Analysis of the reading

write about two pages of the analysis of the reading ‘Hirschman, “Exit, Voice, and the State”‘. Then for the last page please include possible discussion questions for class and possible answers.

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Exit, Voice, and the State
Author(s): Albert O. Hirschman
Source:
World Politics,
Vol. 31, No. 1 (Oct., 1978), pp. 90-107
Published by:
Cambridge University Press
Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2009968
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EXIT,
VOICE,
AND
THE
STATE
By
ALBERT
0.
HIRSCHMAN*
T
HERE
are
two
main
types
of
activist
reactions
to
discontent
with
organizations
to
which
one
belongs
or
with
which
one
does
busi-
ness:
either
to
voice
one’s
complaints,
while
continuing
as
a
member
or
customer,
in
the
hope
of
improving
matters;
or
to
exit
from
the
organization,
to
take
one’s
business
elsewhere.
Exit,
Voice,
and
Loyalty’
was
built
on
this
dichotomy.
One
of
my
main
contentions
was
that
economists,
with
their
em-
phasis
on
the
virtues
of
competition
(i.e.,
exit),
had
disregarded
the
possible
contributions
of
voice
just
as
political
scientists,
with
their
in-
terest
in
political
participation
and
protest,
had
neglected
the
possible
role
of
exit
in
the
analysis
of
political
behavior.
The
book,
however,
gave
more
attention
to
the
former
point
and
dealt
only
briefly
with
the
political
scientist’s
principal
object
of
study:
the
state.
In
the
present
paper,
I
shall
attempt
a
more
extensive
survey.
The
importance
of
exit
in
relation
to
the
state
is
the
common
theme
of
the
diverse
situations,
ranging
from
the
stateless
societies
of
tropical
Africa
to
the
modern
small
welfare
state,
that
I
will
explore.
I.
EXIT,
RousSEAU’s
SAVAGE,
AND
STATELESS
SOCIETIES
Does
the
exit-voice
model
have
something
useful
to
contribute
to
the
analysis
of
the
state?
It
does,
in
the
opinion
of
Jean-Jacques
Rousseau.
*
This
paper
was
originally
written
for
a
symposium
held
in
June
1977
at
the
Uni-
versity
of
Uppsala,
Sweden,
on
the
occasion
of
the
5oo-year
jubilee
of
the
foundation
of
the
University.
It
is
reproduced
here
with
some
changes.
The
author
is
grateful
to
Ulf
Himmelstrand
who
organized
the
Uppsala
symposium,
and
to
Karen
Blu
and
Clifford
Geertz
for
discussion
and
critical
comments.
I
Hirschman,
Exit,
Voice,
and
Loyalty:
Responses
to
Decline
in
Firms,
Organizations,
and
States
(Cambridge:
Harvard
University
Press
I970).
2
Primarily
in
connection
with
the
issue
of
resignation
of
officials
who
are
in
dis-
agreement
with
public
policies
(see
chaps.
7
and
8).
I
have
touched
on
emigration
in
relation
to
the
state
in
two
subsequent
papers:
“Exit,
Voice,
and
Loyalty:
Further
Re-
flections
and
a
Survey
of
Recent
Contributions,”
Social
Science
Information,
xiii
(Feb-
ruary
i974),
7-26,
and
“Political
Economy:
Some
Uses
of
the
Exit-Voice
Approach-
Discussion,”
American
Economic
Review,
Papers
and
Proceedings,
Vol.
66
(May
I976),
386-89.
Secessionist
movements
are
brought
into
the
exit-voice
framework
by
Stein
Rokkan,
“Dimensions
of
State
Formation
and
Nation-Building:
A
Possible
Paradigm
for
Research
on
Variations
within
Europe,”
in
Charles
Tilly,
ed.,
The
Formation
of
Na-
tional
States
in
Western
Europe
(Princeton:
Princeton
University
Press
I975),
562-6oo,
and
by
Samuel
E.
Finer,
“State-Building,
State
Boundaries
and
Border
Control:
An
Essay
on
Certain
Aspects
of
the
First
Phase
of
State-Building
in
Western
Europe,
Con-
sidered
in
the
Light
of
the
Rokkan-Hirschman
Model,”
Social
Science
Information,
xiii
(August-October
i974),
79-i26.
s978
by
Princeton
University
Press
World
Politics
0043-8871/78/oioo9o-I8$o.9o/I
For
copying
information,
see
contributor
page
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