Induced Cardiac Stress Test

Order Description

This task require you to write four full page including reference and graph as research paper. The look of research paper has to follow the medicine and science in sport and exercise in regard to reference style and writing style. This research is about effect of various drugs on heart rate. Those drugs are either considered agonist or antagonist.

Students will write a scientific article based on the pharmacological data provided in the style of the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. The article is to be submitted in both hard copy and electronically by the due date. The article should be ‘print ready’, i.e., the layout and appearance should be (almost) identical to a standard Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise article.
Example which is free from website.
The learning objectives of this assignment are to:
(a) follow the Instructions to Authors provided by the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,
(b) analyze and interpret some basic pharmacological data, and
(c) critically evaluate scientific articles.
The accompanying sheet contains theoretical dose (or concentration)-response curves for dobutamine on heart rate and cardiac output in three groups of individuals.
General instructions The assignment must be prepared in the style of the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. The Instructions to Authors for the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise may be found on the web. In addition, the article should be formatted AS IT WOULD APPEAR IN THE JOURNAL. The minimum requirements are that: (a) the text for the abstract should be 8 pt (b) the body text font must be Times New Roman and size 10 point; (c) several (i.e., at least seven) references (book or journal but preferably the latter) must be provided; (d) in text references and the reference list as per the style of the journal; (e) figures are constructed with care and as per the Instructions to Authors (no more than a column width, i.e., not the width of page) (f) the article should be no longer than FOUR (4) typed pages (including figures and references).
If the above basic requirements are not met, your assignment will be returned to you for correction and the maximum mark awarded to you will be 50% of the total mark available for the assignment.
As per Instructions to Authors, provide a summary, brief introduction (on dobutamine and other agents used), methods section, results, discussion and references.
You will need to describe the study which generated the data. For example, ‘Fifty males (age x-x years) provided informed consent to take part in the study’. Describe how the experiments were set up. Use a published article as a template and acknowledge (DON’T PLAIGERISE – SUMMARISE AND ACKNOWLEDGE SOURCE!).
Data Analysis See attached instructions.
Discussion This should be short and sweet. You basically need to state what your data shows (DO NOT RE-STATE THE RESULTS), based on your analysis of data and (as stated previously) compare your results with those published previously by others.
Data for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Assignment (2015)
Two series of ‘stress tests’ were carried out on 15 male subjects. The first was a ‘drug-induced’ stress test that consisted of determining the effect of infusing increasing doses of three agonists on heart rate. Dobutamine was infused again after prior infusion of prazosin (10 mg) and metoprolol (25 mg). The heart rate responses are expressed as the mean ? the standard error of the mean. You are required to:
a. Construct dose-response curves for the three agonists using a graphing package (Excel or GraphPad PRISM? which you can download onto your PERSONAL computer for 30 days FREE). Note: be sure that you know what you want from the package as it does expire after 30 days do some preparatory work first!
b. Construct dose-response curves for dobutamine in the presence and absence of the two antagonists, prazosin (10 mg) and metoprolol (25 mg).
c. Determine the approximate EC50 for the agonists alone and for dobutamine in the presence of the antagonists.
Use the data and dose-response curves to determine which types(s) of receptors mediate the effects of dobutamine.
The second test was a graded cardiovascular exercise stress test conducted on a treadmill where subjects were subjected to increasing workloads and heart rate measured at different ‘exercise doses’. The subjects were then undertook the same test 1 week later, 4 hours after 25 mg (oral) of metoprolol, and again a week later, 4 hours after 10 mg of prazosin (oral).
a. Construct ‘exercise dose’-response curves in the presence and absence of the two antagonists, prazosin (10 mg) and metoprolol (25 mg).
b. Determine the approximate ‘exercise’ EC50 in the presence and absence of the two antagonists, prazosin (10 mg) and metoprolol (25 mg).
Describe the effects of the two antagonists on exercise-induced changes in heart rate. Note, that ‘exercise’ EC50s are not required – simply describe the data.
1. Drug-induced cardiac stress test
log dose of agent (g/kg/min)