“human wisdom” and how he came to be called by the gods.focus on the passage from page 25 through page 27 (20e through 23b) where Socrates talks about his “human wisdom” and how he came to be called by the gods. In two full pages explain Socrates’ story, who he visits, and how those encounters unfold. Finally, in the last paragraph discuss your own thoughts on Socrates’ story. Please make sure to summarize the reading well and completely in your essay. However, do not use quotes

What is Philosophy?
The word “philosophy” literally means “love of wisdom.”
In ancient Greek the concept of f???s?f?a(philosophia) involves two parts -Philos(lover or friend) Sophia(wisdom)
“Love” in this context is a lacking or passionate hunger for.
“Wisdom” does not mean mere knowledge, but rather understanding of how to live well.
Hence, the philosopher is one who does not have this form of knowledge, but desires it passionately.

Thales c. 625-545 B.C.E.
Often considered the first philosopher. Lived in the city of Metusin Ionia (modern-day Turkey) Said to have accurately measured the height of the Egyptian pyramids by their shadows. Never wrote any books and no quotes of his survive
Travelled the Mediterranean -concerned with “first principles.” What is a first principle?
Said everything is derived from water. “He [Thales] said that the world is held up by water and rides like a ship, and when it is said to ‘quake’ it is actually rocking because of the water’s movement.”Seneca Qu. nat. III, 14
Thales was one of about 25 “pre-Socratic” philosophers from around the Mediterranean. For more info click here.
Socrates c. 469-399 B.C.E.
Born in the city-state of Athens during the height of the Greek empire. (Athens was the cultural center of the world.)
Socrates as described by his contemporaries: ugly(eyes set apart, pug nose, large mouth –looks were important to Greek politics), poor(wore same clothes, barefoot, unkempt), marketplace(talk to youth, question fellow citizens, not political/affairs of the city).
We are also told that he was a war hero in his youth, impervious to drink and cold, he also does not see himself as a teacher.
For more on Socrates click here.

Socrates c. 469-399 B.C.E.
Socrates is distinctive for his frequent claims to know nothing (philosophy as the love of wisdom). In this regard his life is considered the model for a philosophical life.
Some of what we know comes from Aristophanes (clouds) and Xenophon (history), but likely the most accurate depiction comes from Plato (c. 429-347 B.C.E).
In many dialogues Plato may have used Socrates to represent his own views. Furthermore, many events in the dialogues occur when Plato what a boy and others occur when Plato was not there.
Socratic Dialogues (early) –use elenchus as a method of inquiry and tend to mirror the views of the real Socrates.
Platonic dialogues (later) –does not use elenchus and reflect the views of the mature Plato.
For more on Plato click here.
Socrates is on his way to the courthouse. (indicted for corrupting the youth and inventing false gods). He meets Euthyphro –a profit who claims to receive messages from the gods.
Euthyphro has just left the courthouse where he has accused his own father of murder (know the full situation).
E’s family is angry about the chargers (it’s impiousfor a son to prosecute his father). What is piety?
E. thinks they’re wrong and don’t understand the true nature of piety. “they say, it is impious for a son to prosecute his father for murder. But their ideas of the divine attitude to piety and impiety are wrong, Socrates.” (4e)
This is a knowledge claim and S. is eager to hear E’s definition of piety. (elenchus)
(5e) 1stdefinition: “The pious is to do what I am doing, to prosecute the wrongdoer …”
Is this a good definition of piety?
Socrates wants a definition, not an example. “I did not bid you tell me one or two … pious actions, but that form itself that makes all pious actions pious.” (6e)
(7a) 2nddefinition: “What is dear to the gods is pious, what is not is impious.”
Is this a good definition of piety?
S. points out that the gods are often at war with one another and thus disagree. “The same things then are loved by the gods and hated by the gods” (the gods are at war)
3rddefinition: “the godly and pious is the part of the just that is concerned with the care of the gods, while that concerned with the care of men is the remaining part of justice.” (12e)
Is this a good definition of piety?
S. points out that only things that have some deficiency require care. A child or dog must be cared for. The gods are not in need of human care, nor do they benefit from anything a human could do for them, so this definition fails just like the rest. (there’s a bit more to this one)
The true definition of piety proves difficult to state. Ultimately Euthyphro gives up the search. (15d)
Socrates: So we must investigate again from the beginning what piety is, as I shall not willingly give up before I learn this. Do not think me unworthy, but concentrate your attention and tell the truth. For you know it, if any man does, and I must not let you go… If you had no clear knowledge of piety and impiety you would never have ventured to prosecute your old father for murder on behalf of a servant. For fear of the gods you would have been afraid to take the risk lest you should not be acting rightly, and would have been ashamed before men, but now I know well that you believe you have clear knowledge of piety and impiety. So tell me, my good Euthyphro, and do not hide what you think it is.
Euthyphro: Some other time, Socrates, for I am in a hurry now, and it is time for me to go.
Further details to notice about the dialogue:
At (11e) during the third attempt Socrates is coaxing an answer. “I am as eager as you are to find a way to teach me about piety, and do not give up before you do. See whether you think all that is pious is of necessity just.” (Socrates talking)
At (14c) Socrates hints at knowing the answer himself. “Socrates: You could tell me in far fewer words, if you were willing, the sum of what I asked, Euthyphro, but you are not keen to teach me,cthat is clear. You were on the point of doing so, but you turned away. If you had given that answer, I should now have acquired from you sufficient knowledge of the nature of piety.”

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