If you could go back in time, What Civilization would you travel to?If you were a time traveler, to what ancient civilization would you travel? Discuss your reasoning for choosing to live in this culture. Describe how the art and architecture embodies social, political, and/or religious beliefs of the culture. Analyze at least three objects produced by this culture and explain their historical context.Prehistoric:Make sure you know the difference between Paleolithic art and architecture and Neolithic. How were they stylistically different? For instance, contrast Paleolithic painting of animals to Neolithic. You’ll find that Paleolithic painting is much more vigorous and naturalistic and Neolithic is geometric and abstract. How did architecture change? For example, hunter-gatherers were nomadic and inhabited caves as they passed through the area in search of food. When the way of life changed in the Neolithic period, the farmers and herdsmen began building fixed architectureEgypt:Ancient Egyptian culture, values, religion, art, architecture, and writing were inseparable. All were grounded in strict religious beliefs. The art and architecture produced by this culture often served a religious purpose. For instance, the King was both fully human and fully divine. In the afterlife, his job was to assist the gods with the rising and setting of the sun. His Ka (Ka=life force, Ba =individuality) would travel the underworld on a solar boat during the day. As his journey progressed, so did the sun across the sky. This was all important to life in Egypt. The sun was life-giving and crucial to agriculture, etc… This means that the king had to be ensured of a successful afterlife. Thus, tombs packed with grave goods were a necessity. The body had to be preserved as a resting place for the Ka (mummification). Pharonic sculpture was important because it could serve as a surrogate for the mummy; meaning that the Ka could inhabit the sculptural image of the deceased. It was important to create such sculpture in an idealized manner but with enough individualization so that the Ka would recognize it as belonging to it. They also thought that the Ka could roam amongst the living during the night. It did however need to rest. If it got too far away from the body it could inhabit the statue.These sorts of firmly established thoughts in relation to religion are one of the reasons Ancient Egyptian art remained relatively unchanged stylistically for about 3000 years.Painting, reliefs, and hieroglyphs had similar functionality that interwove symbolism, myth, and living religion. The death mask of Tut was made of gold. Why did they use gold? Gold is symbolic of the king’s job to ensure the success for Egypt’s future in the afterlife. Gold represents a transformed state and links him with the sun.Ancient Egyptian art is very ordered and formulaic. Its characteristic stylization was done for the purpose of clarity. For instance, sculpture is frontal, geometrically clear, and rigid. Painting and relief were done using mixed perspective; meaning that the head was in profile, the torso frontal, and legs in profile. Again, to render the image clearly. Hierarchal scale was used so as to clearly indicate the focal point of the composition and to illustrate the relative social importance of the individual.Greece:The archaic Greek sculptures of female youths were called Kore, the males were called Kouros. The female, Kore, statues were always clothed in a peplos garment. However, males were always nude. Both were meant to be honorific. Archaic Greek sculpture was frontal and rigid; and very much influenced by Egyptian sculptureClassical sculpture is characterized by naturalism and idealization. Make sure you’re familiar with the term contrapposto and how this communicated naturalism and for what purpose. Classical sculpture always featured restrained emotion (very much unlike the later exaggerated emotions in the Hellenistic period) – Example: The Spear Bearer. They actually came up with a mathematical formula to depict the perfect idealized form which was always not too old or young, muscular, and in the prime of life.It is true that Hellenistic art became much more dynamic, but your textbook states that it also became less idealized. By this, your author means that figural art began to depict some individualized features. I do not like that your textbook uses the words “less idealized.” This language gives the impression that these were not idealized figures. They certainly were idealized figures with some individualized characteristics that made them not quite as “cookie-cutter” (for lack of a better word) as their Classical predecessors. For example, Laocoon (fig. 15.8) has the body of a Greek-god, but shows some signs of age in the face. What does this do for the aesthetic appeal of the viewer? How does it express Greek philosophies? Well, the Greeks did focus on man’s potential for achievement. They regarded human-kind as the closest thing to perfection in physical form. By offering up the ideal both in form and content, the aesthetic response was intended to inspire the viewer to model himself after the ideal; thus, moving closer toward the apex of their potential. Slightly individualizing the figure was a way of appealing to the viewer and communicating the attainability of great individual purpose. This concept of Greek-idealization will play an important role in shaping the Renaissance aesthetic which is a rebirth and reinterpretation of this way of thinking. It is fundamental to Renaissance Humanism, an idea discussed in chapter 16.Rome:Roman periods are Republican or Imperial. Make sure you know the major differences between these periods, especially in relation to Republican vs. Imperial portraiture and the system of government.The Greeks were much more idealistic than the Romans. Though the Romans fancied all things Greek and emulated the culture in many ways, they also considered themselves superior (not so much striving for the ideal – because they were ideal). This way of thinking may explain their interest in individualizing portraiture during the Republican period.Roman town planning and architecture were totally awesome! They were not afraid to try new things. The round arch changed everything and evolved into many other architectural innovations such as the barrel vault and dome.The interior dome of the Pantheon was originally covered in gold. Remember that the cylindrical walls were 20 ft. thick with no windows to light the interior. Instead, the oculus in the roof of the dome let in light which reflected off the highly polished marble floor and back up to the gold-covered dome. It must have been remarkable to see how the golden light filled the space and aesthetically transformed it.Roman wall painting consists of four distinct styles. The first was a faux style, second a landscape/architectural style, third was a flat style with small vignettes, and fourth was a combination style. None of these included systematic linear perspective. They were using overlap, diminishing size, and vertical placement to imply depth but all the major receding lines didn’t converge at a point on a horizon. This didn’t happen until the early Renaissance when an artist named Brunelleschi started using it.The post If you could go back in time, What Civilization would you travel to? appeared first on Academic Essay Guru.