Chapter 4: Reseach Findings of your Doctoral Project. See Doctoral Project Handbook located under the Resource tab for further instructions.

This chapter will include a thorough analysis of the literature review and includes:

a. Introduction of Chapter
b. Results
c. Analysis and Evaluation of Findings
d. Summary

Chapter Four: Findings

This chapter is focused on presenting the results during the course of the analysis. All results that are relevant to study need to be presented and discussed in a logical manner. This is accomplished by addressing each research question in the order in which it was presented in Chapter One. Here the learner must assert that the research questions have been answered. The results provide the foundation for justifying the findings and conclusions that are drawn from this study.


Write 2 to 3 paragraphs that present an overview of how the chapter is organized to present the data analysis. You should begin with a brief review of the purpose of the study and the problem to be addressed. Include an overview of how your findings were discovered.


Findings or results or statistical analyses are presented without discussion. Include only the amount of explanation necessary to help your reader understand the basis of your findings. The interpretation of the data and speculation about what it means are both reserved for the next section called “Analysis and Evaluation of Findings.”

The report of findings needs to be complete enough for the readers to interpret the data independently. Enough detail needs to be provided for the readers to assess its worth. The basic operating principle is that intelligent readers should be able to use this section on findings to make an independent judgment about what has been found. Nothing must be withheld from the readers that would prevent this judgment form being made. At the same time, material considered “common knowledge” to informed readers, such as definitions of common terms, need not be presented. Information should not be presented in such a way as to guide the readers’ interpretation. Use graphic representations such as tables and figures as appropriate. Should graphic representations be used, each table and figure must be preceded by narrative text that introduces and clarifies or highlights it. Tables and figures must fit on one page and follow the format described by APA. If there are a number of tables or figures to present, weave the narrative text around them. Supplementary or secondary tables and figures can be placed in appendixes.

Analysis and Evaluation of Findings

This section is to report what your findings mean. Results are interpreted in light of the theory (or theories) and/or the conceptual framework(s) you have identified. Findings are compared/contrasted to other studies. It is clear how the field(s) of study may be affected by your inquiry. This section varies in length depending on the kind of study conducted and the significance of the findings.


Discussion summarizes key points presented in Chapter 4. While more than a listing of the points that have been made, the summary should provide a clear, cognitive, and succinct means of highlighting to the reader the main points that have been presented.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This section is the Learner’s opportunity to review all of the previous chapters. Included here is a summary of the introductory information, and a restatement of the problem, purpose, research questions, methodology, and results.

Summary of Findings and

The Learner brings focus on the problem statement and the research questions presented in the proposal; discusses each of the research questions answering the question and extending the results to ideas, opinions, and suggestions of the Learner on findings that impact these issues.

It is here that the Learner discusses and summarizes the findings for the study and explains whether the results and findings support or contradict generally accepted theories and studies in the subject area. While being concise, the Learner also wants to make the summary detailed enough so that a reader could understand the Doctoral Project by only reading this chapter.

Implications for Practice

In this section, the Learner details how the results and findings promote improvement of practice in the field of study. The implications must be linked to results and findings in the study. Discuss how the changes could be implemented by practitioners in the field.

Direction for Future Research

When the investigation is complete and the Learner has set forth the meaning of the work to the field; he or she is an expert on the particular topic of the study. The Learner has a special obligation therefore to suggest future inquiries that could expand this field of knowledge. These recommendations grow out of the research that the Learner has conducted and should be more than a list of topics he or she would have liked to research.


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