Educational Program or Curriculum Development

Educational Program or Curriculum Development
The masters in advanced practice nursing program is developed to address the needs of a multi-cultural population with chronic and lifestyles diseases. This curriculum is geared at attracting qualified baccalaureate nurses who can provide leadership, innovative, client centered evidenced based nursing care to a multi-cultural population and can best alleviate the existing health issues. This curriculum will be beneficial to the varied stakeholders such as the government, patients, community, families, health institutions, insurance providers and the practitioners.
Studies have shown that advanced practice nurses have the key role in the delivery of quality care; their findings affirmed improved patient outcomes, increased patient and family satisfaction (Bourbonniere et al 2009 as cited in Keating, 2015). There is therefore a positive correlation between advanced practice nurses and improved health care outcome.
Learning Theory
The adult learning theory is one that aligns with the rural setting within Arkansas who are is desperate need for Advanced Nurse Practitioners due to lack of access to primary care physicians. This theory would assist in the curriculum development at UAMS because the target audience would be adult learners seeking a graduate education in a Master’s Degree program. During the development of this curriculum, it would be essential to consider that adults have a different motivation to learn than that of a younger population of students. These individuals have a maturity and experiences that provide them with different insights and they are able to see relationships patterns within material (Billings, 2016). One would want to foster a relaxed, trusting and respectful environment for these learners. When developing the curriculum for rural areas of Arkansas, educators would want to combine course materials with learning experiences and the use of learning activities. These activities could include reflective journaling, critical incidents and creating portfolio (Billings, 2016). Educators would include activities that allow the adult learner to introduce their experiences from their past and current situations to the learning events taking place within the curriculum (Billings, 2016).
Kolcaba’s Theory of comfort is a nursing theory developed within the 1990’s by Katherine Kolcaba who desired to place comfort in the forefront of health care (CurrentNursing.com, 2011). This theory describes comfort within 3 forms; which are relief, ease and transcendence. The patient in need of comfort would be an individual, family, institution or community (CurrentNursing.com, 2011). Within the development of the advanced degree curriculum at UAMS, the rural community would be the patient in need. By allowing access to more providers who have completed the developed program, the comfort of the community would be increasingly enhanced. It would replace the community back to optimal functioning, which is described by Kolcaba in the theory as the principle of health (CurrentNursing, 2011). The community would be strengthened and in comfort which aligns with the theory.
Organizational Framework
The need to create or change an existing nursing program requires the instructor to be adaptable to the educational atmosphere, development, and result (Boland, 2012). An organizational framework approach to developing curriculum to correspond with the current mission, vision and philosophy begin with the teachers assessing programs, planning curriculum and safeguarding that all accreditations are in place, and curriculum meet principles of such credentialing agencies. The educators and faculty leaders have congruent values that fit the school curricula. The philosophy supports the values of the school and aligns with the 2016 American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) mission and values, which enables accountability, professionalism, critical thinking, knowledge, and skills. Currently, advanced degree nursing programs maintain Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) accreditation; with research continuing regarding curriculum it will support the new course proposed (AACN, 2016; CCNE, 2009; UAMS, 2016).

University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Master’s nursing curriculum strives to provide direct patient services at the advanced level. The curriculum advances the mission a philosophy of the university through scholarship in teaching, research, and services (UAMS, 2016). The curriculum focuses to promote and provide evidence-based training to nursing graduate students and assistance to persons within the rural communities of Arkansas and surrounding areas (UAMS, 2016). For this project, the curriculum will utilize the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education (AACN) to emphasize the importance of research, health care policy and finance, ethics, professional role development, theoretical foundations of nursing, human diversity and social issues, and health promotion (AACN, 2016). The content and flow of the program will be based on the adult learning and facilitate on-line, flexible education opportunities. By building on Kolcaba’s theory of comfort, this curriculum will identify rural communities as the patient in need and strive to provide comfort and health promotion/prevention to rural communities by establishing more advance practice nurses to provide care in under-privileged areas.
Curriculum components
A mission statement gives a description of the purpose for a specific program or institution (Billings & Halstead, 2016). The mission statement for our nursing program is to provide the highest quality education for advanced practice nurses seeking to practice in the underserved rural areas of Arkansas. This aligns with the curriculum as the purpose of the curriculum is to produce advanced practice nurses. This is also in alignment with The University of Arkansas Medical Sciences as the university as a whole is dedicated to scholarly excellence and serving both the profession and community (UAMS, 2016).
The vision statement is a statement that tells what the program wants to give to the community and students (Billings & Halstead, 2016). The vision for our program is to provide the rural areas of Arkansas with competent, well trained advance practice nurses for complete healthcare needs. Aligning with the vision of the university as they emphasize the health of the population as well as overall health promotion of the state (UAMS, 2016).
Our philosophy and nursing curriculum are based on the nursing meta-paradigm of person, environment, health, and nursing that goes side by side with the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences School of nursing philosophy. Our philosophy and mission supports teaching, research, and service by providing an excellent theory-based curriculum for nurses seeking advanced education (UAMS, 2016). The concept of person includes individuals, families, groups, and communities in an environment that interacts with the internal and external factors influencing the health of a person (UAMS, 2016). A healthy person includes their physical, emotional, intellectual, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. Nursing is an art and science where we provide healthcare, compassion, and education to patients in order for them to achieve a healthy state. Following our mission and vision for our program we want to provide future advanced nursing professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the ever changing world of healthcare. The mission for our nursing program is to provide the highest quality education for advanced practice nurses seeking to practice in the underserved rural areas of Arkansas and the vision for our program is to provide the rural areas of Arkansas with competent, well trained advance practice nurses for complete healthcare needs. Using the foundation of our philosophy, mission, and vision for our program we can prepare our advanced practice nursing students to care for the population in the rural areas of Arkansas and beyond.
The philosophy statement for a curriculum should be influenced by both the mission and vision statements. The development of this statement allows administrators and educators to voice their beliefs about the programs curriculum. Philosophy statements are influenced by the theories, concepts, beliefs and values of the faculty (Keating, 2015). It offers guiding principles for the curriculum that serve as resources for students.
End of program outcomes
• Upon completion of the program, the student will present as a critical thinker who incorporates the nursing process and current evidence based research into their role to improve overall healthcare outcomes.
• Upon completion of the program, the student will be able to provide leadership skills within their advanced role and within the health care delivery system to foster improvement of client care in rural areas.
• Upon completion of the program, the student will demonstrate assessment skills and disease process identification for the general health population illnesses.
• Upon completion of the program the student will interpret evidence-based practice guidelines for care plan of patients.
• Upon completion of the program students will be able to collect, organize, and analyze appropriate clinical data to develop diagnoses
• Upon completion of the program the student will be able to integrate theories and principles that influence leadership in advanced practice roles in the domains of nursing.
• Upon completion of the program the student will be able to participate in the process of health policy development for improvement of health care
• Upon completion of the program of the program the student will be able to integrate advanced nursing knowledge, ethical principles and critical thinking and clinical competences in area of specialization.
• Upon completion of the program the student will continue to engage in continued personal and professional development in the pursuit of goals.
• Upon completion of the program the student will be able to deliver quality care in a variety of settings to varied population
Using Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, we develop learning objectives in six content areas: codes of ethical conduct, corporate governance, the accounting profession, moral development, classical ethics theories, and decision models (Kidwell, et al 2013). When writing learning outcomes we have to focus on student behavior and use simple and specific action verbs to describe students are expected to demonstrate. Bloom’s Taxonomy can be a useful resource in developing these learning outcomes. Concrete verbs such as “define,” “apply,” or “analyze” are more helpful for assessment than verbs such as “be exposed to,” “understand,” “know,” “be familiar with.” (Kidwell, et al 2013). Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding and knowledge of learning outcomes and educators should be held accountable for whether or not students are learning.

• The Curriculum Outline
The title of the program is Advanced Practice Master’s Degree Program in adult health; to be delivered within eighteen months. To be become a part of this program one must be a practicing Bachelor of Science Nurse (BSN). There will be a total ten courses, these courses will include two practicum classes and each class will be completed in a sixteen-week semester. In the state of Arkansas there is a requirement that the student complete advanced pharmacology, health assessment and physiology/pathophysiology (graduatenursingedu.org, 2016). The descriptions of the courses are as follows:
Advanced pharmacology
• Course description
Through this course the student will learn the foundations of drug therapy that are required to work competently as an advanced practice nurse. All aspects of drug therapy will be addressed, such as selection of medication due to safety, cost, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and multiple co-morbidities. Requirements that are needed in order for advanced practice nurses to have prescriptive authority will be thoroughly reviewed as well as pertinent legislation that can affect prescriptive authority.
• Learning objectives
1. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to discuss different factors that can affect what medication is prescribed.
2. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to discuss the requirements needed to have prescriptive authority as an advanced practice nurse.
Advanced pathophysiology
• Course description
In order to competently diagnose and treat the patient the advance practice nurse must have a knowledge of all body systems. An in-depth knowledge of disease processes and how each system in the body affects others. The most common disease processes in each major body system will be reviewed in-depth along with possible treatment plans that would be appropriate for different the treatment of adult patients.
• Learning objectives
1. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to recognize symptoms of different disease processes when presented with clinical scenarios
2. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to explain the mechanisms of disease processes in the major systems of the body
Healthcare policy
• Course description
The focus of this course is on current healthcare policy in our country. Nurses as a whole can unite and drive change in our countries healthcare arena and this class will show them how they can affect policy change and become influential in our countries healthcare system.
• Learning objectives
1. Upon completion of this course the student will be able to identify three different healthcare policies that they feel passionate about changing.
2. Upon completion of this course the student will be able to identify a way they can become active in their local area to affect healthcare policy change.
Strategic Leadership In Rural Healthcare
• Course Description
Healthcare in rural communities requires providers to develop an understanding of the challenges in which they face. These challenges often include geographical location, scarce resources, and other situational factors. In this course, we will define rural nursing, we will identify the needs presented by the population within the remote area, we will explore the challenges in which they face, and will attempt to develop strategies to overcome these barriers in order to foster the development of healthcare amenities within the rural population. Material will be presented in lecture format with weekly discussion postings online, and students will be required to work in a group assigned by the instructor to design a program and/or policy consisting of interventions and strategies to confront the healthcare needs for a rural area in Arkansas of their choice.
• Learning Objectives
1. After completion of the course, the student will be able to identify healthcare barriers faced by individuals or populations within a rural area.
2. After completion of the course, the student will be able to describe innovative and creative approaches to address healthcare needs presented within the rural community.
Advanced health assessment
• Course description
Health assessment is an imperative skill needed by advance practice nurses. Using assessment skills and critical thinking ability will lead to appropriate diagnosis and treatment of a patient. The focus of this course will be on the skills required to perform a complete head to toe assessment as well as appropriate diagnostic tools that are required to complete this advanced assessment.
• Learning objectives
1. Upon completion of this course the student will be able to successfully perform a complete head to toe assessment.
2. Upon completion of this course the student will be able to identify three diagnostic tools that can be used to complete the head to toe assessment.
Evidence-base Practice
• Course description
This course will facilitate learning for the student to implement current best evidence along with clinical expertise and patient values to guide healthcare decisions and management as an advance practice nurse. In this course, the student will select a patient focused problem and/or specific patient population and review the literature to compose a written paper of 7-10 pages. The paper should include explanation of the issue and which best practice measures are needed to improve healthcare and patient management outcomes.
• Learning Objectives
1. Upon completion of the course the student will interpret evidence-based practice models and guidelines for care plan development of patients.
2. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to describe the benefits and effects of utilizing evidence-based practice measures.
Professional Leadership and Development
• Course description
This course will facilitate learning for the student to implement application of organizational leadership concepts and skills, develop critical thinking, organizational innovation, decision making, and creative problem solving in healthcare organizations as an advance practice nurse. In this course, the student will design and create a project with oral presentation that addresses a current problem within the field of healthcare organizational leadership. The project will include a PowerPoint presentation.
• Learning Objectives
1. At the end of the course the student will be able to apply organizational leadership concepts and skills when problem solving in a healthcare organization.
2. At the end of the course the student will be able to solve a current problem within the field of healthcare organizational leadership using critical thinking and organizational innovation.
Introduction to Public Health
• Course description
This course focus on general public health issues in the United States and the world. General public issues such as clean water, parasites, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), HIV, teen pregnancies, Smoking, clean air….etc.
• Learning objectives
1. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to describe the concept of population-based nursing
2. Upon completion of the course the student will be able to describe to role of public health in the healthcare system
Practicum: Health care for the at risk populations:
• Course description
This course involves identifying vulnerable populations, discussing poverty rates and how that affects healthy lifestyles, lack of resources for low income, poor health insurance, coverage….etc. The clinical experience will take place in a public health facility, community healthcare clinic that focuses on care of vulnerable populations.
• Learning objectives
1. The student will collaborate with local healthcare providers, at the end of the course the student will be able appropriately address the needs of patients and families seen in the clinic.
2. The student will identify ways to provide culturally sensitive care to patients of various cultures seen in the clinic.

Year 1 Year 2
Semester 1 Semester 2 Semester 3 Semester 4
Advanced Pharmacology Advanced Health Assessment Introduction to Public Health Strategic Leadership in Rural Healthcare
Advanced Pathophysiology Evidence Based Practice Practicum: Healthcare for at risk populations Practicum: Advanced practice care of adults
Healthcare policy Professional Leadership and Development
Concept Map
References
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2016). Mission and values. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/about-aacn/mission-values
Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2016). Teaching in Nursing: A Guide For
Faculty (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elseveir.
Boland, D. L. (2012). Developing curriculum: Frameworks, outcomes, and competencies. In D. M. Billings, & J. A. Halstead (Eds.), Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed., pp. 138-159). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. (2009). Standards for accreditation of baccalaureate and graduate degree nursing programs. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/ccne-accreditation/standards09.pdf
CurrentNursing.com. (2011). Comfort Theory. Retrieved at:
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/comfort_theory_
Kathy_Kolcaba.html.
Graduatenursingedu.org. (2016). Steps to becoming an APN in Arkansas. Retrieved from http://www.graduatenursingedu.org/arkansas/
Keating, S. B. (ed.). (2015). Curriculum development and
evaluation in nursing (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
Kidwell, L. A., Fisher, D. G., Braun, R. L., & Swanson, D. L. (2013). Developing learning objectives for accounting ethics using Bloom’s taxonomy. Accounting Education, 22(1), 44-65. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012b). Curriculum
Components. Baltimore, MD: Author.
The University of Arkansas Medical Sciences. (2016). Vision, Mission and Core Values. Retrieved on March 30, 2016 from http://web.uams.edu/about/vision-mission-core-values/
Part 3 Final Submission

As a team, review the PowerPoint requirements below and decide on the key points to present for each topic. When creating your PowerPoint, it is important that you do not copy/paste paragraphs of information into your slides (you may insert tables and concept maps you have already created, as appropriate). Instead, you should critically assess your research and final submissions to identify key points that are both informative and interesting for your intended audience. You may also use the “notes” section of PowerPoint to provide the audience with more detail, as needed.

Your PowerPoint must have a minimum of 15 slides and a maximum of 20 slides, not including references. It is up to your team to decide how many slides should be devoted to each topic.

Note: It is important to remember that though the PowerPoint must present the entire scope of your project, Part 3: Master Plan of Evaluation should be thoroughly presented.

This section is to be completed during Week 11.

Your PowerPoint must include the topics below in the following order:

• Introduction slide(s): Assigned region and selected setting
• External and internal frame factors
• Proposed program and applicable details
• Overarching theories and frameworks
• Curriculum design
• Plan of study
• Master Plan of Evaluation: table and rationale
• References

*Note that the above outline represent general topics for you to include. These are not meant to be titles for your slides. Your team should title slides as appropriate; however, you may use one or more topics above as a title if it aligns to the content presented on the slide.
Master Plan of Evaluation

When creating a Master Plan of Evaluation, there are many curriculum components you can focus on. For example, you might evaluate your program’s mission, vision, and philosophy, curriculum organization, individual courses, teaching effectiveness, institutional environment, frame factors, etc. Many educators use tables to assist them in creating a succinct evaluation plan. The table below is an adapted version of table 14.1 of the Keating course text. Use this table to represent your evaluation plan for Part 3’s PowerPoint submission. For your table, you will decide which curriculum components (a minimum of three) to include and fill out each column of the table.

Responsible Party When and How Often Evaluation Models Evaluation Strategies
Curriculum Component
Curriculum Component
Curriculum Component