Directions: Please answer the following short answer questions. All responses to questions should be one to two paragraphs, composed of five to seven sentences, in length. Your responses should include examples from the reading assignments.

1. Explain the role of the Kinetoscope during the period of cinema’s invention. How did the Kinetoscope modify the capabilities of earlier camera and projection systems?

2. What steps did France’s Lumi?re brothers take to make cinema a commercially viable enterprise? What kinds of Lumi?re movies were the most popular? How did the Lumi?res’ activities influence the development of world cinema?

3. What were Edwin S. Porter’s significant contributions to the development of early narrative film? In what sense did Porter build upon the innovations of contemporaneous filmmakers, and for what purposes?

4. What is the difference between vertical integration and horizontal integration?

5. What were the factors behind the nickelodeon boom of the middle 1900s? What were the reasons for the nickelodeon’s popularity-what advantages did this type of exhibition venue offer to both theater owner and patron?

6. In what ways did the motion picture industry in the late 1900s attempt to make films more prestigious and film going more respectable? What pressures were producers and exhibitors responding to?

7. How did the animated film develop during the early twentieth century? What types of animation techniques did the earliest animators use? Give examples of specific animators or from specific films.

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