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Answer the following questions in essay format, supporting your answers with references to the course materials and the literature. Be sure to cite all sources you use in your answers, and include a reference list at the end.
Q1)How does the mortality experience of Indians differ from that of the general population in Canada?
Q2) Give two examples each of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities. Explain the differences between each level of prevention.
Q3) Discuss three situations in which the opportunity to be healthy depends in part on conditions that are beyond the individual’s power to provide for and control.
Q4) Briefly describe the seven essential steps in the development of a preventive program. Apply these steps to a brief description of a public health program that is not related to HIV infection.
Q5) Using the information provided below, answer the specific questions in italics.
You have been asked to investigate an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness among students at a university residence. On the evening of Day 1, 411 students were living in the residence.
All food is prepared in the residence kitchen. Due to the quantity of food required, some dishes are prepared in advance and refrigerated. Breakfast is served from 0700–0800, lunch from 1100–1200, dinner from 1700–1830.
Between 22:30 on Day 1 and 08:00 on Day 2, 47 students visited the infirmary complaining of gastrointestinal illness. Physicians were notified and came at once to examine the afflicted students. Specimens of stool and vomitus were collected from those presenting with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting.
It soon became apparent that the outbreak involved considerably more students than the number who sought help. Questionnaires were quickly prepared and distributed to all of the students to determine the nature and extent of the outbreak. The 304 questionnaires which were returned revealed 110 cases of gastroenteritis.
a. Calculate the attack rate for the residence based on preliminary data collected in the infirmary.
b. Among the students returning the questionnaire, what proportion developed gastroenteritis?
c. Calculate the ratio of attack rates as determined by the questionnaire and the information from the nursing station.
d. What might explain the apparent difference?
Q6) Compare the incidence and prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases, pneumonia, and infections of the central nervous system in Indians and the general population of Canada. Explain the differences.
Q7) Contrast the mortality of Indian populations from accidents and injuries with the pattern in Canada as a whole.
Q8) Construct a “Haddon’s Matrix” for burns in children.
Q9) Discuss the principles you would use to determine whether a screening program should be implemented for a specific health problem. In your answer, you should discuss the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value, and should suggest criteria on which an implementation decision could be based.
Q10) Find and read the highest court level decision in the Canadian case of McArdle Estate v. Cox, and answer the following questions:
a)What court levels decided this case, in what jurisdiction, and when? Provide all legal citations.
b)In no more than 300 words, write a summary of the case. Describe the relevant facts, the legal issues, and the reasons for decision of the highest court level judgment.
c)In a claim against a health provider for professional negligence, does the law always protect a health provider who has followed an established standard of practice or are there exceptions? Explain and identify the sources of law to support your explanation.