This exam is open book and open note. You may use any of the resources required for this class or
resources available online. However, all answers must be original, all sources must be reliable,
respected AND cited, and you may not work with other members of the class to formulate your
answers. I do not expect perfect citations, but if you are using any of the texts, or an online source,
please give me at least a brief reference (Karns for the main textbook, Class Discussion for, well,
class discussion).
The exam will be graded both for substantive knowledge of the area being tested and your ability to
analyze a given situation. Where you are asked to identify the appropriate means of resolving a
matter, you should include a discussion of all reasonable means of resolution.
You MUST answer all Multiple Choice Questions AND Essay Question 1 (30 points), and
then ANY TWO of Questions 2 – 8 (25 points each). Should you elect to answer an additional
essay question, the lower scoring of the optional essay questions will be counted as bonus for this
exam, up to 4 points for the additional essay, to a maximum of 7 Bonus Points for the exam.
MAXIMUM Pages for Essay Responses is 10.
Please note that no essay question relies solely on one source. Each has been designed to engage
you in applying the knowledge you have gained in the course.
Please send you completed exam to Prof. Bates at AND The completed exam must be submitted by 11:59 pm on Wednesday,
October 21. Please format the file name as {Last Name}Midterm (e.g. Smith.Midterm.doc).
1) Which of the following documents first established the concept of “non-intervention”, or
the absolute right of the sovereign within their borders?
a. Magna Carta
b. United Nations Charter
c. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
d. Treaty of Westphalia
e. Covenant of the League of Nations
2) In which of the following international courts of law can an individual be held accountable
(prosecuted)for violations of public international law (e.g. international human rights, crimes
against humanity, violations of the law of war, etc.)?
a. International Court of Justice
b. International Chamber of Commerce
c. Permanent Court of Arbitration
d. International Criminal Court
e. Permanent Court of International Justice
3) Which of the following is not a function of the World Bank Group?
a. Providing loans to European nations.
b. Researching global trends in development.
c. Providing grants to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
d. Monitoring currency rates of exchange.
4) Which of the following is not a primary organ of the United Nations?
a. Security Council
b. Economic and Social Council
c. Trusteeship Council
d. International Criminal Court
e. Secretariat
5) The acronym “NAM” refers to which entity:
a. Neo-Militarization Pact
b. Non-Aligned Military
c. New Army of Mao
d. Non-Aligned Movement
e. None of the Above
6) Which of the following is a purpose for which the United Nations was founded?
a. To maintain international peace and security
b. To take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to
the peace
c. For the suppression of acts of aggression
d. Encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without
distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion
e. All of the above
7) Syria signed the 1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of
Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, and
based on this President Obama has claimed that they violated international law by using
Sarin gas in the present internal conflict. Which organization that we have discussed in class
is supposed to enforce this Protocol?
a. International Committee of the Red Cross
b. United Nations
c. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
d. Council of Europe
e. None of the above
8) It is widely understood that an arbitration between the United States and Great Britain in
1871 laid the groundwork for the eventual proposal for and development of a Permanent
Court of Arbitration, itself the precursor to the eventual International Court of Justice. The
arbitration is referred to as the ____________ case.
a. Georgia
b. Cyprus
c. Bizmark
d. Alabama
e. Geneva
9) The ITU (International Telecommunications Union) is relatively unique among the UN
Agencies because:
a. It pre-dates the United Nations
b. It is open to non-State members/participation
c. Has both an operational and standard-setting function
d. All of the above
10) Which of the following institutions was not contemplated at the meeting in Bretton Woods,
New Hampshire?
a. International Monetary Fund
b. UN Committee on Trade and Development
c. World Trade Organization
d. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
e. International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Question 1: (Required – 30 points – max 4 pages)
What is “sovereignty”? What sources inform your definition of sovereignty? Is this definition
dependent on the existence of a state? What role does this concept play in our study of global
governance? Of international organizations?
Some questions you might consider –
Citing relevant readings and class discussion, please give your opinion on the successfulness of the
UN system, and whether or not you think the United Nations and its attendant organs really
represent a new kind of order (new in the historical context of Balance of Powers, the League of
Nations, and before that the Westphalian system. If it did, is the new order any better? How is it
different from which preceded it in terms of the basis for sovereignty? What is the impact on this
new system of the rise of international and/or multinational organizations, and is the system capable
of dealing with these changes within the traditional notion of the nation state? Or are we entering a
paradigm shift in our understanding of this essential characteristic?
The remaining Essay Question should be answered in no more than 3 pages.
Question 2:
Choose 3 of the IR theories covered briefly in class and more thoroughly in the readings and, in
light of your answer above, contrast their apparent views of sovereignty and the proper role of the
United Nations.
Question 3:
The IMF and World Bank are sometimes vilified for their roles in “oppressing” the poorest, most
vulnerable people in the world, and for supporting governments which ignore the health, safety, and
rights of those populations within their borders. The institutions themselves claim very different
roles in supporting and stabilizing a global financial system and in the eradication of poverty.
Arguments can be made on both sides. In your opinion, backed by analysis, what roles do these
international institutions play currently, and what role should they play? How might you reform their
current structure in order to play any role(s) you believe they should play?
Question 4:
Based on the readings and class discussion, what do you think has caused the greatest shift in the
international system over the last 40 – 50 years (post the establishment of the UN)? The Cold War?
The rise of human rights? The development of non-governmental organizations? The proliferation
of conflict? Or something else entirely?
Question 5:
Based on class discussion and your reading of the High Level Panel Report, as well as “Five to Rule
Them All,” do you think the Security Council, and/or the UN as a whole, needs reform? If so, what
specific reforms do you think are most important or urgent?
Question 6:
Class presentations were made on several different international organizations, and a treaty process.
Identify two (2) such organizations and one (1) or two (2) of the new 2030 SDG’s they might
support, and/or work to implement, given their mission and structure. (Be sure to define
International Organization in your answer.)
Question 7:
What is genocide? How is it defined? What are some of the current debates around the term and/or
the event? Is there an existing organization that can effectively put an end to it? If not, explain what
you would do differently if you were an international organization, and how.
Question 8:
You were asked to watch a world leader address the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).
Based on that speech, can you determine which theory of International Relations that individual
subscribes to? Which of the SDGs are most important to that country, based on that speech? Why?
Bonus Questions (unless otherwise noted, these are worth 1 point on your overall exam
score – Maximum Bonus for this exam is 7 points):
1) Professors are often accused of asking questions that are effectively “what am I thinking?” and
not actually substantive or that they lack direction. In an effort that we get this out of the way: I am
thinking of a number between 1 and 100… the number is prominently featured in a series of books,
the title of which I will give you after the exam, so that you may confirm the number. The first
book in this series has been made into a motion picture (saying “major motion picture” might give it
too much credit). Anyone within 5 points of this number will receive a bonus point. No points will
be given for just naming the book, or movie.
2) Can Palestine become a member of the United Nations over the objections of Israel and the
United States of America? Why or why not?
3) In what town hall did the arbitration referenced in Multiple Choice Question 8 take place?
4) What question do you wish had been asked on this exam? (1 point) Answer it (up to 3 points).

Multiple Choice Answers:

Essay Question Responses
Question 1:

Question __ :