The Role of the Government to Manage Transportation

Constructing my Persuasive Essay Draft

The topic of my Persuasive EssayI will be writing about is The Role of the Government to Manage Transportation. The reason I choose this topic is because it relating to my field of study and my degree that I am currently pursuing.

I plan to grab the minds and attention of my reader’s by introducing the argument that I will be making, in this case, addressing the potential issues that we are facing within the transportation industry. Also presenting the evidence that supported my arguments to give my reader’s a better understanding of the argument that I’m trying to make by making sure that I identify the problems and issues that we are facing today due to the lack of government not taking responsibilities of their role in management transportation.

The duration and costs accrued by travelers in the course of their adventure are two of the major factors driving developments within the transportation industry. Besides, among the increased number of players within the industry, the government has one of the most critical roles to play. The government has a responsibility of ensuring that transportation networks are managed so that traffic congestion is avoided. With respect to this, the Transportation Demand Management ensures that all levels of government are involved in improving the efficiency if transportation across the country.

Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is sustainable in the senses of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely. Components for evaluating sustainability include the particular vehicles used for road, water or air transport; the source of energy; and the infrastructure used to accommodate the transport (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and terminals). Another component for evaluation is pipelined for transporting liquid or gas materials. Transport operations and logistics, as well as transit-oriented development, are also involved in the evaluation. Transportation sustainability is largely being measured by transportation system effectiveness and efficiency as well as the environmental and climate impacts of the system.
Short-term activity often promotes incremental improvement in fuel efficiency and vehicle emissions controls while long-term goals include migrating transportation from fossil-based energy to other alternatives such as renewable energy and use of other renewable resources. The entire life cycle of transport systems is subject to sustainability measurement and optimization.

my reason for this paper is to inform the audience or the public who is the reader of this paper which could be anyone. Example a business enterprise like American airline, or of FedEx, UPS, United Postal Service, or regular family people that drive their car’s for their everyday needs.

Informing them about information regarding the transportation Industries and the issues that need to be addressed to help improve our involvement and our transportation system.

Also addressing how important it is to have (1) Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities Service. Transport systems exist to provide social and economic connections, and people quickly take up the opportunities offered by increased mobility,(2) with poor households benefiting greatly from low carbon transport options.(3) The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs that transport systems pose.
Transport systems have significant impacts on the environment, accounting for between 20% and 25% of world energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.(4) The majority of the emissions, almost 97%, came from the direct burning of fossil fuels.(5) Greenhouse gas emissions from transport are increasing at a faster rate than any other energy using sector.(6) Road transport is also a major contributor to local air pollution and smog.

The first major role of the government with respect to the management of transportation is the provision of infrastructure (Coyle & Novack, 2006). This role is partly due to how infrastructure tends to have the enormous effect on the standards of the economic activities. The governments must also ensure that the infrastructure stock is enough to cater for user’s demand and that activities related to investments should be ones which lead to improvement in the standard of living and services of the populace. Different countries use various modes of transportation such as road, rail. Air, and water. To make sure that these modes of transportation are operational, necessary infrastructure has to be put in place. It is the role of the government to invest in the development of infrastructure that will make transportation effective and efficient. It is also the responsibility of the government to manage the entire process of developing the infrastructure for the benefit of the country at large.

There is a broad range of TDM measures, including:
Transportation management associations: leverage public and private funds to increase the use of ridesharing and other commuting options that reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality
Including or improving pedestrian-oriented design elements, such as short pedestrian crossings, wide sidewalks, and street trees.
Requiring users of parking to pay the costs directly, as opposed to sharing the costs indirectly with others through increased rents and tax subsidies.
Including and improving public transportation infrastructures, such as subway entrances, bus stops, and routes.
Subsidizing transit costs for employees or residents.
Bicycle-friendly facilities and environments, including secure bike storage areas and showers. See Bicycle transportation engineering
Providing active transportation (AT) facilities including bike lanes and multi-use trails.
Providing traveler information tools, including intelligent transportation system improvements, mobile and social applications, wayfinding tools, and other methods for promoting non-SOV modes
Flex-time work schedules with employers to reduce congestion at peak times
Active traffic management
Congestion pricing during peak hours.
Road space rationing or alternate-day travel by restricting travel based on license plate number, at certain times and places.
Workplace travel plans
Road space reallocation, aiming to re-balance provision between private cars which often predominate due to high spatial allocations for roadside parking, and for sustainable modes.
Time, distance and place (TDP) road pricing, where road users are charged based on when, where and how much they drive. Some transportation experts believe TDP pricing is an integral part of the next generation in transportation demand management.

Also, transportation also play a major role in Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.[1] Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design. [2]
Urban planning guides orderly development in urban, suburban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation, and management. [3]
Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, and public administration to achieve strategic, policy and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were often members of these cognate fields.

This evidence supports my point due to the fact that the transportation industry system needs to be improved by the government taking its responsibility. For instance, it is the responsibility of the government to determine where roads will be built. However, there are many other factors that should be considered for the government to settle on the best possible outcome. It entails the price at which the land was bought, the amount of compensation provided by the government, and the possibly available market value. The government goes ahead to provide all the necessary resources that are required to make sure that roads are built. The same to all other forms of transportation such as rail, water, and air. The government must be fully involved to ensure that the country has the right infrastructure that will contribute positively towards the transportation efforts (Coyle & Novack, 2006). However, all of the constructions must be done with a basis on the respective laws instituted with the country.

The second mean point or reason for my paper is to help improve the transportation industry by acknowledging the fact that if we do not address the issues by investing in more clean energy, and infrastructure we would have aa major breakdown in our transportation system.

The need to manage travel demand has now become urgent for a number of converging reasons.
Oil prices have now passed the previous peak in 1980, and 95% of all energy used in transport is oil. Vehicle travel in the United States, which has been rising steadily since records began, started to level out before the fuel price increases and is now in decline. Part of this decline is likely to be people making fewer trips, with potentially far-reaching economic and social consequences. Countries and cities where the car is one of many travel choices are more likely to prosper, as people can choose to drive less but are still able to travel by transit, cycle safely, walk to local shops and facilities or choose to work or study from home.
Transport systems are responsible for 23% of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions and are increasing at a faster rate than any other energy using sector. Demand management is central to the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from urban transportation,
Increases in vehicle travel are linked to a range of health problems including poor urban air quality, road injuries and fatalities, and reduced physical activity. The World Health Organization stated in 2003:
We are concerned that current patterns of transport, which are dominated by motorized road transport, have substantial adverse impacts on health.

Induced demand, or latent demand, is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. This is entirely consistent with the economic theory of supply and demand; however, this idea has become important in the debate over the expansion of transportation systems and is often used as an argument against increasing roadway traffic capacity as a cure for congestion. This phenomenon, called induced traffic, is a contributing factor to urban sprawl. City planner Jeff Speck has called induced demand “the great intellectual black hole in city planning, the one professional certainty that everyone thoughtful seems to acknowledge, yet almost no one is willing to act upon.
The inverse effect, or “reduced demand”, is also true.

In 1994, the UK advisory committee SACTRA carried out a major review of the effect of increasing road capacity and reported that the evidence suggested such increases often resulted in substantial increases in the volume of traffic. Following this, London Transport and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions commissioned a study to see if the reverse also occurred, namely that when road capacity was reduced, there would be a reduction in traffic. This follow-up study was carried out by Sally Cairns, Carmen Hass-Klaus, and Phil Goodwin, with an Annex by Ryuichi Kitamura, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, and Satoshi Fuji, and published as a book in 1998. A third study was carried out by Sally Cairns, Steve Atkins, and Phil Goodwin, and published in the journal Municipal Engineer in 2002.
The 1998 study referred to about 150 sources of evidence, of which the most important were about 60 case studies in the UK, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, the US, Canada, Tasmania, and Japan. They included major town center traffic schemes to make pedestrian areas closed to traffic, bus priority measures (especially bus lanes), bridge and road closures for maintenance, and closures due to natural disasters, mostly earthquakes. The 2002 study added some extra case studies, including some involving cycle lanes. The Annex by Kitamura and his colleagues reported a detailed study of the effects of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake in Japan.

this evidence supports my point because it addresses the issues that we are facing due to the lack of government role in the transportation industry. And Government also has the role of coming up with laws that govern how different modes of transportation should be used (Transport and distribution for international trade, 2017). For instance, the government makes laws for road transportation. Such laws determine.

Active traffic management (also managed lanes, smart lanes, managed/smart motorways) is the method of increasing peak capacity and smoothing traffic flows on busy major highways. Techniques include variable speed limits, hard-shoulder running, and ramp-metering controlled by overhead variable message signs. It has been implemented in several countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Technology
The section of road subject to ATM is monitored by MIDAS sensor loops (1) placed a sensor on the road every 100 meters (328 ft.) (which is closer than normal) (2) to observe traffic flows. A computerized system monitors the traffic flows and can set the best speed limit for the current flow of traffic and switch on speed limit signs mounted on gantries(3) up to 2 kilometers (1.24 mi) before an incident.(4) Operators can also monitor 150(5) CCTV cameras(6) along the route and can control both the speed limits and information signs.(7) Overhead variable message signs can direct drivers to use the hard shoulder during busy periods.(8)
When the speed limit has been lowered to 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) or below the hard shoulder can be opened as an additional lane.(9)To facilitate this and still maintain safety(10) a series of refuge areas have been created around every 500 meters (1,640 ft) along that stretch of the road.(11) These take the form of lay-bys to the side of the hard shoulder and contain the SOS phones within them.(12) In the event of a vehicle breaking down on the hard shoulder, operators can close it or they can close a lane to allow emergency services access to an accident. The hard shoulder is never opened on the sections under a junction between the off and on slip roads. Close to junctions use of the hard shoulder as a lane is restricted to traffic exiting or entering at that junction.(13)
ATM involves converting the hard shoulder into a normal lane during periods of high traffic flow to expand the capacity of the road(14) and may reduce the need to widen motorways.(15)Similar schemes have already been implemented in Europe.(16)
The system makes use of Automatic Number Plate Recognition cameras which to monitor traffic flows and tailors the system.(17) Digital enforcement cameras are also mounted on the gantries and are operated by the West Midlands Police to enforce the mandatory variable speed limits.

this evidence supports my point because it would help to improve the lives of individual, infrastructure, as well as businesses. Most importantly it will help to improve our transportation system.

The first counterargument I would like to respond to would be the role of the government in managing transportation is inspection (Coyle & Novack, 2006). Transportation involves various issues that should be inspected especially for safety purposes. For instance, the government needs to inspect the roads to ensure that they are in the best condition to be used. This inspection is necessary because it can notify the government about roads that need to be improved for better transportation. Basically, inspection is intended to ensure that the roads are in a state that can be safely used by vehicles.

By addressing the needs and concerns from your reader’s if there’s any. Also, by providing more evidence to support your argument and more research and data on the issues that we are facing within our transportation industrial.

Issues such as which side of the road drivers should use or overtake from. Generally, the government is responsible for ensuring that users of different modes of transportation are responsible and orderly (Coyle & Novack, 2006). In connection to this, the government also has the responsibility of punishing those who break the transportation rules and regulations that have been put in place. For instance, if a driver uses the wrong side of the road, they should be punished according to the law that was passed by the government.

By addressing the needs and concerns from your reader’s if there’s any. Also, by providing more evidence to support your argument and more research and data on the issues that we are facing within our transportation industrial.

Transportation is one of the most significant factors that should be taken into consideration in the course of an international trade. Making the right choice for transportation is key in ensuring that the operations related to imports and exports are carried out efficiently and in the most cost-effective way possible. Investments undertaken on the economic and societal infrastructure has a huge influence on the well-being of the communities. Besides, the governments have a significant influence of how such infrastructures are being provided. Governments are also known to make an influence on how investments in the infrastructure occur due to a variety of reasons (The Commonwealth Government’s Role in Infrastructure Provision – Parliament of Australia. 2017). The first case is to ensure that the available infrastructure meets demand and offers good services. Private entities do not supply specific goods like street lighting, hence showing the necessity of the provision from the government. There are other services that may benefit the society more than it does to a specific individual.

these are always on how we can begin to improve our transportation system that everyone could be benefited from it. A number of highways in the United States have variable message signs and variable speed limits. The New Jersey Turnpike has been using active signage since the 1960s, though systems have evolved over time as they have been deployed in other areas of the country. A modern implementation of active traffic management was activated in 2010 using IRIS on Interstate 35W in Minneapolis, Minnesota and its southern suburbs as part of the Urban Partnership Agreement. Active lane management on I-35W is being combined with high-occupancy toll lanes and will be joined by a bus rapid transit way. An ATM scheme was deployed on 10 August 2010 in Washington.

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has completed Active Traffic Management schemes on several motorways in the Seattle metropolitan area. It is the first legally enforceable system in the United States. Failure to comply with speed limits and overhead instructions are citable offenses.
ATM systems were activated on 11.6 km (7.2 mi) of the I-5 northbound carriageway in August 2010. [18] In November 2010, ATM was expanded to 12.4 km (7.7 mi) of the SR 520 in both directions. In March 2011, ATM completed testing and began operations on 14.3 km (8.9 mi) of the I-90 in both directions.
The ATM schemes build upon WSDOT’s existing arsenal of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) which is supported by traffic sensor loops embedded in the pavement approximately every 800 m (2640 ft.) apart. On motorway sections with ATM, gantries are also spaced roughly 800 m (2640 ft.) apart. The primary ATM strategies used by WSDOT is ramp metering, queue protection, hard shoulder running, junction control, and lane-specific signaling. Motorway operations in the Seattle area are conducted in the Northwest Region Traffic Management Centre in Shoreline, just north of Seattle.

Plans have been in place for decades to increase public transit on the I-35W corridor. Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s light rail was studied but nothing was done. A commuter rail line that was proposed between Minneapolis and Northfield was halted in 2002 by the Minnesota Legislature banning public money from going to studies of the line. [2] The I-35W corridor has a long history of transit, being the first freeway in the Twin Cities to have express bus service, starting in 1972.

References
Coyle, J. & Novack, R. (2006). Management of Transportation. Mason: Thomson South-Western.
Rye, T. (2016). The Implementation and Effectiveness of Transport Demand Management Measures: An International Perspective. Routledge.
The Commonwealth Government’s Role in Infrastructure Provision – Parliament of Australia. (2017). Aph.gov.au. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp0304/04rp08
Transport and distribution for international trade – GOV.UK. (2017). Gov.uk. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from https://www.gov.uk/guidance/transport-and-distribution-for-international-trade.