I need a 850 word essay in APA 6th Ed describe the three pillars of the College of Business in Servant leadership, Entrepreneurial spirit and Innovation. This essay must include the way I will apply each of these pillars in my career in health care administrative. This assignment requires a minimum of 3 scholarly sources.


Must be Plagiarism free. Need back by Tuesday (9/23/2014) at 2:00pm Central time Chicago



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1. Servant Leadership

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Servant Leadership

Author: Barrett, Colleen

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We always aim to follow the Golden Rule.

I HAD THE GOOD FORtune to work closely with mentor and Southwest Airlines co-founder Herb Kelleher, who pioneered our legendary approach to customer service, which aims to treat our 35,000 employees like family, to make the workplace fun – and carry that upbeat attitude to customers.

Our mission statement is posted everywhere in our facilities, so if you’re a customer, you see that we aim to follow the Golden Rule – to treat people the way that you want to be treated – and everything else will fall into place.

Customer service is my passion; in fact, I likely spent 85 percent of my time as president dealing with worker issues – what I call pro-active customer service to our employees – with the idea that a happy and motivated workforce will extend that goodwill to customers. When we have employees who have a problem – or who see a passenger having a problem – we try to make something positive come out of the situation.

Southwest has posted a profit for 35 consecutive years – yet the numbers that mean the most are not the ones on our balance sheet, but those that indicate how many millions of people have become frequent flyers because of our low-fare, high- volume strategy. When Southwest flew its first Boeing 737s out of Love Field in Dallas in 1971, only 13 percent of the American public flew regularly (mostly businessmen – women only flew for a family crisis). We changed the way that people think about flying. Low-fare air travel has held together couples in long-distance relationships and helped divorced parents watch their children grow up.

I’ve relinquished my president’s title, but I keep an office and work on customer -service oriented projects for Southwest. I’m an evangelist of the company’s remarkable story and my own improbable rise within it – from legal secretary to president over 23 years. I was raised in a poor family, studied to become a legal secretary, and then got the break of a lifetime when I went to work for Herb.

Kelleher believed in a collaborative style that involved his associates, including me, in every step of the process. In the early years, many of our efforts took place in the courtroom, battling efforts by larger carriers to restrain Southwest (before deregulation). When Kelleher became chairman in 1978 and three years later its CEO, he brought me with him, and we grew Southwest from a little-known Texas carrier to a coast-to-coast consumer powerhouse. Kelleher was an egalitarian spirit. He never embarrassed you – even when you did something silly or foolish. He always supported me and always treated me as a complete equal to him. Although I had no formal training in aviation, I became VP-administration in 1986, executive VP-customers in 1990, and president in 2001. As a leader, I am a persistent problem-solver. I like being part of a team. Tell me I can’t do something and I’ll kill myself trying. I’m an overachiever. I didn’f score off the IQ charts or anything, but I plug away. I’m kind of a firefighter.

My style is one of servant leadership (the Robert Greenleaf notion). I instigated the Golden Rule into our motto and model in part because it was drilled into me by my mother. I also developed the inverted pyramid that focuses on employee satisfaction, first and foremost, followed by the needs of the passengers, which creates a profitable business that satisfies the shareholders. The payback from that strategy is the extra (discretionary) effort that our employees put into serving passengers.

If you are not a people person, you won’t be comfortable in our culture. We hire for attitude, and train for skill (but we do hire top-notch pilots and mechanics). I’ve always thought that your avocation can be your vocation, so that you don’t have to do any acting when you leave home to go to work. I try to be friendly, funny, and far from buttoned-down; I try to make others feel welcome and comfortable – because thaf s how I expect everyone at Southwest to treat any guest. We tell job applicants: we’re in the customer service business – we just happen to provide airline transportation. Our commitment to passengers and customers is so strong and emotional that the company trades under the symbol LUV on the New York Stock Exchange. And we often use LUV when we sign correspondence.

Our culture is fun, spirited, zesty, hard-working, and filled with love. Love is a word that isn’t used often in corporate life, but we used it at Southwest from the start. For one thing, we were serving Love Field. For another, we had little money; we had to get most of our media coverage by way of newspaper stories, not paid advertising.

I used to fly to all of Southwest’s cities to meet with employees and send them birthday cards. I did it because we consider our employees as family. The things we do are things you do with your families. We try to acknowledge any big event in our brothers’ or sisters’ lives, whether it’s work-related or personal. If employees have a child who’s sick or a death in the family, we acknowledge it. We celebrate with our employees when good things happen, and grieve with them when they experience something devastating. We can’t talk about our core values in our mission statement and not do these things.

We believe we have three types of customers: employees, passengers, and shareholders. If we’re truthful in our communication with employees, if we show them we care, and do our best to respond to their needs, they’ll feel good about their work and better serve customers. If employees pay attention to passengers, then passengers will like our service. If passengers think the price is right, if we deliver them on time, if their bags get there, and they get a smile and a little fun, they’ll come back. If they come back, we make money; then our shareholders are happy.

I don’t see how you can have shareholder wealth if you don’t have positively outrageous service. You can’t do one or the other – you must have both.

Herb Kelleher preached about being quick to take advantage of opportunities because they only come once – and they’re fleeting. If you don’t take them, someone else will. After 9/11, many passengers cancelled flights and wanted refunds – and we gave them for 30 days. I suspect that we’re the only carrier that received money back from its customers. I got refund checks in the mail from people who said, “You’ve been good to me for many years, and I think you need this more than I do now.”

Top executives need to be visible to their customers. In my 25 years in customer service, I’ve always been visible, writing a column in Southwest’ s magazine Spirit. Anyone responsible for the vision and delivery of service has to communicate with employees and customers all the time. If you’re dealing with the public and you want people to know what you do and why you do it – you need be visible. I want people to be proud of our decisions. Thaf s why I explained how decisions get made.

To me, the essence of leadership is to analyze situations, discern the right or best thing to do, and then do it. It never bothers me to say yes to one person’s request and no to another, as long as I see how the facts in each case are different.

We promote leadership in many ways. We bring in outside people whom we consider to be good leaders and have them talk to our managers. Our senior leadership briefing group meets quarterly. We hold leadership classes for front-line, first-time supervisors. We developed annual leadership sessions for people who want refresher classes. We write articles about leadership. In March we present a state-of-the-nation message to field employees. We send our president or CEO out regionally to do a presentation and hold a Q&A for two hours, and we invite all employees and dependents to attend. Part of our leadership is showing that we believe if s important for us to be in the field.

In all we do, we talk about the importance of leadership and the principles of leadership that we want practiced at Southwest. And we hold people accountable. In our manager evaluations, leadership has a .2 out of a 1.0 weighting in importance. If you care about developing your front-line supervisors – your future – give them of your time. They can learn a great deal about leadership by seeing how you motivate others and handle tough or touchy situations.

I try to mentor anyone who has a passion for what he or she does or who has a desire to learn. I’d rather have an informal conversation than make a speech. In our mentoring and coaching, we talk about the airline’s history and culture. As a result, we have low employee turnover rates. Making employees happy results in better service for customers.


ACTION: Create a service culture.


Colleen Barrett is President Emerita and Corporate Secretary of Southwest Airlines and co-author of lead with LUV: A Different Way to Create Real Success. Visit www.southwest.com.

Publication title: Leadership Excellence

Volume: 28

Issue: 10

Pages: 4-5

Number of pages: 2

Publication year: 2011

Publication date: Oct 2011

Year: 2011


Publisher: Executive Excellence Publishing

Place of publication: Provo

Country of publication: United States

Publication subject: Business And Economics–Management, Education

Source type: Trade Journals

Language of publication: English

Document type: General Information

ProQuest document ID: 903978203

Document URL: https://library.gcu.edu:2443/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/903978203?accountid=7374

Copyright: Copyright Executive Excellence Publishing Oct 2011

Last updated: 2014-07-12

Database: ProQuest Central

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1. The role of values in servant leadership

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The role of values in servant leadership

Author: Russell, Robert F

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This paper reviews the existing literature regarding values in leadership. It identifies issues relating to both personal values and organizational values. The literature indicates that values affect leader behavior, as well as organizational performance. The paper also provides an overview of servant leadership theory and extrapolates applications of the values in leadership literature to three aspects of servant leadership: trust, appreciation of others, and empowerment. Values constitute the foundation of servant leadership. Fundamentally, leader values may be the underlying factors that separate servant leaders from all other leadership types.

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Robert F. Russell: Emory & Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA

ACKNOWLEDGMENT: Received: April 2000 Revised/Accepted: December 2000

The topic of values has become an important item of debate in many arenas, particularly in the field of leadership. Woodward (1994, p. 95) postulated that, “leaders lead from their values and beliefs”, but we are experiencing a leadership crisis because self-interest motivates many leaders. The primary purpose of this article is to examine the existing literature regarding the role of values in leadership. Secondarily, the paper extracts various portions of the values in leadership literature and applies it to servant leadership. The fundamental proposition of the article is that the personal values of servant leaders distinguish them from other leader types.

The role of values in leadership

Values are important parts of each individual’s psyche. They are core beliefs – the underlying thoughts that stimulate human behavior. Rokeach (1973) defined values as prescriptive, enduring standards that have cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. Since values are prescriptive, they play an important role in determining the choices we make. Values are enduring standards that collectively form the value systems of our lives.

Personal values of leaders

Kouzes and Posner (1993) postulate that the process and practices of leadership are fundamentally amoral, but leaders are themselves moral or immoral. Consequently, the personal values of leaders have very significant effects on leader-follower relationships (Burns, 1978; Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Kouzes and Posner, 1993). In addition, values affect leaders’ moral reasoning and personal behavior.

Moral reasoning

Values affect moral reasoning by influencing judgments about ethical and unethical behavior (Hughes et al., 1993). Individuals with strong value systems tend to behave more ethically than those with weak value combinations (Hughes et al., 1993). However, males differ from females in their moral reasoning modes, with females showing higher relationship and caring characteristics (Butz and Lewis, 1996).


Personal values and value systems result in characteristics or attitudes that in turn affect behavior (Malphurs, 1996; Rokeach, 1968). Rokeach (1973) went so far as to say that the definition of values includes their behavioral influence. England and Lee (1974) identified seven ways in which values affect leaders:

1 Values affect leaders’ perceptions of situations.

2 Leaders’ values affect the solutions they generate regarding problems.

3 Values play a role in interpersonal relationships.

4 Values influence perceptions of individual and organizational successes.

5 Values provide a basis for differentiating between ethical and unethical behavior.

6 Values affect the extent to which leaders accept or reject organizational pressures and goals.

7 Personal values may also affect managerial performance.

Development of personal values

Personal values develop in a social context; therefore, they may be influenced by national or regional culture, social institutions and family (Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1996). Kuczmarski and Kuczmarski (1995) specified four factors that create values:

1 family and childhood experiences;

2 conflict events which evoke self-discovery;

3 major life changes and experiential learning; and

4 personal relationships with “important” individuals (p. 43).

Similarly, Massey (1979) identified myriad influences on personal values, including:

– family;

– friends;

– religion;

– education;

– the media;

– geographic roots;

– technology; and

– current events.

Leaders’ values may also be a function of education and cognitive style (Bass, 1990). In addition, Hofstede (1980) documented the strong effect of national culture on the values of organizational members.

Lloyd (1998) and Oster (1991) argue there are two dominant value cultures. One has a short-term perspective motivated by material and monetary gain. The other is spiritually and morally driven, and is more concerned with long-term issues. Similarly, Covey (1989) maintained that two basic ethics have pervasively influenced ideas about important values and personal success:

1 the historical character ethic; and

2 the modern personality ethic.

The character ethic emphasized personal integrity, humility, fidelity, courage, and other traditional values. It defined success by adherence to internally consistent, morally upright values. The personality ethic emphasizes public image, behaviors, skills, and other aspects of performance. It defines success along the dimension of external approval. Covey argues for a re-emphasis on the character ethic in leadership.

Personal values in leadership

Position power is eroding in many organizations; therefore, leaders must derive their influence from values (Huey, 1994). Leaders must clarify and understand their own belief systems in order to transmit good organizational values to others (Anderson, 1997; Bennis, 1989; Kouzes and Posner, 1995; Malphurs, 1996). Blanchard and Peale (1988) maintain that proper personal values yield a powerful form of leadership, which they call ethical management. Likewise, Covey (1990) called for principle-centered leadership. He argued that effective leadership is “predicated upon certain inviolate principles – natural laws in the human dimension” (p. 18). The goal, in his opinion, is to align internalized values with correct transcendent principles.

Essential values of good leaders

The personal values of leaders become integrated into personal value systems (Rokeach, 1973), which define the character of individuals. Various researchers argue that certain values are essential to the value systems of good leaders. These primarily include honesty and integrity, but also encompass other important values such as concern for others, fairness, and justice.

Honesty and integrity

Honesty is the most admired characteristic of leaders, followed by their forward-looking nature, ability to inspire, and competence (Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Posner and Schmidt, 1992). In addition, executive integrity is “one of the key life-sustaining properties involved in the relational nature of organizational existence” (Srivastva and Associates, 1988, p. 5). Clawson (1999) maintains that honesty and integrity form the moral foundation of effective leadership through the four key values of:

1 truth telling;

2 promise keeping;

3 fairness; and

4 respect for the individual (pp. 46-9).

Similarly, Snyder et al. (1994) delineated five essential personal values of leadership:

1 service to others;

2 humility;

3 integrity;

4 honesty; and

5 hard work.

Furthermore, justice, personal restraint, concern for the common good, and courage may also be critical leadership values (De Pree, 1992).

Values and decision making

Essentially, values serve as blueprints or foundations for making decisions, solving problems, and resolving conflicts (Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Malphurs, 1996). Executives’ values:

– limit their field of vision;

– affect their selective perception;

– influence their interpretation of information; and

– reflect in their choices (Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1996).

In addition, values affect decision making at the personal level, as well as at the organizational level (Learned et al., 1989; Malphurs, 1996).

Organizational decision making

The values culture of an organization can affect the amount of risk that decision makers are willing to undertake (Deal and Kennedy, 1982). March (1994) indicated that decision making which includes several people involves increased complexity. In these situations, he stipulated that “beliefs are important” and “trust and loyalty are both valued and scarce” (p. 110). Organizations that are developing open leadership styles have core values that guide decision making (Huey, 1994).

Organizational values”Every enterprise is driven by its leaders’ individual and collective values, whether those values are consciously understood or unconsciously influential, spoken or unspoken, written or unrecorded (Bean, 1993, p. 95).”

Organizational cultures consolidate the shared beliefs, assumptions, goals, and values of their members (Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Hinings et al., 1996; Schein, 1992). In addition, various researchers suggest that the shared values of organizational members, which their cultures encapsulate, contribute to the sustained success of the organizations (Barney, 1986; Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Fairholm, 1991; Malphurs, 1996; Peters and Waterman, 1982).

Establishing organizational values

Most values come from senior leaders and permeate all levels of organizations (Hambrick, 1987; Kilcourse, 1994; Schein, 1992). “The institutional leader is primarily an expert in the promotion and protection of values” (Rowsell and Berry, 1993, p.18). “Shared values give everyone an internal compass that enables them to act independently and interdependently, responsibly and publicly” (Kouzes and Posner, 1993, p. 53). Excellent leaders must continually regenerate admirable values in organizations (Gardner, 1990).

Schein (1992) postulates that leaders who impose their personal values on groups establish organizational cultures. If the groups succeed, they adopt and inculcate the values. Thereafter, the cultural values self-select leaders who fit the existing culture. However, as the organizations encounter new challenges they are again open to change and leaders have opportunities to establish new or different values. Thus, the values of the organizational culture evolve through a continuous interchange of leader and corporate values.


Modeling is an important means for establishing corporate values (Behr, 1998; De Pree, 1992; Kouzes and Posner, 1995; Malphurs, 1996; Manz and Sims, 1989; Schein, 1992). Effective leaders instill values as much or more through deeds as through words (Malphurs, 1996; Peters and Waterman, 1982). De Pree (1992) said the “sacred relationships” between leaders and followers critically depend on the “clearly expressed and consistently demonstrated values” of leaders (p. 126).

Organizational values, as well as personal values, may be good or bad (Malphurs, 1996). Organizations may implicitly or explicitly, consciously or unconsciously adopt values that complement one another or that conflict with one another. Furthermore, good organizational values can erode over time (Malphurs, 1996). Conflicts and compromise may cause organizational values to drift in bad directions or poor leaders may purposely redirect the central values of an organization.


Clearly, values significantly impact leadership. Personal values affect moral reasoning, behavior, and leadership style. The most critical values of good leaders are honesty and integrity. Values also profoundly influence personal and organizational decision-making. The values of leaders ultimately permeate the organizations they lead. Leaders primarily shape the cultures of their organizations through modeling important values. Ultimately, values serve as the foundational essence of leadership.

Overview of servant leadership theory

Robert K. Greenleaf (1904-1990) inspired the servant leadership concept among modern organizational theorists (Spears, 1996). Leadership, according to Greenleaf, must first and foremost meet the needs of others (Greenleaf, 1977; Lloyd and Spears, 1996). In addition to Greenleaf, various other writers espouse servant leadership as a valid, modern theory for organizational leadership. For example, Covey (1998) said, “the servant-leadership concept is a principle, a natural law, and getting our social value systems and personal habits aligned with this ennobling principle is one of the great challenges of our lives” (p. xiv).

The fundamental motivation for leadership should be a desire to serve (Baggett, 1997; Batten, 1997; Block, 1993; Briner and Pritchard, 1998; Covey, 1990; De Pree 1997; Fairholm, 1997; Gaston, 1987; Greenleaf, 1977; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Manz, 1998; Oster, 1991; Pollard, 1996; Rinehart, 1998; Snodgrass, 1993; Snyder et al., 1994). According to Neuschel (1998), “it is not the lot of the leader to be served but rather his/her privilege to serve” (p. 135). Servant leaders value human equality and seek to enhance the personal development and professional contributions of all organizational members. “Servant leaders give up personal rights to find greatness in service to others” (Wilkes, 1996, p. 15).

Values in servant leadership

The values in leadership literature is very pertinent to servant leadership. Leaders need to “develop a value system that serves” (Kuczmarski and Kuczmarski, 1995, p. 83). Servant leaders assert the important place of values, beliefs, and principles in leadership (Covey, 1990; Ford, 1991). According to many writers, values are the core elements of servant leadership; they are the independent variables that actuate servant leader behavior (Batten, 1997; Covey, 1990; Farling et al., 1999; Ford, 1991; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Malphurs, 1996; Melrose, 1997; Nair, 1994; Rinehart, 1998). Consequently, the internal values of servant leaders yield functional, distinguishable leadership attributes.

Servant leadership characteristics

The literature regarding servant leadership reveals many distinguishable attributes of such leaders. These include:

– vision;

– credibility;

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– trust;

– service;

– modeling;

– pioneering;

– appreciation of others; and

– empowerment (Russell and Stone, 2000).

While all of the attributes of servant leadership are important, this study focuses on the role of values in only three of the functional attributes:

1 trust;

2 appreciation of others; and

3 empowerment.

The following review expounds on the three attributes and provides a discussion of the importance of values in each of the areas.


According to the values in leadership literature, the essential values of good leaders include honesty and integrity. These values build interpersonal and organizational trust (Bennis, 1989; Bennis and Nanus, 1997; De Pree, 1997; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Nanus, 1989; Neuschel, 1998; Yukl, 1998). “Leaders with integrity inspire confidence in others because they can be trusted to do what they say they are going to do” (Northouse, 1997, p. 18). “Without integrity, trust is never achieved” (Bardwick, 1996, p. 137).

Trust is an essential ingredient in servant leadership, as well as in other leadership styles (Covey, 1990; De Pree, 1989; 1997; Fairholm, 1997; 1998; Ford, 1991; Greenleaf, 1977; Melrose, 1995; 1997; Neuschel, 1998; Wilkes, 1998). Trust is “unquestionably of greatest importance” in establishing leader credibility and “trust is at the heart of fostering collaboration” (Kouzes and Posner, 1993, pp. 24, 163). Trust provides the foundation for people to follow their leaders with confidence and enthusiasm. However, trust must be earned (Fairholm, 1998). “Trust grows when people see leaders translate their personal integrity into organizational fidelity” (De Pree, 1997, p. 127).

“Leaders who do not command our respect reduce the legitimacy of their leadership and lose our trust” (Nair, 1994, p. 14). Conditional trust arises when people interact with contingencies, but unconditional trust develops when shared values permeate the social situation (Jones and George, 1998). Lack of trust in a work environment can lead to decreased employee satisfaction (Kuczmarski and Kuczmarski, 1995; Ryan and Oestreich, 1998). In addition, the failure to establish new levels of trust can impede the success of organizational changes (Heckscher et al., 1994). In the absence of trust, fear dominates organizations and inhibits productivity (Ryan and Oestreich, 1998). The generation of “trust between individuals and between groups within an organization is a highly important ingredient in the long-term stability of the organization and the well-being of its members” (Cook and Wall, 1980, p. 39).

Appreciation of others

Servant leaders visibly appreciate, value, encourage, and care for their constituents (Batten, 1997; Covey, 1990; Crom, 1998; Greenleaf, 1977; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; 1995; Pollard, 1996; Wenderlich, 1997; Winston, 1999). They inspire hope and courage in others by living out their convictions, facilitating positive images, and by giving love and encouragement (Kouzes and Posner, 1993). Such actions reflect appropriate, unconditional love in the workplace and they build relationships (Batten, 1997; Covey, 1990; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Manz, 1998).

Appreciation of others by servant leaders reflects fundamental personal values that esteem and honor people. Whereas authoritarian leadership styles may demean followers, servant leaders respect those they serve. Winston (1999) maintains that managers should love their subordinates, peers, and superiors, as well as their competitors (pp. 70, 38). Nix (1997) argues for the application of love in order to transform the workplace into something that is better for everyone. He calls for an “all-encompassing love” that practices patience, kindness, and forgiveness in work relations (p.14). Optimally, “work is love made visible” (Batten, 1997, p. 50).

Kouzes and Posner (1993) identified a shift in focus from self to others among important trends in managerial values (p. 92). Showing concern for others and putting their needs and interests as priorities demonstrates empathy and elicits trust (Bennis, 1997; Block, 1993; Greenleaf, 1977; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Snodgrass, 1993). In addition to appreciating followers, servant leaders believe in and encourage the people they lead (Pollard, 1996). Nix (1997) suggested people should practice “intentional encouragement” in the workplace (p. 28). Commitment to the growth of people is one of the critical characteristics of servant leadership (Spears, 1998). Listening is also a key way through which leaders demonstrate respect and appreciation of others (Greenleaf, 1977; Kouzes and Posner, 1993; Miller, 1995; Nix, 1997; Sanders, 1994). Spears (1998) identified healing, empathy, and listening among the ten essential ingredients of servant leadership.


Empowerment is a central element in excellent leadership; it is especially important in servant leadership (Block, 1993; Covey, 1990; De Pree, 1989; Fairholm, 1998; Ford, 1991; Melrose, 1997; Miller, 1995; Oster, 1991; Pollard, 1996; Rinehart, 1998). Empowerment involves entrusting workers with authority and responsibility (Costigan et al., 1998). It emphasizes teamwork and reflects the values of love and equality. “Servant leaders multiply their leadership by empowering others to lead” (Wilkes, 1996, p. 25). In some respects, empowerment is a dependent variable; it is an important consequence of other leadership behaviors (Bennis, 1997; Bennis and Nanus, 1997). Empowerment creates a new type of leader power – one based on trust (Covey, 1990).

The goal of empowerment is to create many leaders at all levels of the organization (Bennis and Nanus, 1997; Kotter, 1990). “Wise leaders lead others to lead themselves” (Manz, 1998, p. 99). In essence, servant leadership involves turning the traditional organizational pyramid upside down (Blanchard, 1997). Miller (1995) suggests that servant leaders should establish vision and direction, but delegate decisions about how to reach the goals. He cautions, however, that delegation is not abdication; rather, it involves both trust and accountability (pp. 160-61).

Empowerment is the opposite of the historical management practices that emphasized manipulation (Oster, 1991). Leaders have often derived power through coercion based on fear or through exploitive rewards (Covey, 1990). Empowerment is the relinquishing of traditional means of power and the delegation of decision-making responsibilities (Pollard, 1996). Leaders who genuinely empower operate from a different values foundation than do those leaders who desire to retain power and control. Servant leaders respect the capabilities of their followers and enable them to exercise their abilities and share power.

“Servant leaders share their responsibility and authority with others to meet a greater need” (Wilkes, 1996, p. 24). Power sharing is a process of involving followers in planning and decision making (Bass, 1990). Leaders enable others to act not by hoarding the power they have but by giving it away (Fairholm, 1998; Kouzes and Posner, 1995; Melrose, 1997). According to Maxwell (1998), “only secure leaders give power to others” (p. 121).

Servant leadership involves “delegating responsibility and nurturing participatory leadership” (Neuschel, 1998, p. 151). It involves offering choices and encouraging followers to take ownership of responsibilities (Fairholm, 1997; Kouzes and Posner, 1993). Servant leaders empower their employees by providing opportunities for them to do their best (Oster, 1991; Winston, 1999). Leaders can also influence and empower people by structuring their work environments in such a way that workers feel more effective and motivated (Miles, 1997; Pollard, 1996). According to Sanders (1994), “the degree to which a leader is able to delegate work is a measure of his success” (p. 138). Unfortunately, Argyris (1998) argues that delegation and empowerment are still mostly illusions because executives tend to undermine genuine empowerment.

Summary of the role of values in servant leadership

Values are core elements of servant leadership. The very concept of servant leadership is based on the values of humility and respect for others. The primary functional elements of servant leadership grow out of proper leadership values. The values of servant leaders not only yield observable attributes, but they also affect the leaders’ organizations. The personal values of leaders, such as honesty and integrity, play a primary role in establishing interpersonal and organizational trust. Trust holds together servant-led organizations. Leaders who show appreciation for others reflect appropriate, unconditional love for their followers. Such leaders incorporate empathy, patience, and encouragement in their relational style. Empowerment of organizational members also grows out of a trusting environment. It reflects the leadership values of equality and love. Overall, servant leadership succeeds or fails on the personal values of the people who employ it.


Leader values significantly affect followers and ultimately influence organizational performance. In order to establish sound leadership practices, leaders must first examine their own belief systems. Thereafter, leaders should examine the values of their organizations. “Not until we have considered our leadership model at the level of its values, assumptions, and principles, can we discern to what extent we are leading from a power or a servant base” (Rinehart, 1998, p. 30). Such evaluations could spur leaders to challenge their personal beliefs and their organizational cultures. In so doing, they might initiate a revolution of servant leadership … may it be so.


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Subject: Leadership; Values; Employee empowerment; Organizational behavior; Management theory

Classification: 9130: Experimental/theoretical; 2500: Organizational behavior

Publication title: Leadership & Organization Development Journal

Volume: 22

Issue: 2

Pages: 76-84

Number of pages: 0

Publication year: 2001

Publication date: 2001

Year: 2001

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing, Limited

Place of publication: Bradford

Country of publication: United Kingdom

Publication subject: Business And Economics–Management

ISSN: 01437739

Source type: Scholarly Journals

Language of publication: English

Document type: Feature

ProQuest document ID: 226915965

Document URL: https://library.gcu.edu:2443/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/226915965?accountid=7374

Copyright: Copyright MCB UP Limited (MCB) 2001

Last updated: 2014-05-24

Database: ProQuest Central

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