Week 8 Summary

This week, we discussed disorders of the renal, urological GU and gynecological systems. We began our discussion by reviewing the structure of the urinary system, the male reproductive system, and the female reproductive system. Then we discussed some of the common renal, urological GU and gynecological disorders and sexually transmitted diseases.

Cryptorchidism is a disorder of the testicles, where, during embryonic development, either or both of the testes do not descend into the scrotum properly.

Testicular cancer is a disease of young male adults, typically occurring between the ages of twenty and thirty-five.

BPH is the medical term for an enlarged prostate. The prostate enlarges when the cells in the inner core of the prostate grow and form fibrous nodules.

Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate caused by a bacterial infection.

UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections. However, females are more prone to these infections than males. Female UTIs are of three main types, namely simple cystitis, ascending infection, and pyelonephritis.

Sexually transmitted diseases are infections that get transmitted by sexual contact with the carrier. Sexually transmitted diseases are typically caused by the bacterium N. gonorrhoeae or by bacterial pathogens called chlamydiae.

Overview of the Mechanisms of Kidney Function

Ms. Cornwall is admitted with pyelonephritis. She has chills, and her temperature is 101°F. She is complaining of flank pain, frequency, and dysuria. Her urine has white blood cell casts and shows growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Based on the above scenario, answer the following questions:

Why does she have bacteria and white blood cell casts in her urine? Include the pathophysiological response of body for your analysis.

What are the differences when comparing prerenal acute renal injury, intrarenal acute renal injury, and postrenal acute renal injury? Give examples of each and pathological processes related to each disease process.

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