1. The papacy underwent dramatic reforms and modifications from Late Antiquity through the 14th century. How did this institution change over this period of time? What powers did it gain? And what powers or influence did it lose?

2. Discuss the structures and changes in daily life of the ordinary medieval village and town from the Early Middle Ages through the Late Middle Ages.

How did most Europeans live during this period, what were the material factors shaping their behavior at the communal level, and if daily life changed at all (for better or for worse), what caused it to change?

3. In what ways was the Renaissance truly a “rebirth,” that is, a rehashing of old knowledge and perspectives, and to what extent was the Renaissance a series of original innovations?

Keeping this question in mind, how did the ideas and innovations of the Renaissance, whether or old or new, prepare the way for the Protestant and Catholic Reformations?

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