptions of what a computer can perform. It cannot be physically touched. For instance, most computers come with software already installed. Software is also available on CD where the user inserts the disk into the hard drive and follows the installation instructions.  As well, downloadable software is available on internet sites such as Microsoft. Computer software is basically a series of instructions that tells a computer how to do a particular job. For example, Microsoft Word is an example of computer software. As well, web page technologies such as HTML, PHP, ASP.NET, and XML are examples of computer software. 

Computer software can be divided into two main categories: operating system software and application software.

Operating System (0/S): This system consists of the basic functions that computers perform. An example would be showing movement on a screen such as a mouse cursor was the user moves the mouse. Examples of operating systems include: windows vista, windows xp, Mac, Linux and Unix.

Application Software: These are applications that allow the computer to perform the job. Application software is used to accomplish precise tasks other than just running the computer system.  This can include voice, play or record music, view videos, play video games–etc. Other examples of application software include permitting access to the internet and printing documents. Application software is the software that indirectly interacts with the computer.

System Software is the software that can directly interact with computer hardware. Examples include motherboard, CPU, keyboard, Mouse, printer–etc. System software is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system.

Computer software is composed of machine language which is essentially groups of binary code giving processor instructions that are specific to an individual processor. It is normally  written  in high-level programming languages and then interpreted into machine language code. Software can also be  written  in assembly language which is a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet.

The term computer software evolved from computational theories and formulas from pioneers in mathematics. It is easy to see how quickly technology evolved to the amazing and complex computations we see today.