Tertullian (160-225 A.D) had believed firmly in the Christianity belief that the universe creation was from nothing. He brought out the idea of that the universe was created from a pre-existent matter which he had a scriptural explanation that there was only one God who was all by Himself. He argued that the world depended on God, and He made the world through His own knowledge. Proverbs 8: 27-31 reads It Was by His Wisdom that He took counsel. Tertullian states that even wisdom was created by God himself before anything else was created. Tertullian explained his basis using five points dealing with the book of Genesis which gives us the story of the creation of the world. Firstly he argues the line ‘in the beginning’ defines the first original creation of all that exists before the creation of anything else apart from God. He states that if the heavens and earth were made from a certain beginning, then there was a preexisting matter. Secondly, he argues that the scripture does not state that God made the world out of nothing, and it has to be if it was not made from nothing then there might be a preexisting matter. Thirdly the statement ‘the earth was without form and was void’ shows that there was matter preexisting. The fourth point Tertullian argues of different scriptures, quoted from books of Isaiah and Amos’ that amplifies of the stages by which the earth was ‘formless and void’ was converted to the way it is now. Lastly, the scriptures state that everything will come to nothing at the end. This brings an assumption that they were out of nothing. I wholly agree with the Tertullian’s argument as it brings so much sense to the Christianity beliefs.
3.14 Augustine on the relation of God and Evil – Medieval
Augustine was converted from a pagan to a Christian, and he responded on the existence of evil rather than the evil being created. God is good, and he created everything good, stating that evil was created confusion on how God created evil and good at the same time. There has to be good and evil at the same time for where there is no good there is evil. One can pose different questions, why did God create evil? Why could He create evil in all the good things He created? Ican state the evil existed as nature unfolded itself with the human beings.
He argued that God is powerful and loving and therefore give the human kind the freedom of free will. He argued that evil is as a result of abuse of free will by humankind. He quoted that” Nothing Evil Exists in itself but only as an aspect of actual entity” he argued that the existence of evil was dependent on the depletion of good. Augustine’s arguments resonate to Jones textbook on sexuality. As the Bible says that sex before marriage is a sin. This means that sex is good, but when practiced before the right time it becomes evil. It also resonates in the fact that God has given the human freedom to choose when to have sex.
3.24 Thomas Aquinas on Divine Omnipotence- Catholic
Aquinas tried to explain what it means by God is omnipotence. The argument revolves around four objections that God is not omnipotence as He is immovable and not passive. Another objection states that God cannot sin and has made the wisdom of the universe as foolish. He argued that God’s omnipotence does not do the contradictory and also can do evil as it would imply imperfection.
3.29 John Owen on Sovereignty of God – Protestant
Sovereigntyof God teaches us that God is above all and everything in the world is under His control and rule. God is the sovereign in practice. Nothing happens without His way or authorization. John Owen an English theologian centuryin the 17th describes God’s sovereignty as the one who makes law. He states that the first law was given to Adam in argument with the belief the first law was that the law was first given as the Ten Commandments to the Israelites. The law is to be followed by the humankind to the end. He argues from the perception of dissimilar natures that immortal man cannot keep the law, for law is spiritual while human being is fleshly.He quoted that humanity cannot think good thoughts and obey God by his efforts thereby he has to rely on Gods Power as without God we are rudderless.
3.32 Karl Barth on the Otherness of God- protestant
Karl was the most influential theologian in the 19th century. He stressed on the otherness of God through pointing out other characteristics of God. He argued that God is transcendent as His power cannot be manifested or confounded by any high force known or knowable in the universe. He also argued that God is unknown as his origin is not known by humankind. He stated that God is personal in which he argued that the term personal in the context is incomprehensive as the conception of God’s personality surpasses the views of the human personality. He argued that the revelation of God in Jesus Christ is a solution as it restores the union of God and His creation as it had fallen apart.
3.33 JurgenMoltmann on the Suffering of God – patristic.
Jurgen recognizes the importance of the crucifixion of Jesus to the Christian identity and faith. He argues that God became human when Jesus of Nazareth was born. When he was crucified on the cross, he argued that God entered into man’s godforsakenness. This evident in the bible when Jesus cried out unto God “Father why did you forsake me. The resurrection of Jesus However indicates a new and more promising concept of the divine. The suffering on the cross was an act of liberating God’s love to the Christians.