Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) propose three methods through which leaders may influence change including (1) power, (2) reason, and (3) reeducation. Ivancevich and Matteson suggest that change through power is best used in crisis situations,

and change through reason is limited due to the complexities of individual and group motives and needs. Managing change through reeducation intended to affect systems of beliefs, values, and attitudes is the preferable approach.

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