9 I am to write a series of entries of my time as a loyalist traveling to British North America. My name is Rose Johnson, I am 18, and I am a loyalist. I do not believe it is fair to the crown if we stop serving them, now is not the time for change. This is why I am leaving to find a place where I can serve in peace. Today is my first day of travel and I have decided to stop by a lake to rest and write in my diary. I have promised myself that I will write in my diary every second day of my journey. By documenting my journey, my friend Bethany (whom I had to leave because she thinks the time of change is upon us,) will know that I am fine. I believe that I must leave and continue walking, and riding if lucky, to get to British North America. I will stop at the first river I find in two days time. I am quite happy right now because I met a man named William he is my age and really sweet. Now I must leave remember, two days. We recently ran out of food from our packs. We have only been eating scraps, William offered to go steal a knife and hunt, but I said as long as we can find fruit and such, we should be good for a few more days. Honestly though I just don’t want to eat meat while seeing what it is that I’m eating.

Making the subordinates to achieve a particular target through delegation is one way by which subordinates will learn to grow and develop independently. They will develop leadership qualities and decision-making skills, which are necessary for a good manager. Appointment as ‘Assistant to’ : A junior executive may be appointed as ‘Assistant to’ senior executive for the purpose of training and practical experience. Here, the junior executive is given exposure to the job of senior executive and he teams new techniques while providing assistance to his boss. This broadens his viewpoint and makes him ready for future promotions. The superior executive also gets the benefit as he can delegate some of his responsibilities to the assistant and also acts as guide of his assistant. Membership of Committees : Inter-departmental committees are normally created for bringing co-ordination in the activities of different departments. Managers from different departments are taken on such committees.

Junior managers are also given membership of such committees so as to give them a broader exposure to the viewpoints of other departmental heads. Ad hoc committee of executives is also constituted and is assigned a specific problem for study. Such commitee assignments offer opportunity of training to junior executives, as they have to study the problem in depth and make recommendations. Project Assignment : In the project assignment method, a trainee manager is given a project that is closely related to the work of his department. The project relates to specific problem faced by the department. Here, the executive has to study the project on his own and make recommendations for the consideration of the departmental head. Such assignment provides valuable experience to the trainee and develops problem-solving attitude, which is one essential requirement of an executive. Promotions and Transfers : Promotions and transfers are two more internal methods of management development.

Promotion gives an opportunity to a manager to acquire new skills required for the job at the higher level. It motivates him for self-improvement. Transfer also facilitates the broadening of viewpoint required for higher positions. It gives an opportunity to work at different positions and develop. 1. Universities and Colleges : The universities and colleges, now, provide facilities of management education. Here, education is given through lectures, discussions, home assignments, tests and examinations. In India, Mumbai University (MU) has its Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS) for various management development courses. Colleges affiliated to the Universities also conduct DBM, MBA and other management development programmes for the executives from business sector. Candidates working at managerial levels in companies are normally selected for such training programmes. 2. Management Institutions : Along with the universities and colleges, there are management training institutions such as NITIE, Bombay Management Association, and Productivity Councils and so on. These institutes run special training courses for graduates interested in management education and also orientation programmes for existing managers from public and private sector enterprises.

Companies can depute their managers for short orientation courses and update the knowledge and information of their managers in specific areas. Even seminars, workshops and conferences are arranged for the training of managers by various associations such as chambers of commerce and export promotion councils. 3. Role-playing : Role-playing has been defined as “A method of human interaction, which involves realistic behavior in the imaginary situations.” It is particularly useful for learning human relations and leadership training. Its objective is to raise the ability of trainee manager while dealing with others. In the role playing, a conflict situation is artificially created and two or more trainees are assigned different roles to play. For example, a male employee may assume the role of a female supervisor and the female supervisor may assume the role of a male employee. Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. Such role playing results in better understanding among individuals. It helps to promote interpersonal relations and attitude change.

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