The work-life balance is an important issue both in professional practice and in the academic study (King, 2008, P.16). Work-life balance (WLB) has become an area of popular study in several fields, such as humanism, brain studies, human asset management, association studies and sex. Most of the studies about the relationship between work and family life allude to WLB and business policies, WLB and corporate culture, WLB and human resources management, WLB and work commitment, WLB and non-attendance, WLB and equipollence sexual orientation, WLB and Family Life, and something else. There are several reviews on literature looking at WLB and the prosperity of workers (Kvande, 2009, p.58). These reviews however were for the most part addressed in the accumulated states, the Coalesced Kingdom, Australia, and incipient Zealand. In addition, several studies indicate that work and family literature, while examining the connections between work and family areas, considers family life as the time spent with a life partner and children, with a view to other major parts of the Family, e.g., relatives and several relatives.
The literature indicates several definitions of WLB. Clarke expresses that WLB is a “balance or maintain the general feeling of congruence in life”. Clark describes WLB as “fulfilment and great work at work and at home, with at least part of the struggle.” Focusing on work and family spaces is essential, as family and work are seen as the most important components of life around the world, and any contending demand for work and family life causes struggle and negatively influences the prosperity of the workers (Lleras, 2008, p. 12). Therefore, the great WLB and prosperity can be achieved when there is no part of the struggle, and when the individuals are turned off with their work and the parts of the family. The literature shows that the predominant outcomes of poor WLB are discouragement and trouble, prompting lower efficiency, poorer job quality, greater non-attendance and staff turnover (Maume, 2010, p. 746).
The working family studies have been overwhelmed for the most part by the investigation of the family and the impedance of the working paper (Mulé, 2009, p. 10). However, the work and improvement of the part of the family thinks about seem to be developing in recent years. Work and obstruction of the family part recommend that duties in divided spaces such as work and family struggle with each other in terms of time surrounded, mental assets and physical vitality, which incites negative results in both areas. On the contrary, updating part of work and family recommends that investing in numerous parts can drive better work in other areas of life. This review focuses on the impedance of work and family as measured by work – family struggle and family – labour conflict; In any case, reflecting on the work and the improvement of the family part is proposed for new hypotheses.
Justification of the study
Later, the Irish workforce has undergone a massive change as a result of the ecumenical retreat. Late monetary delays and augmented rivalry have put weight on companies to perform, and on workers to increase their productivity. Companies manage these intense financial circumstances by reducing consumption, lowering staffing levels and increasing the workload for the remaining workers. The prosperity of the workers who maintained their work may be adversely affected by the fragility of the occupation. Numerous people feel underweight to work longer hours to maintain their jobs, and to meet their family costs. This review perceives that the fundamental driver of poor WLB among Irish workers is excessive Hours of work and a need for adaptability of working hours.
Compelling Irish work has found a larger increase in female workers and households with two wages. Hilliard noted that over the past three decades, Ireland found a fundamental increase in women workers who remained in the paid workforce after being confirmed or returning to work after having children. Apart from a growing female labour force, Grady states that the restriction of Irish labour is maturing, indicating that in the future enterprise would require a more dominant adaptability in courses of action. The Central Bureau of Statistics (CSO) predicts that the population of Ireland will rise fundamentally, which may lead to greater commitments for the management of the dependent elderly among Irish workers and, subsequently, greater indicators of work-family struggle.
Definition of work-life balance
The work-life balance is key to the welfare of the people, the execution of the company and a society of work. There are several beliefs about how to characterize, evaluate and investigate the Work-Life balance. Several terms are also used by several hypotheses at the same time alluding to the “work-life balance”. For example, Frone refers to the term “family work-balance”; Clarke refers to ‘Work-family in form’; Burke alludes to ‘Work – the balance of individual life’; And Grady allude to the “work-life balance”. As work-the family balance is often connected with conventional families, that is, the people who stay with the children.
Some hypotheses have been hypothesized to explain WLB. Clark showed a study of the fringe according to why the domains of the family and the work are divided by the suburbs that could be physical, transitory or mental (Burke, 2005, p.136). Some study alluded to the study of payment as indicated by which the Workers try to discover more satisfaction in one area to adjust to the absence of happiness in the other space. Others allude to the overflow study according to which any feeling, feeling, posture and state of mind incited in one space can be exchanged or “overflowed” in the other area. Frone proposed more applied models where WLB can be evaluated by work-family and family work conflict as well as work-family and family-work improvement. Grzywacz and Marks executed the biological model of Bronfenbrenner that proposes that the work-family experience is a joint capacity of process, individual, time and configuration attributes, and does not confine experience to the negative or the positive.
Work-life balance and economic changes
The current financial recession, increased rivalry and the development of innovation have placed weight on companies to perform, and on workers to increase their productivity. Companies manage these intense monetary circumstances by reducing consumption, decreasing staffing levels and increasing the workload of the remaining workers. The prosperity of the workers who maintained their work may be influenced by the uncertainty of employment. Numerous people feel underweight to work longer hours to maintain their occupations, and to meet their family costs. Higher demands on workers’ commitments and more time working hours decrease the time workers need to spend with their families. Measurements show that in Ireland in 2011 the men work a normal of 39.4 hours each week and the ladies 30.6 hours. The heavier labour demands faced by workers also produces greater stress indicators, which in turn affects the physical and mental prosperity of workers. Grady argues that companies and managers must understand the centrality of WLB, its effect on the prosperity of workers and the impacts it has on profitability and the execution of the company.
Work -life balance and demographics
Over the past two decades, ecumenical statistical changes, such as increased support for women in the labour force, two-family households, single-parent families and elder care have brought about greater Difficulties for workers To balance the demands of work and family life. These difficulties and greater demands on work and family life have influenced the prosperity of workers and their families and have led to family conflicts and family labour conflicts (Secret, 2000, p.21).. The restriction of Irish labour has found a considerable increase in female workers and households of two wages. As indicated by the CSO in 2011, 46.7% of those working in Ireland were women. Hilliard noted that over the past three decades, Ireland has found a central increase in women workers who remained in the paid labour force after having reached the last couple of decades, ecumenical statistical changes, for example increased co-operation of women in the labour force. Two-income families, single-parent families and the care of the elderly have led to greater difficulties faced by workers who tried to balance the demands of working and family life (Alterman, 2013, p. 60). These difficulties and greater demands on work and family life have influenced the prosperity of workers and their families and have led to family conflicts and family labour conflicts. The limitation of Irish labour has found a significant increase in female workers and households with two wages. As indicated by the CSO in 2011, 46.7% of those working in Ireland were women. Hilliard also noted that in the previous three decades, Ireland found a larger increase in women workers who remained in the paid labour force after being confirmed or returning to work after having children (Forry, 2011,p.34). This could be caused by the transmuting postures of Irish individuals towards the accustomed perspective of men who are caterers and ladies who are housewives who care for kids.
The study shows that sustained ladies seem to work fewer hours than men embraced (Cardenas, 2005, p.31). Fine-Davis found that in Ireland parents worked weekly for 45 hours a week and mothers worked 32 hours. The latest findings show that in 2011, 14.7% of the women in the arms worked 40 hours or progressively seven days, compared to 44.5% of the confirmed men. Fine-Davis argues that men do not contribute as much time to household and child-care exercises as ladies; therefore WLB’s activities seem to be used more regularly by ladies than by men. Aside from a growing female workforce, Grady further expresses that Irish work is in the process of maturing, indicating that in the future the company would require greater adaptability in courses of action. According to CSO projections, Ireland’s former population will increase from 532,000 in 2011 to more than 850,000 in 2026 and 1.4 million in 2046. The Irish population will increase considerably more dramatically, from 128,000 in 2011 to more than 484,000 in 2046. These findings suggest that more workers may have to care for their elderly relatives, which will increase their duty of care for dependent elderly, and lead to higher levels of work – family conflict.
Broader dimensions of the term ‘family’
Barnett notes that many hypotheses indicate a difficulty in describing the various measures of the term “family”. The conventional hypotheses of a family allude to the hetero pairs sustained with children, where the men take part in the planet of the Work and the ladies take part in the domestic work and the care of the young people (Crompton, 2006, p. 379). This approach overlooks gay or lesbian couples, or single-parent families. Grzywacz, on the other hand, recommends that many thinkers of the work family confine their specimens to people who are embraced or have children and claim that “such an imperative over represents a limiting conceptualization of the family,” since single and Infants often transmit core family duties with respect to their people, relatives and other relatives, and therefore must be incorporated into work-family contemplates.
Work – family conflict
Work-family struggle occurs when work activities are mixed with family exercises and, oddly enough, family-work conflicts occur when family exercises interfere with work activities (Tahmincioglu, 2010, p.4). The literature indicates various definitions of Work – family struggle and family – labour conflict. Niemeyer, Boles and McMurrian portray the Family-The Labour Conflict as “a type of entombment conflict in which the general definitive laws, dedicated time and tension incited by the family are mixed with related labour obligations” and A type of burial part struggle in which the general approvals injective, the time given to, and the tension caused by the occupation go hand in hand with the performance of family duties.
Consequences of work – balanced life and work – life in equilibrium
Various reviews conducted in the accumulated States and in the accumulated Kingdom show that one of the most widespread results of working life is that of despair, which leads to a decreasing profitability and increased school absenteeism. Under WLB can lead to workers who find low confidence and greater non-attendance, and the company finds more staff turnover, reduce profitability and poorer quality of work. The study carried out by Mali shows that the lack of work-life balance caused by increased work demands drives greater indicators of stress (Prohaska,2011, p. 13). Stretching caused by higher requests for the results of Work in family – labour conflicts and family work shocks. This has negative effects on the prosperity of workers as well as their families, as it increases the attention of people at work and at home, and causes reduced quality associations with family members (for example, Life or youth). Increasing job demands, for example, additional minutes and shift work can lead to work – family conflict, which can bring decreased joy to work and to the company. Ergo, Work-related anxiety has a negative effect on workers, businesses, families and society.
Prosperity is an urgent segment of a life of joyful and decent quality (Bloom, 2011, p.34). Prosperity is related to delight, satisfaction, essentiality, positive thinking, ardence and self-realization. Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics expresses that the eudaimonia (the Greek word for joy) is the most amazing useful for the people and can be realized by right activities that promote individual prosperity. Corbin and Lindsey say that prosperity is the use of “an enthusiastic, insightful, physical, profound and brilliant measure that enhances the ability to live and work effectively and to make a central commitment to society (Boswell, 2007, p. 59).” Prosperity can be evaluated by the subjective judgment of people in relation to their life pleasure, or mental well-being (for example concern seen); and also by the measures of the target population of physical health. The study shows that prosperity is overwhelmingly connected with better frenetic well-being, better physical well-being and better life.
With a specific end goal to represent family happiness, it is important to note that some hypotheses use the term “family fulfilment,” “family life fulfilment,” or “life fulfilment.” According to the life delight of Shin and Johnson 24 it alludes to a sentence procedure where people evaluate their lives only predicted extraordinary criteria (Torr, 2011, p. 48). These criteria incorporate prosperous well-being and connections; In any case, they may be understood or weighted by persons
Satisfaction at work
Many hypotheses assign an incredible positive connection between job satisfaction and well-being (Barker, 2003, p. 408). Job satisfaction can be separated into the affective satisfaction of work based on the general feeling of the people about their occupation as a whole; And cognitive Work satisfaction based on consistent assessment of employment conditions (e.g. Hours of work, wages and annuities), openings and results. According to Clark and Farmer (1998) Job satisfaction refers to a sense of achievement and reliability of payment. There are two component arrangements that determine job satisfaction: (a) inherent elements, e.g., lighting, job significance, job prospects, and family applications; and b) Work-related elements, for example, professional stability, assorted assortments, overload and disputes, and administrator support.
Mental well-being is fundamental to the health of individuals and can be characterized as “a health condition in which the individual understands his own particular trades, can adapt to the non-normal concerns of life, can work productively and productively, and you can commit to your group.” Mental well-being can be studied by recognizing manifestations of apprehension, discouragement, jovial brokenness and feelings of ineptitude and irregularity.
Benefits of wellness
Burke is confident that the company s can pick up a top hand by promoting good employment. This can be achieved by focusing on positive feelings, such as jubilation, optimism, commitment to work and involution, which are closely related to the performance of an organization (Matuska, 2009, p. 23).. Daley’s study found that workplace prosperity projects improve the mental and physical prosperity of workers and the happiness of the occupation. So, after a need for work flexibility and higher Job demands can lead to low levels of vitality of workers and more dominant exhaustion, higher levels of cholesterol, higher pulse and extreme chunkiness.
A philosophy of study is an idea about how the study should be conducted and how study reasoning and perceptions (information or data) are related to each other (Gallitano, 2007, p.5). Saunders, Lewis, and Thorn hill argue that the philosophy of the study is related to “the advancement of scholarship and the nature of that information.” According to Blumberg, there are two philosophies of study more outstanding: positivism and interpretation; and two primary methods for the brain on the philosophy of study: philosophy (preoccupied with the nature of legitimacy) and epistemology (preoccupied with decent understanding). From the ontological point of view, the positivists affirm that there is only one credibility that is objective and out of the study. On the other hand, interpretivists assert that legitimacy develops gregariously and is subjective in light of the fact that each individual has his own particular feeling of authenticity (Reynolds, 2004, p. 8). From the epistemological point of view, the positivists affirm that the solitary marvels that can be observed and measured can be considered as intelligence, and a study remains remote and objective. On the other hand, the interpretativists guarantee that the education takes place from the perception and the elucidation of involuntary gregarious developments, of which a study.
Following the study of literature related to the WLB, the creator found that the worldview of positivism using a quantitative strategy seemed to be the most appropriate approach for storing information and has been used by most of the study. Predicting these discoveries, together with the creator’s own inclination towards the positivist approach, quantitative meters were used for this study and aggregation of information (Tracy, 2000, p.9). Positivism is a philosophy of the study that is embraced from the characteristic sciences. Positivists are confident that “the world can be represented by objective certainties, which are then examined.” Obvious realities are objective as external. Since the gregarious world subsists at a distance, it cannot be affected, and the study is brought to free esteem. The creator, as study for this review, was free and assumed the part of an examiner of the goal. Gill argues that positivists show preferences for the accumulation of information about obvious authenticity and examination of connections in information, including bases of contrasts and regularities.
The fundamental indication of examining is to opt for a subset of people from a population with a specific end goal to measure the qualities of the entire population (Reynolds, 2005, p.13).While a method of quantitative study, for example, surveys, using a test induce discoveries that are illustrative of the entire population. In non-likelihood inspection systems, speculation is made on non-population hypotheses, so an example size will be based on review objectives and study questions. Several non-likelihood test methods may be used. Incorporate amount of inspection, snowball testing, and purpose or examination accommodation.
Members who were employed full-time and low-maintenance were hunted among the various companies s working in the private sector in Ireland. Those who share were not hampered by female youth workers only, as is often the case with WLB exams (Press, 2006, p. 60). Or perhaps, the members included men and women, embracing, seeing someone and single workers, with and without young people. The method of reasoning aft of this winnow was Grzywacz’s statement 38 that solitary and childless workers also have significant duties towards their families
The quantitative study may use test study or survey strategies. The survey study includes two main techniques of information storage: 1) organized meetings and 2) self-closing surveys (online and paper surveys), where questions can be answered without the proximity of an interlocutor. In this review a strategy study survey was 39 winnowed, and the quantitative study was carried through a self-reliance survey containing five separate scales. Saunders extends the centrality of internal legitimacy and the reliability of a survey, based on the fact that a legitimate survey punishes the collection of information that measures the ideas investigated; although a solid survey authorizes information to accumulate reliably. Mitchell maintains that within the consistency of the surveys the correspondence of the repetitions to the consultations with each other is incorporated. Cranach’s alpha is one of the techniques that measure the consistency of repetitions to an array of investigations. Hair, ebony, Babine propose that reliable replications in hypotheses require the negligible internal consistency limit of Cranach’s alpha 0.7. Collis says that “reliability is concerned with the findings of the study.” Be that as it may, although a survey is reliable, without internal legitimacy, it will not have the capacity to answer the question of the study.
Strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires
A survey is a term used to describe all strategies for collecting information, where each individual makes a request to react to a similar arrangement of queries in a reordered request (Bianchi, 2010, p.70). Homogeneous to other study methods, the surveys contain some qualities and impotence’s that must be considered while examining the information. Saunders argues that surveys are the most widely used technique for aggregating information into a quantitative study, and are the most widely used within the general system, since they empower a collection of replications of a voluminous specimen on an effective path, with a Moderate effort. As we said before, the survey in this study took the type of duplicate in line and paper, and the questions were answered without the proximity of the creator. These types of surveys endorsed the absence of the name, which as indicated by Rubin arouses truthful and certified replicas.
The fundamental impotence’s of a survey are the burden and time required for its development, along with learning its legitimacy and unshakable quality (Colgan, 2007, p.59). Chime hopes that encouraging a decent survey is a strenuous procedure, since the study needs to accumulate accurate information that answers the questions of the study and gives them power to reach destinations. In addition, high legitimacy and unshakable quality are required to minimize study error (Heather, 2016, p.23). All the surveys used for this review were honestly winnowed by the writer, finding that their legitimacy and unshakable quality were at that time proven. Saunders argues that in order to be able to assess the legitimacy and reliability of a survey, and to know that the information accumulated answers the question of the study; a pilot test should be conducted. As proposed by Saunders a pilot study was conducted by the creator before the fundamental review began
This study was based on the information obtained from a self-report survey based on numerous investigations. The survey consists of five segments: 1) Scale of family labour conflicts and 2) Scale of labour-family conflicts, which were accustomed to evaluate the work-life balance of the participants; 3) family satisfaction scale, 4) job satisfaction scale and 5) mental well-being scale, who were accustomed to evaluate the prosperity of 43 members. People were asked for an assortment of statistical addresses and were asked to justify the accessibility and degree of profitability of WLB activities in their companies. The fundamental objective of this study was to distinguish the key energetically related attributes of people’s prosperity in view of the ultimate goal of assessing how WLB influences members’ prosperity. The survey used for this review incorporated a data sheet that elucidated the purpose behind this study, emphasizing the secret and obscurity of the study, and the deliberate form of support. The data sheet illustrates the interpretation of a family as the life of members outside of work; the work-life balance as a level of satisfaction of the members with their work and family life; and prosperity as the abduction of members (Williams, 2000, p.12). Members were informed that the completion of the survey should not take more than 15 minutes. This was validated in the middle of the pilot reflection before the main study.
Availability and use of Work – life balance benefits
WLB benefits accessibility and its use was assessed through a nine-point survey created by Allen, and included questions such as accessibility and use of adaptive time, compressed work week, work from home, part-time work, childcare , Child care / reference housing data, paid maternity / paternity leave, and elder care. Participants were asked to allocate which of these benefits are accessible to them and have been or continue to be used by them. The aggregate information allowed the acquisition of 44 data on accessibility and use of sincere family activities among diverse private sector businesses in Ireland.
The purpose of this review was to study the effect of WLB on the prosperity of private sector workers in Ireland. Work – family and family struggles – used work conflicts as the two main factors that assess WLB, and three factors: family satisfaction, job satisfaction and mental problems to measure the welfare of workers. Work-Family Conflict and Family-Conflict scales assessed the impedance levels between work and family life, and high scores were characteristic of high levels of containment. The family satisfaction scale and the satisfaction scale at work evaluated the levels of joy of the members with their family life and work, and the high scores were characteristic of the high spirits of happiness. The mental well-being scale assessed the appearance of pain, and high scores were characteristic of members’ misery holes, thus, low levels of mental well-being. Six speculations were proposed and attempts were made to use connection coefficients to inspect sodality between factors. Prior to speculation tests, the preparatory examinations were conducted with a specific final objective to evaluate the reliability of each variable, and to acquire the main estimates of synopsis in relation to the sample. These estimates incorporated a mean and standard deviation for endless factors, and frequencies for direct factors. Measures of elucidation were carried out in order to check any invasion of the basic places of each test.
Characteristics of the sample population
Fascinating insights were taken bearing in mind the ultimate goal to get the qualities of the sample population. The example of 114 members was negotiated of 73 women and 41 men. The age of members increased from 18 to 66 years, with a mean age of 39.1 years. Forty-two respondents verbally reported that they were alone, 63 were welcomed or lived together, 8 respondents were separated or divided and 1 respondent was a widower. Of the 114 members, 63 had no children, and 51 had children. Eleven respondents assigned care services to the elderly, 101 respondents did not assign care services to the elderly. Ninety-five respondents were used full-time, 18 respondents were used for low maintenance. Members used full time assigned that the amount of hours spent on work paid for each week went from 37 to 65 hours, with an average of 40.6 hours. Members who used low maintenance indicated that the number of hours spent on paid work each week differs from 14 to 36 hours, with an average of 22.6 hours. As previously verbalized, the members were of various jobs in the private sector. The three main parts of the work in the specimen population were the division related to money, the commercial area and the pharmacy segment.
The purpose of this review was to accumulate the effects of the WLB and the prosperity of the people. The example of the population included people who were single and seeing someone, with and without children, men and women. The explanation for the extraction of such a specimen was the statement of Grzywacz and Marks stating that solitary or childless workers have a heavy family duty to their relatives and relatives. Respondents were workers in the private sector, where 49% of the population was employed in the money-related division, 21% in the retail area and 11% in the pharmacy segment
Limitations of the study
This review has some obstacles. The main imperative was the arrival rate. Of the 190 surveys distributed, 114 were returned, representing an arrival rate of 60%. Taking into account the various classes of private sector heads separate for this review to collect information, and the measurement of the specimen, it should be noted that the findings of this review refer to the sample population, and cannot be generalizable to the entire population (Barnett, 2004, p.15). The discoveries can be apropos to homogenous work in organizations and related companies; However, the results may not apply to the risk classes excluded in the example. The time span of the specimen population could also affect the factual energy of this study (Jamar, 2006, p.19). Therefore, the future study about a populist more voluminous example is prescribed with a specific final goal to increase the importance of the discoveries. With a future study it should be addressed among several groups of bosses using a more voluminous example, in order to obtain more data on the various divisions of employment in the private sector, which would impel a superior understanding of risk attributes throughout the private sector in Ireland.
This revision makes some commitments to WLB ponders regarding Irish work (Van, 2006. P. 5). The review distinguished the subsistence of the negative impacts of the poor WLB due to the high labour shortages – family struggle and family – Labour conflict in family satisfaction. This review with the substantial negative impacts of poor WLB due to high indicators of work – family conflict in job satisfaction and mental well-being. It was found that the demands and the weight of work and family spaces affect family adversity. In the mix, the higher indicators of job demands and the longer time spent in work prompted to encompass the time holes of the past value with families and lower family satisfaction (Hochschild, 2009, p.23). Work – family struggle brought lesser happiness with work and responsibility towards risky ventures, and increased degrees of problems, focus problems, sleeping pickles, misery and modesty. This review did not demonstrate the negative connections between family-work conflict and job satisfaction, and family-work conflicts and mental well-being. Despite the fact that the connections between these factors would propose a negative effect of the high family conflict between job satisfaction and mental well-being, these relationships did not reach measurable significance, and these statements could not be supported. This study demonstrated that the main factor of clash between the work and the family were the excessive hours of work and the necessity of adaptability of the work schedule (Grzywacs, 2002, p.28). The study also showed that, apart from a growing female labour force and two paid families, the Irish work unit is senescent. This could lead to an increase in requests for additional flexible work courses for workers with old-age and child-care obligations. It was perceived that companies can improve WLB by updating family-friendly activities, such as flexible time, compressed work week, free time in place, reinforce child care and reinforce care of the elderly. The findings of this review are central to both workers and bosses in terms of a deeper understanding of WLB and its consequences for the prosperity of individuals, affecting profitability and company performance
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