Valuation in finance?Cash flow theories

Based on the attached documents and the case study, please answer below questions:
1.According to the article, what are some of the ways that investors can assess the value of stocks? Are
there any ways which are not mentioned?
2.Why is it important to det??????ermine whether U.S. stocks are overvalued? What are the implications
for different actors in the stock market?
Any referencing must be in Harvard style.