Describe the ethical dilemma(s) involved in the tarasoff case study and both sides of the issues, along with any conclusions you’ve reached personally.
October 24, 2019
October 25, 2019
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Global health goals and health disparities

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the eight goals that were target to be achieved by 2015 in response to the word’s main development challenges. The focus is on Millennium Development Goal number 6 of Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases in India. Several indicators have been used to measure this Millennium Development Goal in India (Mehta, et al, 2018). One of the ways is the decrease in the number of pregnant women aged between ages 15-24 with HIV/AIDS. According to the research carried out in India the trend shows that in 2005, the percentage of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS was 0.89% but in 2012-2013, the percentage of pregnant women with HIV has decreased to 0.32%. This is a clear indication that this Millennium Development Goal of compacting HIV/AIDS is working in this country.

The second indicator that has been used to measure the outcome of the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV in India is the rate of condom use as contraceptives. In 2005-2006 according to NFHS, the prevalence of condom had grown to 5.2%, which is a clear indication that people are preventing themselves during sex. In 2010, the rise of the users of condom among people aged between 15-24 increased to 74% compared to 2006 that was 61.7%. Through this research, it is clear that the users of condom are increasing each year and the MDG of combating HIV/AID will be met.

Another indicator that has been used in India to measure the outcome of the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV is the number of people with knowledge of HIV/AIDS. According to the Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS), the estimated population of people aged between the ages of 15-24 in India who have knowledge about HIV/AIDS has increased from 22.2% in 2001 to 32% in the year 2006. This is another indication of how the MDG of combating HIV/AIDS in India is achieved.

The other indicator to measure the achievement of HIV/AIDS in India is the percentage of adults HIV prevalence rate. In the year 2002, the adult HIV prevalence was 0.45% but in the year 2009, the rate has decreased to 0.36%, which is a clear indication that people of India are working to decrease the number of people surviving with the HIV/AIDS (Mehta, et al, 2018).

The indicator that is used to measure the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal of malaria and other diseases in India is through the Annual Parasite Incidence (API) rate. The malaria case in the year 2001 was 2.12 per thousand but by the year 2013, the malaria rate had decreased to 0.72 per thousand but in the year 2014, it slightly increased. The rate of malaria death cases also decreases in India and many people were able to prevent themselves. Through this, it is a clear indication that the MDG of combating malaria in India is working effectively.

The case of tuberculosis prevalence in India has reduced from population of 465 per lakh in the year of 1990 to 211 per lakh in the year 2013. Using this indicator, it is a good indication that this disease is decreasing in the country because the goal is to observe. The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is applying a new strategy from World Health Organization of controlling Tuberculosis as a step of achieving the Millennium Development Goal of combating tuberculosis (Mehta, et al, 2018). The other way is checking the proportion of tuberculosis cases that are detected and are cured directly observed treatment short course. Through this, India will know how far they have achieved in combating the tuberculosis case.

According to these indicators of measuring the achievement of Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases like tuberculosis, India is on track of achieving this goal because their prevalence is been reducing as the years go by. This trend is more encouraging and with time, the country will fully achieve this goal.

Nurses play a great role in combating the Millennium Development Goal of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases in India. They help in educating the people about the diseases and what they should do to overcome them. They offer counsel to people who are affected by the disease and show them that there are still hopes of living. They assist in fighting diseases by alerting people when there are symptoms of diseases like malaria and tuberculosis. They carry out massive campaigns on the consequences of not seeking treatment when diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, affect someone.

Health disparity is a health difference base on social or economic disadvantage. Health disparities affect negatively group of people who have economic and social health barriers based on their racial identity, ethnic group, gender, religion, mental health, geographical location and if they have been characterized discrimination or exclusion before. This has become a bigger problem for minority groups in the world and it has been adapted from generation to generation.

Many articles have been reviewed concerning this problem of health disparity. One of the articles is Health Disparities due to diminishing returns among Black Americans. The article says that there have been persistent and high health disparities of black people compare to whites that live in United States of America (Assari, 2018). The article explores why there is diminishing or a reduction in health effects on socioeconomic among black Americans than the whites. The black’s psychological assets are less compared to that of black Americans. It is because the United States of America does not consider any health equality among the people. They seclude others health-wise because their skin color. The article also checks different resources, findings and outcomes and found out that many people have been discriminated against health-wise because of their race, gender and age. However, the article shows that the role of diminishing gain is a main contributing mechanism to racial health disparities has been overlooked from the past years. The article also reviews the research literature on diminished gain and discusses the possible causes for it including the societal barriers created by structured racism. The health disparities in the United States of America is a direct reflection of what is happening in the globe today. The article concluded by saying that the policy solution that may reduce Black-diminishing gain is by the social health determinants call for health equality policy in the globe.

Another article that discusses health disparities is the mental health disparities among college students of color. The article wants us to understand fully why the mental health needs of students of color are growing priorities in college across the world (Lipson et al, 2018). Through experiment, the article found out that across the ethnicity and the race are the modest variation is the symptoms prevalence and the bigger variation is the service of utilization. The white students get high treatment than Asians and Asian America because of their difference in skin color.  The attitude that is related to mental health treatment varies significantly and through this, it helps to explain why there are health disparities among the minority group. The article concluded by portraying those college students with different colors than the host students represent a health disparity population-based on greater levels of unmet mental health needs. The article takes a step in understanding the needs of mental health equality in today’s world.



Assari, S. (2018). Health disparities among black Americans: Public policy solutions. Social Issues and Policy Review12(1), 112-145.

Lipson, S. K., Kern, A., Eisenberg, D., & Breland-Noble, A. M. (2018). Mental health disparities among college students of color. Journal of Adolescent Health63(3), 348-356.

Mehta, S., Kumar, V., & Kumar, A. (2018). Experiences of MDGs in India in the Context of SDGs. In Lessons in Sustainable Development from Bangladesh and India (pp. 49-78). Palgrave Pivot, Cham.




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