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Final ExamFocus of the Final ExamThe purpose of the Final Exam is to assess your understanding of themain statistical concepts covered in this course and to evaluate yourability to critically review a quantitative research article.  The examwill consist of two parts: Part I includes three essay questions andPart II includes a research critique.  All of your responses should beincluded in a single Word document for submission. Please include the following general headings for each section of the written exam within your Word document:Part I: Essay Questions1. Essay 12. Essay 23. Essay 3Part II: Research Study Critique1. Introduction2. Methods3. Results4. DiscussionYour complete Word document must include a title page with the following:1. Student’s name2. Course name and number3. Instructor’s name4. Date submittedPart I: Essay QuestionsThere are three essay questions in this section.  You mustanswer all three questions.  The length of each essay should be one totwo double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages).  Use12-point font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins.  Do notinclude the essay prompt in your document.  It will not count towardthe length requirement for your essays.Essay 1A group of researchers conducted an experiment todetermine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting theflu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasalspray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomlyselected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Ofthe 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 peopledeveloped the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at.05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot whodeveloped the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who weretreated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identifythe hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from aresearch study.  Interpret the statistical results and examine thelimitations of the statistical methods.  Finally, evaluate the researchstudy as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesistesting and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct afollow-up study.Your essay must address the following points:
Describe the research question for this experiment.What were the null and alternative hypotheses? Were the results of this test statistically significant? If so, why were they significant? Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis? Was the sample appropriate for this study?  Explain your answer. What are some possible limitations to this study? Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer. Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.Essay 2A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.
Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation. Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables.   Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.Your essay response must address the following questions:
How strong is this correlation?Is this a positive or negative correlation? What does this correlation mean? Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?   Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?What other variables might be influencing this relationship? What is the connection between correlation and causation? What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation? Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?  If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?Essay 3A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates theindividual times:
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In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data intomeaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret theresults, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in thevariables.  You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptivestatistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with acalculator. Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be thelower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reactiontimes.  Then, address the following points in your essay response:
Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group. How do the two groups differ?   Are there any outliers in either data group? What effect does an outlier have on a sample?Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points ineach group.  You will have a total of 20 data points for each group.After completing this, address the following in your essay response:
Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis. Did any of the values change? How does sample size affect those values?Part B: Research Study CritiqueIn this second portion of the Final Exam, you will identify andcritically evaluate a quantitative research article based on a socialscience topic.  Your selected article must include a researchquestion(s) and/or hypothesis(es) and utilize statistical analysescovered in the course. The article must be peer-reviewed and publishedwithin the last 10 years.In the body of your critique, describe the statistical approaches used,the variables included, the hypothesis(es) proposed, and theinterpretation of the results.  In your conclusion, suggest otherstatistical approaches that could have been used and, if appropriate,suggest alternative interpretations of the results.  This process willallow you to apply the concepts learned throughout the course in theinterpretation of actual scientific research. Your critique must includethe following sections:
Introduction: This section will include ageneral introduction of the quantitative study from a peer-reviewedsource published within the last 10 years.  The research questionsand/or hypothesis(es) as well as the purpose of the study should beclearly defined. Methods: Describe and evaluate the proceduresand methods of data collection, measures/instruments used, theparticipants and how they were selected, and the statistical techniquesused. Results: In this section describe and critique the results presented in the study. Discussion: Discuss and evaluate the efficacyof the results presented in the study.  Address, the strengths,weaknesses, and limitations of the study, and suggest future researchdirections.  Include additional forms of statistical analyses as part ofthe suggestions for future research.The Research Study Critique:
Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (excludingtitle and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style asoutlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  Use 12-point font, with 1-inchmargins.  Must use the sections and headings described above.   Must address the article with critical thought by examining,reflecting, and evaluating the article from an objective viewpoint andby using facts to support your argument. Refer to the Critical ThinkingCommunity website for further assistance. Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your critical evaluation. Must use one quantitative research study from a peer-reviewed source that was published within the last 10 years. Must properly cite the source article in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

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